Aims of Leaders and OPVL DAY 2 2014

9/19 & 9/20
DO NOW ~ Take out German Newspaper Assignment
Icebreaker ~ Introduction to OPVL
Origin Purpose Value Limitation
• What’s the point?
• All sources must be approached with caution
• When reading a source one must consider who wrote it,
why they wrote it, what is included, what is left out, and
how helpful this source will be to one’s investigation
Date of original publication
Date of any additional additions
Location of publication
How might the time, place, and author of this
work affect the work produced?
• For example: George Washington writing about Valley
Forge will have a different interpretation than General
Why did the author write/draw/compose this work?
* Consider the audience
* Does this author have something to hide?
* Is he/she trying to convince anyone of something?
* For example: Is this a textbook that is written to
inform a high school student or a press conference
given to reassure the American public?
• How is this source useful to your investigation?
• What is the author’s purpose and how can that
perception aid your investigation?
• Has this work been particularly well researched?
• Is this a secondary source? If so, does that allow
the author distance to create a subjective
• Is this a primary source? If so, does that allow the
author to provide a viewpoint that no one else can
(since they experienced it for themselves?)
• What about this source hinders your investigation?
• Does this author only present part of the story?
• Is this a secondary source? If so, does the author
deliver only part of the story?
• Is this a primary source? If so, what viewpoint
does the author present? What is missing from
his/her side of the story?
When, where, and by whom
it was produce
What are some values of the
document based on origin
What are some limitations of
the document based on its
What is the intended
What are some values of the
document based on its
What are some limitations of
the document based on its
• The origin of this document is from the Atlantic Monthly
written in October of 1920. It was written by American
lawyer Raymond Fosdick. He served on the Education Board
of New York and was a lifelong supporter of Woodrow Wilson.
The purpose of this document is to show Mr. Fosdick’s support
of the creation of the League of Nations and Woodrow Wilson.
The League stood for disarmament, peace, for international
justice and protection of people who are suffering and need a
better standard of living. The value of this document is that
it was written by an educated man who believed in the
creation of the League of Nations. It states the meaning and
possibilities for the creation of the League. Mr. Fosdick’s
writing is limited because it does not address the aims of the
other leaders at the Palace of Versailles. The League
encouraged peace while France for example wanted to punish
Aims of the Participants ~ US
• Woodrow Wilson gave a speech to Congress in January 1918 in which he presented
his aims for a peace settlement. These aims became known as Wilson's 14 points.
• The aims were idealistic. Wilson wanted to create world peace by eliminating what
he thought had caused the war.
• Freedom of navigation
• Democracy and national self-determination
• Free trade
• Stop treaties that were being made in secrecy
• General disarmament
• Create the League of Nations
• Wilson wanted to make Germany pay to some extent for causing the war and
establish a period of probation after which Germany would be able to join the
League of Nations.
Aims of France
• Had suffered disastrous losses during the war and feared that Germany would attack again in the
future once it had rebuilt a strong economy. Georges Clemenceau was premier of France.
• Wanted to weaken Germany by placing many restrictions on it
• Extensive demilitarisation of Germany
• German territorial reductions
• Reparations to weaken the German economy and also to pay for the damage Germany had caused.
• The Rhineland to be taken from Germany and to be set up as an independent state
• Take the Saar region from Germany as financial compensation
• Control Luxemburg and Belgium
• Regain Alsace-Lorraine which had been by Germany in 1871
• Make the West area of the Rhine a French puppet state incase of future German attack
• Wanted a guaranteed agreement with the United States and the United Kingdom to form a firm
alliance in case of a future German attack.
Aims of Britain
• Promises were made by politicians in the December 1918 General Elections
about making Germany pay for all the loss and damage it had caused.
• Germany to pay extensive reparations
• Stop Germany from tacking control of Europe
• Stop Germany from becoming a potential source of conflict
• Get ride of the German fleet
• Germany to return the territories it had taken during the war
Aims of Britain cont.
• Self-Government for the nations of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and for the non-Turkish
people within the Ottoman Empire
• The creation of an independent Polish state
• However, Britain wanted to rebuild a strong economy by restoring European relations
and trade. Unlike France, Britain wanted German economic recovery as Britain would
benefit greatly from the trade with Germany who before 1914 was a very important
buyer of British goods.
• Wanted to keep the balance of power within Europe stable
• Did not want France to expand beyond Alsace-Lorraine and did not support France in
the domination of Europe
• Did not want to form a guaranteed alliance with France. Believed in freedom of action
• Only wanted to intervene if the balance of power was threatened
Aims of Italy
• Italy:
• Wanted the territories that had been promised to it in the Treaty
of London
• These included South Tyrol, Trentino, the Dodecanese Islands and
• Did not take into account national self-determination
• When Italy was denied these territories it walked out of the
Versailles Conference.
Aims of Japan
• Wanted to be recognized for its dominant position in China
• Wanted possession of the former German territories in China and
the Pacific
• Wanted to secure a larger empire for security and economic
• Did not support self-determination
• Wanted to be one of the major powers
• Wanted racial equality in the peace settlement
The ‘Big Three’ and the expectations of Italy
& Japan
• In order to gain support of other nations in the war Britain &
France made promises to Italy, Japan, Romania, & Greece
• Problem of balancing promises made against the principle of the
Fourteen Points
• 1915 Treaty of London – Promised Italy Northern coast of Dalmatia,
Trieste, and South Tryol, & a protectorate over Albania…but this
goes against Wilson’s concept of SELF DETERMINATION
• Japan wanted so dispose of German concessions in China
Russian Revolution
• Czarist Russia had been taken over by the Bolsheviks & the
German, Austro Hungarian, and Turkish (Ottoman Empire) ceased
to exist
• Treaty of Brest – Litovsk – Russia was out of war in 1917 so they
negotiated their own peace treaty with the Central Powers
• Resulted in loss of vast amounts of Russian territory
• European leaders became concerned that similar revolutions might
out break in their own country
• Communist Leon Trotsky called for ‘world revolution’
Class debate
• Directions ~ You will be divided into 6 groups
• Each group will take on the role of one of the Big Three powers at
the Paris Peace Conference
• You will explain and justify your views as to the type of peace that
should be reached
• Teams with the same country will then get together and create a
master peace plan and share with class
• Vote which argument was the most convincing = 10 pts on
Extended Assignment
~ Using the information from today’s class copy and
complete the chart below to summarize the motives of the leaders of the ‘Big Three’ at the Paris
Peace Conference!
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