• You should be able to identify the major
players in the French & Indian War
• You should be able to cite the four primary
reasons why the French & Indian War began
• You should be able to analyze the reasons
why Native Americans aligned with either
the French or the British
• Homework: Reading Assignment #2
Just so you know…
• This conflict spanned the entire globe:
Europe, North America, Central America, the
West African coast, India, and the
• Countries involved: Great Britain, France,
Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, Austria,
Portugal, Sweden, Saxony, Spain & Russia
– We are going to focus on the North American
theater of war: The French & Indian War
Who were the major players?
The British
The Iroquois
The French
Spanish, French & British Colonies
circa 1700
New France
New Spain
Boundary of
What were the major causes of
1. Land, land, land
– French & British coexist in North America
for nearly 100 years
• BUT, both are seeking to expand their territory
– Problem: France and Britain both claim the
Ohio River Valley as their own!
• Zoinks!
What were the major causes of
2. Both French and British ignored the
plight of the Native American
–Results in animosity between the
Native American and the settlers
• How did Britain and France differ in terms
of population in North America?
• Great Britain also has many more settlers
than France resulting in greater enmity
• Who were the three main players in the
French and Indian War?
• What is the relationship between the Seven
Years’ War and the French & Indian War?
• Cite two of the main conflicts we discussed
yesterday regarding the tensions between
the French & British in North America.
New France
New Spain
Boundary of
What were the major causes of
3. Religion
– British settlers practiced what faith?
Denominations of Protestantism
– French settlers practiced what faith?
– What problem may this create?
British feared that their religious freedoms may be
limited with increased French presence on the
continent, and allegiance to the Pope
What were the major causes of
4. FUR! Namely, beaver fur!
– Beaver Wars (1640 – 1701) fought between
French and their allies & Iroquois Confederation
French allies: Huron, Algonquians and the Mohicans
Iroquois: main trade partner = British (& Dutch)
Beavers growing scarce in Iroquois territories
because they were SO SUCCESSFUL…need new supply
Iroquois set their sights on the lands of the Algonquians in
the Ohio Valley and over the course of 50+ years set about
terrorizing the lands
What were the major causes of
4. FUR! Namely, beaver fur!
– Uses for Beaver Fur:
Native Indians traded the beaver pelts for advanced
weapons, tools, beads, and European goods
Beaver hats = status symbol for position and wealth;
hat sales were extremely important source of income
for English & French
What were the major causes of
4. FUR! Namely, beaver fur!
– Outcome of the Beaver Wars:
– Iroquois realize the British are as dangerous as
the French and sign treaty with the French
– Iroquois come to see that they held the balance
of power between the two European powers and
could they used that position to their benefit
Native Americans Choose Sides
• Indians did not want to side with either, but
had to make a choice
• Both France and Britain tried to gain Indian
Choosing Sides
• French
Lived amongst the land
Married Native
American women
– Adopted Native
American ways
• Algonquin & Huron
• Britain
– Lowered price of trade
– More powerful
– Cleared land for farms
– Ignored Indian rights
– Enslaved Native
• Iroquois
– Enemies of Huron &
Algonquin (and still
hostile from Beaver
British Advantages
1. Alliance between English and Iroquois
Nation (6 Indian nations: Cayuga, Seneca,
Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and the
2. Stronger army and navy, and better trained
3. English settlers (1.5 million) outnumbered
French settlers (75,000) 15x
French Advantages
1. Extensive system of forts in the St.
Lawrence and Great Lakes region
2. Single system of command…
– What about the colonists?
3. Better relationship with Native
Americans due to trade (hunters,
trappers and traders) and less
4. French better suited to fighting in
British Disadvantages
• Colonies could not agree on a united
• 13 separate colonial assemblies
could not act quickly
• Fighting “style”
French Disadvantages
• Difficult to defend
• Smaller population
• Identify the Native American nation that aligned
itself with the British during the French & Indian
• What were the 4 primary causes of the conflict?
