http://emergenceoftheamericasinglobalaffairs.blogspot.com/ US EXPANSIONIST FOREIGN POLICIES Political/Economic/Social /ideological reasons: New Manifest destiny Josiah Strong and Alfred Mahan Social Darwinism People wanted an aggressive foreign policy: 1893, modernizations, imperialism Isolationist stand (after the civil war/reconstruction) Expansionism THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Economic growth, industrial growth, production growth Needed new markets: raw materials, products, and military Expansionists vs. Anti-Expansionists Economic stagnation Human rights Tensions fueled foreign policy debates with the acquisition of the Hawaiian islands, our entry into the Spanish-American war, terms of the Treaty of Paris, panama canal, central American affairs, entry into o WWI, and the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles. MCKINLEY AS PRESIDENT Wanted t to avert war Felt pressures from the public to intervene in Cuba Yielded to the pressures because of commercial and military interests “the war has brought us new duties and responsibilities which we must meet and discharge as becomes a great nation on whose growth and career from the beginning the ruler of nations has plainly written the high command and pledge of civilization” THEODORE ROOSEVELT - Believed in a special destiny for America - “We stand supreme in a continent, in a hemisphere…a great work lies already to the hand of this generation…it is a privilege” - Assistant Secretary of the Navy - advocated intervention in Cuba both for the Cuban people and to promote the Monroe Doctrine WRITERS The importance of expansionism on the ground of duty and responsibility Rudyard Kipling and Henry Watterson Anti-Imperialist League (emerged after the Treaty of Paris) Mark Twain and William James CAUSES OF THE WAR: Sympathy for Cuban citizens Feelings were inflamed by “yellow journalism” William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer The De Lôme letter USS Maine (Remember the Maine) February 15, 1898 A LITTLE BIT ABOUT THE WAR The Teller Amendment: the US would not establish permanent control over Cuba after the war. April 25 1898-August 12, 1898 More American soldiers died of disease than of battle wounds. Yellow fever spread quickly. EFFECTS Madrid sued for peace Treaty of Paris: signed December 10, 1898 The US gained Guam, Puerto Rico, and The Philippines Cuba formed its own civil government and gained independence on May 20, 1902 Anti-imperialist League Spain benefited economically, but had political defeat because it weakened political stability. Turned the US into an imperialist power US FOREIGN POLICIES Big Stick Diplomacy –Roosevelt Dollar Diplomacy- Taft Moral Diplomacy- Wilson’s diplomacy Panama Canal- Us involvement in Latin America The Navy- “white fleet” very large US AND THE WWI (WHY?) 1. Germans decided to start unrestricted submarine warfare: The Lusitania (May 7, 1915) 2. Zimmerman telegraphy (February 25, 1917) 3. Russian Revolution: now the US can say that they are fighting for democracy US enters the war in April with Wilson’s peace ideals: (progressive war) This would be a “war to end all wars” This would be a war to “make the world safe for democracy” Fourteen points STRUGGLE OF THE VERSAILLES TREATY Willsonians vs. Irreconcilables vs. reservationists Irreconcilables did not agree with the lack protection the treaty offered to the Monroe Doctrine Treaty: A league of nations Germany lost territory as new countries were created All German colonies surrendered to the Allies and took full responsibility Germany was limited to 100,000 troops and agreed to pay the cost of war (approx. $30 billion) Allied troops occupied the Rhineland for 15 years IMPACT OF WWI ON THE US Made room for American economy in Europe Industry production boomed New technologies developed More employment opportunities (Women and AfricanAmericans) 19th -August 18, 1920 CANADA AND WWI When war broke out, Canada immediately supported the UK’s declaration of war against Germany Had a small military force to begin with -didn’t do a whole lot In 1914 Canada entered the war as a colony, a mere extension of Britain overseas; in 1918 she was forging visibly ahead to nationhood. Canadians were not only considered expert and professional soldiers, they were feared by the Germans as an omen of impending attack. Canada’s contributions enabled it to become more independent and opened a deep rift between the French and English speaking populations FOR A NATION OF 8 MILLION PEOPLE, CANADA’S WAR EFFORT WAS REMARKABLE. -619,636 MEN AND WOMEN SERVED – 400,000 OVERSEAS -66,655 DIED, 172,950 WOUNDED -THE WAR TRANSFORMED THE NATION, CULTURE, ECONOMY, AND IDENTITY. -THE RED BARON Positive Independent country (autonomy or sovereignty) Respect from other nations – Passchendaele and Vimy Ridge Seat in the League of Nations Suffrage Women roles changes – worked in factories Economy prospered and manufacturing industries grew (visual page 127 of Spotlight) Negative Casualty rate high – 60,000 dead and many more wounded (visual page 126 of Spotlight) Veterans returned home to unemployment Horrors of the war i.e. trench war, poison gas, casualty rates Conscription divided the country French felt alienated Immigrants were discriminated against and rights taken – War Measures Act Cost of the war was significant – taxes, victory bonds, etc… Sacrifices for the war effort by civilians – food, fuel, sons and fathers Spanish Flu – 20 – 40 million people world wide died from this flu Bibliography "Causes of the Spanish American War: Yellow Journalism, Imperialism, and the USS Maine Bring About War ." Michael Streich Writing Profile . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://michael-streich.suite101.com/causes-of-the-spanish-american-war-a93842>. "Canada and the First World War."Library and Archives Canada . N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/firstworldwar/index-e.html>. "Canada's Role in WWI." Mount Allison University. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. <http://www.mta.ca/library/courage/canadasroleinwwi.html> Category. "Canada in World War One –Canadians in the First World War."European History: – The History of Europe. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. <http://europeanhistory.about.com/od/canadainww1/Canada_in_WW1.htm>. Chimes, Michael. "Imperialism."Spanish American War. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Apr. 2012. <http://www.spanamwar.com/imperialism.htm>. "Impact of WWI on the US." Northern State University: Aberdeen, SD. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www3.northern.edu/marmorsa/impactofWWIonUSlecturenotes.htm>. "The Spanish-American War and Its Consequences." ushistory.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.ushistory.org/us/44d.asp>. "WWI: Canada Enters the War ."Canada at War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.canadaatwar.ca/content-40/world-war-i/canada-enters-the-war/>. "Causes of the Spanish American War."Professional Translation Services . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 May 2012. <http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/spain/causes-of-the-spanishamerican-war/839>.