Sui -Tang – Song (Han)-Sui-Tang-Song • • • • • • • • • Block printing Porcelain Mechanical clock (water) Movable Type Gunpowder Paper money Magnetic compass Rice (champas or wet rice) bridges Early Dynasties • Shang Dynasty1766-1122 • Zhou Dynasty1122-221 – Last 400yrs - warring states • Qin Dynasty 221 -206 BCE – – – – – Shi huangdi (1st emperor) Legalist philosophy First coinage, writing system, Censorship Lasts 15 years • China- in 2,000 years - 23 dynasties - 9 important ones Han Dynasty • Classical period – Confucian based society (five relationships) – Merit system-bureaucrats (meritocracy) – Paper & porcelain invented • For 400 years after fall of Han - time of great troubles… – Buddhism becomes popular in this period – Why? Post-Han China • Period of the Six Dynasties (220-589CE) – Bureaucracy collapsed – Buddhism gained strength, replacing Confucianism – Non-Chinese nomads rule much Chinese territory Era of Division vs. Sui-Tang • Era of Division: – – – – Small warring states period of Buddhist dominance loss of imperial centralization loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of militarized aristocracy • Sui-Tang: – – – – return to centralized administration unified empire reconstruction of bureaucracy reconstruction of Confucian scholargentry at expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy – restoration of Confucianism as central ideology of state Sui Dynasty (589-618CE) • Sui dynasty established by Wendi – Lowered taxes – Established granaries – stable, cheap food supply • Yangdi replaced his father, Wendi – Brought scholar-gentry back into the administration – Built the Grand Canal • How do you think the canal impacted life in China? Economically? Politically? Socially? Militarily? Tang Dynasty (618-918) • Tang – Increased boundaries – Heavy dependence on militarism Tang Dynasty (618-907CE) • First emperor & minister (Wei Zheng)- model of good rule • Imperial power and moral restraint in theory - in practice hard to maintain • Trade & commerce grow • Printing develops • Arts- focus on landscape/nature • Gun powder • Woodblock printing • Capital city Chang’an (eternal peace) -walled city • Artistic / commercial & invention continues in Song era Empress Wu • Ruled for 50 years - 705 – Biggest challenge deal with scholar/gentry and old aristocrats – Economy remained strong! • Reform of land system • Civil exam system – Blow to noble class – Social mobility • Confucianism as official philosophy = cultural literacy uniting China • Buddhism – Wu spreads Tang Xuanzong (The Profound Emperor) and Consort Yang Decline of Tang - Losing the Mandate of Heaven • Xuanzong – (Empress Wu’s grandson) – Patron of arts – Decline due to lack of morality? • Other reasons for decline - Equal land system breaks down – Poor attention to canal & irrigation systems – Nomadic attacks Moral: China’s view (long lasting) Centralization = unity = peace (stability) VS. Decentralization = civil war Song Dynasty (969-1279CE) • Taizu reunited China under the Song – Failed to defeat border nomads – sets legacy of weakness • Politics – Not as strong politically or militarily as the Tang – Strong support of Confucian values • Neo-Confucianism – emphasis on high morality, hostility to foreign influence, stress on tradition (stifled innovation), authority of men • CHARACTERISTICS/ACHIEVEMENTS: – Scholar-gentry class dominates • abuses in civil service exam develop – Paper money – Arts & commerce – 11C Needle compass (3rd century - South pointer) Song Dynasty 960-1279 CE • Northern Song (960-1127) Based in Kaifeng • Southern Song (1127-1279) Based in Hangzhou Move South due to barbarian pressure from the North Status of Women • Tang Dynasty – More influence on family affairs – Wives/mothers-in-law = managed homes/servants – BUT – still subordinate in accordance to Confucian tradition • Song Dynasty -Less active in politics/public -Footbinding emerges – What impact do you think this had on women’s status? BUT – retained (kept) property rights Footbinding: indicator of change of role of women Regional and age differences in role of women • The emergence of a new ideal of the "willowwaisted woman," a stronger advocacy against widow remarriage, the presence of some bound feet in Southern Song all suggest a decline in status of women. • However, the control women gained over property, their ability to inherit, their control of family budgets, and of their children's education show that older women were not without authority. Culture • Made refinements in the ideal of the universal man – combined the qualities of scholar, poet, painter, and statesman – Song intellectuals sought answers to all philosophical and political questions in the Confucian Classics. – This renewed interest in the Confucianism coincided with the decline of Buddhism • Seen as offering few practical guidelines for the solution of political and other mundane problems. End of Song Dynasty/Beginning of Yuan Dynasty: Mongol Empire (1271 – 1368) • Heavy dependence on growth of civilian government at expense of military – By 1127, the Song court could not push back the Northern nomadic invaders – Surrounded by north ‘empires’ • Invasion of Mongols from North • What impact do you think foreign rule might have on China’s society?