THE FRENCH REVOLUTION By: Osbaldo Alcantara & Brock Spicer France Pre Revolution (The Three Estates) The First Estate consisted of the Clergy. They were divided into the higher and the lower clergy. The higher clergy were wealthy and powerful, while the lower clergy related more to the lower estates The Second Estate consisted of The French Nobility and Royalty. They were traditional divided up into the nobility of the robe and the nobility of the sword. The Third Estate was the generality or the statement of people which were not part of the other estates. They were divided into two groups, the urban and the rural, the Bourgeoisie and the Peasantry. Economic Troubles Throughout 1756-1783, The French were in major debt by participating in the Seven Year’s War and the American Revolution. In 1783, November 2; Louis XVI appoints Charles de Calonne to be controller of the General Finance. In 1783, February 22; The Assembly of Notables Convenes, rejects Calonne’s debt-relief proposals. Societal Problems There was a Food Crisis taking place during 1791. Louis XVI and his family attempt to Flee to the Austrian Border and arrange an attack on the Revolutionaries. The Declaration of Pillnitz was issued on August 27, 1791. The Declaration of Pillnitz was issued to force the French Revolutionaries to think twice about their actions and make them aware that other countries were watching the Revolution closely. In September, 1791; The National Assembly issued the Constitution of 1791. This created a constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy, for France. Societal Problems(Continued) This move allowed King Louis XVI to maintain control of the Country. The constitution also succeeded in eliminating the nobility as a legal order and struck down monopolies and guilds. It established a poll tax and barred servants from voting, ensuring that control of the country stayed firmly in the hands of the middle class. Divisions quickly formed throughout the new Legislative Assembly, The Jacobins and The Girondins. The Jacobins found Louis’s actions contemptible and wanted to forgo the constitutional monarchy and declare France a republic. The Girondins on the other hand wanted Monarchy. Societal Problems(Continued) Brissot, the Commander of the Girondins felt threatened by the Declaration of Pillnitz and rallied the Legislative Assembly to declare war on Austria on April 20, 1792. Austria and Prussia had already anticipated this and had their troops aligned along the French border. The French were defeated and Brissot was thrown out of command. 1789 (TENNIS COURT OATH) The tennis court oath was an important even that occurred during the first days of the French Revolution. The Oath was a pledge signed by 576 out of the 577 members from the Third Estate who were locked out of a meeting of the Estates-General on 20 June 1789 in a tennis court. The Tennis Court Oath was an assertion that the sovereignty of the people did not reside with King, but in the people themselves, and their representatives. THE STORMING OF THE BASTILLE The Storming of the Bastille occurred in Paris on the night of July 14, 1789. The Bastille was an old prison on the River Seine. Rumors spread that caused the people to storm the Bastille. The King too was suspected for planning and preparing for a violent suppression of the French Public through the use of the military. The final straw was when the King stripped the Necker of his ministry as he was popular amongst the people. This was done on the 12th of July and from here on the public was colored with the spirit of rebellion. THE GREAT FEAR The Great Fear occurred from July 20 to August 5, 1789. The grain supplies were guarded by militias, due to the cause of the grain shortages in the Spring. There were rumors of Bands of Armed men roaming the countryside. This caused fearful peasants to arm themselves. Soon the peasants would attack manor houses and burned their nobles' chateaux, monasteries and buildings which housed public records. LOUIS XVI AND MARIE ANTOINETTE Both the King and Queen were dragged back to their homeland(France), after being captured of fleeing. King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette were both condemned and beheaded. REIGN OF TERROR (NATIONAL CONVENTION: KING & QUEEN) Things were not looking good for King Louis XVI. The economy spiraled downward (unemployment in Paris in 1788 was estimated at 50%) Crops failed, the price of bread and other food soared. To top it all off, He married a foreigner of Austria, Queen Marie Antoinette which the people despised. In 1792, the newly elected National Convention declared France a republic and brought Louis to trial for crimes against the people and was eventually executed. THE REIGN OF TERROR The Reign of Terror began right after the Death of King Louis XVI in 1793. The Terror was designed to fight the enemies of the revolution, to prevent counterrevolution from gaining around. But it was really the time period which many persons were ruthlessly executed by the ruling faction. The guillotine, the new instrument of egalitarian justice, was put to work; This caused 30,000 people lost their lives across France. THE REIGN OF TERROR (CONTINUED) Maximilien Robespierre was the mastermind behind the reign of terror He was the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, the executive committee of the National Convention, and the most powerful man in France. He claimed that Terror would lead Republic into Virtue. Danton rose to convention calling for an end of Terror. The Convention was scared of Danton so they passed a law that would get rid of him. Robespierre called for a new purge in 1794 that seemed to threatened other members of the Committee of Public Safety. THE REIGN OF TERROR CEASED The Jacobins had had enough. Cambon rose in the Convention and stated "It is time to tell the whole truth. One man alone is paralyzing the will of the Convention. And that man is Robespierre.