• Identify the advantages for the British? The
• Identify the disadvantages for the British? The
• What was the immediate conflict before the start
of the French & Indian War?
• After today you should be able to…
– Cite and explain the specific events leading to
the French & Indian War
– Analyze the ways in which the colonists tried to
work together to fight the French
– Predict how William Pitt’s actions will lead to
future conflict within the British colonies
Throw Down…1747-1750
• Ohio Company formed by
Virginian land speculators
granted 200,000 acres by
the king
– What country did these
men pay allegiance to?
• France’s response: build
forts along the Ohio
River Valley and fortify
with 2,000 soldiers
Oh no you
Throw Down…1753
• Virginian governor’s
– Sends a guy named George
Washington to deliver a
• “France, you better get out or
• France’s reply: “You can’t make
us! You’re not the boss of us!”
• Washington returns to Virginia
with his tail between his legs…
Robert Dinwiddie
Throw Down…1754
• Fast forward one year:
Go Steelers?!?
Wait, who are
the Steelers?
– Governor sends Washington
and a crew (approx 36 men)
to build a fort at the forks of
the Allegheny and
Monongahela Rivers…where
is that?!?
– Problem: The French had
already begun building a fort
in the same place (500 men)
• Named after the governor of
New France:
What to do now?!?
• Washington moves his men 50 miles south to
Great Meadow (Uniontown, Fayette Co.)
• May 28, 1754: Washington surrounds French
forces (35 men) with the help of the Seneca
Indian chief (Iroquois nation)
– French had 13 casualties and 21 captured
– British had 1 casualty and a few wounded
• Became known as Jumonville Glen after the
French leader killed there
– First battle of the war…holla!
Jumonville Glen
Jumonville Today
to do now?!?
Fort (of) Necessity
• In five days, Washington and his troops
(approx. 300) build a fort (June 3, 1754)
• One month later, on July 3, 600 French and
100 Indians surrounded Washington and his
• British casualties much worse than French.
• At midnight, signed truce
• …Although it was in French and Washington couldn’t
read French!
• Stated the G. Wash had Jumonville assassinated
• Washington surrendered fort to French.
Solid American
The Albany Congress,
June 19th – July 11th, 1754
• The first meeting of the colonies to discuss
forging a union of the 13 colonies
– 7 of the 13 attended:
• CT, MD, MA, NH, NY, PA & RI
• Proposed union: each state would send
delegates to the council, a president would
be elected
The Albany Plan of Union
• Proposed by
Benjamin Franklin
• Focus: Indian
relations, military
preparedness, trade
– Albany Congress
say, “Heck yeah…”
– But the individual
colonies REJECT
the plan…why?
This is what I
looked like
during the
French &
Indian War!
General Edward “Bulldog” Braddock
• Braddock sent to by the British crown to
serve as commander in chief of the British
forces in North America against the French
• First Objective: seize Fort Duquesne
– Use to fighting in the open fields of Europe in
columns or lines; very structured
• Movement was slow:
– Pack animals, road needed to be built, supplies
from colonies did not arrive, many soldiers fell
– Left many soldiers behind as well
General Edward “Bulldog” Braddock
• Commanded 700 colonial militiamen
(whom he regarded disdainfully) and 1,400
British regulars
• Moved across the Alleghenies from
Cumberland, Maryland, building a road
– Braddock’s Trail today.
• Movement was slow:
– Pack animals, road needed to be built, supplies
from colonies did not arrive, many soldiers fell
– Left about 1/3 of his British regiments behind
Benjamin Franklin Describes
General Edward Braddock
"This general was, I think, a brave man, and might probably
have made a figure as a good officer in some European war.
But he had too much self-confidence, too high an opinion of
the validity of regular troops, and too mean a one of both
Americans and Indians. ...
