The Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule in China China reestablished its political, economic, and cultural hegemony during the post-classical era by restoring centralized rule, by developing technologies which expanded agricultural and manufacturing output, and by using armed forces and diplomats to influence culture in Korea, Vietnam, and Japan. Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule in China Sui Dynasty Yang Jian reestablished centralized imperial rule in China through the use of tight political discipline and military force. Lead to the short lived Sui Dynasty Construction of Granaries, dykes, levees, defensive walls, and fortifications. Sent military forces to central Asia and Korea Required compulsory labor Levied high taxes to pay for projects Grand Canal – Sui Yangdi’s construction project that led to cultural and political unity in China. Linked economies of north and south China with 1500 miles of canals and roads. Built with forced labor and high taxes which led to resentment. Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule in China The Tang Dynasty Lasted nearly 300 years, transformed Chinese society. Emperor Tan Taizong Leadership based on Confucian ideals Emphasis on relationships and doing what was best for his subjects. Stressed maintenance of transportation and communication systems. Used military might to expand into Manchuria, central Asia, Korea, and Vietnam Implemented Tributary Relationships to institutionalize relationships and foster trade, cultural exchanges, and diplomatic relations with East Asia. Military and internal rebellion eventually weakened the empire and the Mandate of Heaven was withdrawn from the Tang emperor in 907 and control fell to military leaders. Restoration of Centralized Imperial Rule in China The Song Dynasty 960-1279 Song Taizu – Used strong army to overtake the local warlords who had overcome the Tang Dynasty. Set up large and elaborate Confucian government bureaucracy Problems: Expensive to pay all the government bureaucrats and crumbling economy led to revolt Military led by government was no match for the northern nomads and eventually the Song were pushed into the southern part of China where they fell to the Mongols in 1279. The Economic Development of Tang and Song China Economic growth begun in the Tang and Song dynasties stimulated trade and production throughout much of the eastern hemisphere for more than seven hundred years. Agricultural Development Sui and Tang Dynasties learned from Vietnam and started growing rice, which was fast growing and allowed them to double their output. Integrated heavy iron plows, extensive irrigation systems, use of manure and organic materials to fertilize the soil, and terraced mountain farming vastly expanded agricultural output in China. Tang and Song Economy Agricultural Development Increase population growth Urbanization – Thousands of shops, restaurants, hotels, taverns, gardens, teahouses, brothels, and other urban entertainments sprang up. Social structures Strengthened the patriarchal society as families sought to protect their wealth. Also changed the lives of farmers as they shifted to commercial market-oriented cultivation of crops best suited to their regions. Technological and Industrial Development Porcelain – High demand in Southeast Asia, India, Persia, and East Africa Metallurgy – Iron and Steel used in farming and weaponry, and large construction projects (Bridges) Gunpowder Printing – Block printing during Tang Dynasty eventually leading to moveable type Produced cheap, high-volume readily available texts. Naval Technology – Allowed for long distance trade in Indian Ocean Magnetic Compass The Emergence of a Market Economy Tightly integrated economy coupled with successful management of food distribution and guard against military uprising lead to rapid growth in Chinese economy. Lead to shortage of copper currency Lead to development of paper currency. Eventually lead to problems as people started to privately print money and could not afford to pay back credit they had used to purchase goods / services. Lead to strict government production of money by the time of the Qing dynasty which included both serial numbers and protection against counterfeiting. Cultural Change in Tang and Song China The Establishment of Buddhism Came to China via the Silk Road Developed as a syncretic faith – a result of the interaction of Confucian and Daoist traditions with Buddhism set in the context of Tang and Song Chinese Culture. Cultural Change in Tang and Song China The Establishment of Buddhism Although Buddhism came to China with Indian merchants trading with the Han dynasty, it did not gain a lot of popularity until the Tang and Song dynasties Chinese attracted to Buddhism because of high moral standards, intellectual sophistication and promise of salvation. Monks farmed land in China and shared with peasants Confucians did not like emphasis on celibacy and monastic lifestyle (Conflicted with family and filial piety) To calm the Confucians and Daoists the Buddhists in China modified some of their teachings to fit Chinese culture better Zen Buddhism in Japan emphasized a lot of the same things as Daoism (Meditation, withdraw, moment of clarity) Neo-Confucianism Blending of Buddhism and Confucianism Ideas influenced philosophical, political, moral, and intellectual life in Vietnam, Korea, and Japan. Chinese Influence in East Asia In the postclassical era, Korea, Vietnam, and Japan each developed a deep but unique interpretation of Chinese cultural and political values while maintaining their own distinctive identities. Korea Tang armies conquered much of Korea in seventh century. Korean Silla dynasty avoided occupation by practicing Tribute relationship and Kowtow with China. Chinese markets opened to Korean merchants, traders Korea adopted a lot of Chinese government practices as well as Confucian and Buddhist ideas. Chinese Influence in East Asia Vietnam Relationship more hostile than with Korea Adopted farming and irrigation techniques from China Chinese Influence in East Asia Early Japan First populated by nomads and migrants from Korea who brought iron, bronze, rice, and horses Nara Period – 710-794 CE the high point of Chinese influence in Japan when one of Japan’s ruling clans sought to form a centralized government much like China’s Japan had emperors, but they were more like ceremonial figureheads than actual rulers. Mid-twelfth century Japanese civil war fought between Minamoto and Taira clans Minamoto won and instituted Shogun for next 400 years. Shogun – Military governor who ruled instead of the emperor Minamoto dominated for next 400 years. Early Japan Adopted ideas from Confucianism and Buddhism but maintained their traditional indigenous SHINTO religion. Medieval Japan (1185-1573 CE) Refers to period to age between Chinese influence and the rise of the Japanese centralized government in the sixteenth century. Developed decentralized political system in which provincial lords control land, economics, and justice. Military talent of Samurai played a huge role in in political and military affairs. Local lords relied upon them to help extend power Supported Samurai with ag surplus and peasants to work the land so they could devote themselves to sharpening military skills.