“ Others quickly rallied to his support. Robespierre was arrested and sent to the guillotine the next day, the last victim of the Reign of Terror. THE REVOLUTIONS CHANGES TO FRANCE (THE CONSTITUTION OF 1795) • The Constitution of 1795 was ratified by the National Convention on August 22, 1795. • It was more conservative than the abortive democratic French Constitution of 1793. • The Constitution of 1795 established a liberal republic with a franchise based on the payment of taxes, a bicameral legislature, (Council of Elders, Council of 500) to slow down the legislative process; and a five-man Directory. • The central government retained great power, including emergency powers to curb freedom of the press and freedom of association. THE CONSTITUTION OF 1795 (CONTINUED) • The Constitution divided power between the King and The Legislative Assembly. • It gave the right to vote to men over 25, it also gave the king power of “suspensive veto”, and it gave the officials responsibility to assemble. • During this liberal phase they set up a development of public schools. • The Constitution of 1795 also established an executive Directory, two assemblies, and a property owners' franchise. WOMEN’S RIGHTS • The women had no rights whatsoever. Rights were granted only to citizens that were male. • The March on Versailles was a spark for women getting closer of gaining rights. • The Women’s Petition to the National Assembly took action which gave women equality. • The women’s hard work paid off in the end and lead Olympe de Gouges to publish the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen in September 1791.(Gave Women Equality and rights) REFORMS AND HOW SOCIETY CHANGED • Annual elections would be held to keep the new government in check. • In theory, the new government closely resembled that of the United States. • Checks-and-Balances system. • The new government’s priorities became its downfall: rather than address the deteriorating economic situation in the country, the legislature instead focused on keeping progressive members out. • Ultimately, paranoia and attempts at overprotection weakened the group. Napoleon Takes Charge (Napoleon Becomes a Dictator) After having control of the military and winning many fierce battles, Napoleon was admired and became a Hero to the French people. After seeing that the French people were Dissatisfied with the job the Directory was doing, Napoleon with the help of his army overthrew the Government. Napoleon then established a new Constitution, he became the first consul under the new government. Napoleon Becomes a Dictator (Continued) Napoleon became the Virtual Dictator by age 30, in1799. Three years later in 1802, an election took place that decided Napoleon would be the First consul for the rest of his life. Two Years later in 1804, Napoleon proclaimed himself as the “Emperor of France”. Napoleon was able to become the Dictator of France because he was loved by the French people because of his Loyalty, Successful Victories, and Leadrership. Napoleon Changes France Napoleon established a new Constitution under his rule. He became a successful dictator and ran the country how he wanted. The Napoleonic Code was the French Civil Code, established by Napoleon in 1804. The code forbade privileges based on birth, allowed freedom of religion, and specified that government jobs go to the most qualified. The Napoleonic Code was the first modern legal code to be adopted with a pan-European scope and it strongly influenced the law of many of the countries formed during and after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon Built an Empire Napoleon built an Empire as soon as he became the dictator of France. He established the fourth new Constitution. People loved him and followed every move he made. The empire was built as he became the first consul of the new constitution for the rest of his life. Napoleon and France were disliked in Europe because Napoleon had control pretty much all over Europe. Napoleon started the Continental System. The Continental System was a blockade aimed at denying the British any trading access to ports in Europe, theoretically destroying British trade and denying them the money they needed to fund Napoleons enemies on mainland Europe. The Continental System was disliked by Europe because they needed goods from Britain. In 1812, Napoleon decided to invade Russia because they decided to abandon the Continental System. When Napoleon and his Army reached Russia they found out that the Russians had retreated and along their way, they torched the city into flames leaving no resources. Napoleon after reaching Moscow, hoped to find food and shelter but instead found everything in flames. Napoleon decided to retreat back to France. Napoleon had started with about 500,000 soldiers and ended out with 20,000 soldiers. Many of the soldiers had died because of the cold and having no food. That last incident was the Three Day Battle of The Nations. The allied countries which were Russia, Austria, England, Prussia fought the French. The French were captured in March 30, 1814 and had given up. Napoleon was forced to give up the throne on April 6, 1814 and was exiled from France. Napoleon was beyond doubt one of the greatest leaders in history. Napoleon’s domination in Europe between 1800 and 1815, was known as the Napoleonic Era. Napoleon promoted the growth of the modern state through his administrative and regal reforms, and his changes of the map of Europe stimulated movements for national unification. After Napoleon’s first abdication in April 1814, representatives of all states of Europe met in Vienna in order to decide what do now that the Napoleonic threat was gone. They had three main priorities: To reduce the size of France to it’s frontiers before the revolutionary war of 1792. To ensure that France would never again pose a threat to the rest of Europe, especially to the east. To reward those countries that had been “Anti-Napoleon” and punish those that had been “Pro-Napoleon”. The main goal of Congress of Vienna was to settle issues that had risen due to the cause of France’s aggressive policy under Napoleon. The Great Powers reorganized European boundaries in hopes of creating a stable Europe where coalitions of nations could always ally to defeat one nation that got out of hand. Louis XVIII, granted amnesties, hoping to start over in France When Louis XVIII died, Charles X took his place. Charles believed himself being a monarch appointed by god and trampled on basic elements of liberalism like the French Constitution.