"I ventured only to say, ' ... The only danger I apprehend of
obstruction to your march is from ambuscades of Indians,
who, by constant practice, are dexterous in laying and
executing them. ... ’
"He smiled at my ignorance, and replied, 'These savages may,
indeed, be a formidable enemy to your raw American militia,
but upon the King's regular and disciplined troops, sir, it is
impossible they should make any impression."
Will NOT
work here!
I should’ve
listened to Ben
then I wouldn’t
have DIED!
Disaster at Fort Duquesne
• July 9, 1755: French learn of his advance
– While crossing Monongahela River, Braddock
met by a force of 900 men
– Braddock was attacked near
– Massacred by the French and Indians
• Casualties
– 1,459 engaged, 977 were killed or wounded
– French & Native casualties: 9 killed
• Braddock mortally wounded; Washington
ordered the retreat
The Fall of Braddock (1755)
Braddock’s Burial
Braddock’s Grave
Up close and personal…
The Seven Years’ War
• May 1756: Britain formally declares
war on France:
– Allied selves with Austria and Prussia
– Fighting spread to West Indies, India and
William Pitt
• 1757 – Britain’s new Prime Minister
– Pitt believed that to win control of the overall
war, he needed to win the front in North
– Sent Britain’s best generals to North America
– Sent more supplies and men to North America
– Forcibly recruited colonists
– Seized supplies and equipment from local
farmers and tradesmen
– Compelled colonists to offer shelter to British
The British Turn the Tide
• 1758
– British win many key victories (which we
will NOT focus on!)
• Louisburg (use of navy to control the seas)
• Frontenac
• Fort Duquesne captured by the British and
renamed Fort Pitt
• Niagara
• Crown Point
• Ticonderoga
The British Turn the Tide
• 1759: British capture Quebec (capital of
New France)
– British sneak up cliff (Plains of Abraham)
outside of Quebec on an unguarded trail and lay
siege to the city for 3 months
• 4,000 men on the side of the Brits
– Actual Battle lasts 15 minutes
– General Wolfe defeats the French General
Montcalm (both die…no lols here!)
• 1760: British take over Montreal
• Fighting ends in North America..Woot!
Plains of Abraham
The Capture of Montreal
How can I
possibly go
I hope this doesn’t
take long…I’m
kinda hungry!
Battle Worksheet
1760 - War in North
America is Over
Treaty of Paris - 1763
• Marked the end of French power
in North America
– Transferred Canada and all other
French territory east of Mississippi
to GB
– Ceded New Orleans and their claims
west of Mississippi to Spain..
• Also ceded territories in Africa, the
Mediterranean, and colonies in
India…but held tight to Caribbean
Islands – why?
Tally Sheet
• Britain now controlled:
– Canada…au revoir “New France”
– All lands east of the Mississippi River
– Spanish borderlands (Florida)
• France only controlled:
– A few islands in the Caribbean (regained
Martinique, Guadeloupe, and St. Lucia from GB)
• Spain now secured:
– All lands west of the Mississippi River
Consequences of the War
• Expanded England’s territorial
claims in the New World
• Enlarged Britain’s debt
• Tension between British and the
– Colonists didn’t put forth much
effort toward the war
– Some colonists sold food and other
goods to the French in the West
• England decides to restructure
the empire – increasing British
Consequences of the War
• Forced colonists to act in
unison against a common foe
• Friction of 1756-1757 over
British policies = unwanted
British presence
• Important socializing
experience for men who
served in army
Consequences of the War
• British victory was
disastrous for Natives in
Ohio Valley
• Iroquois:
– British saw their wavering
support as duplicity
– Iroquois alliance quickly
unraveled; Iroquois
Confederacy crumbled by
the end of the
Revolutionary War
Quiz: French & Indian War
• 30 Points:
–15 mulitple choice
–3 essays (5 points a piece)
• Study causes of the F & I War
• Study terms of Treaty of Paris
• Study Impacts of the War on Brits &

The French and Indian War*