ME Peace & Mandate system

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MIDDLE EAST PEACE
SETTLEMENTS AND MANDATE
SYSTEM
Sophie, Gavin
INTRODUCTION

With the end of WW1, the fate of the Ottoman
Empire had to be decided by the Allies. Much like
the Treaty of Versailles which imposed severe
sanctions on Germany, the Middle East also saw
a great deal of political and geographical change
with the signing of peace treaties.
PEACE SETTLEMENT TREATIES
The Allies came to an agreement at the San
Remo Conference in April 1920. The peace
agreement of 1920, called the Treaty of Sevres,
imposed restrictions equal or greater in severity
as those imposed on Germany.
 The two peace treaties signed were:

Treaty of Sevres in 1920
 Treaty of Lausanne in 1923

TREATY OF SEVRES
What was the treaty of Sevres?
 The treaty of Sevres was a peace treaty signed
with the Ottoman Empire after the end of World
War One.
 The treaty outlined the territorial redistribution
of the Ottoman Empire and stripped the
Ottoman Empire of its military capabilities,
finances and land.

MAP OF TREATY OF SEVRES
TREATY OF SEVRES IMPACTS
The treaty detailed the Kingdom of Hejaz
international recognition.
 Recognised Armenia as an established state
 Created a region for ethnic minorities such as the
Kurdish people, although no definite borders
were outlined for the establishment of Kurdistan.
 Allies controlled the Ottoman Empire’s finances
 Army was reduced to 50,000

TREATY OF SEVRES: IMPACT ON THE
TURKISH
The treaty showed a great deal of disregard to
the Turks and built on the sentiment of
nationalism.
 This led to the outbreak of the Turkish War of
Independence in 1922. With the establishment of
a Turkish state, Turkey was in a position to renegotiate the terms of the imposition.
 This led to the creation a second treaty

TREATY OF LAUSANNE
The Treaty of Lausanne was signed in 1923.
 The treaty revoked the terms and sanctions
imposed in the Treaty of Sevres.
 The treaty granted the Republic of Turkey
International recognition as an independent
state.

MAP: TREATY OF LAUSANNE
TREATY OF LAUSANNE: IMPACTS
State of Armenia was dissolved
 Proposed state of Kurdistan was also dissolved
 Turkey had control over its finances, judicial and
legislative matters.

CONCLUSION

“Post World War 1 peace settlement is not just a
chapter in history but the essential background to
contemporary politics. It lies at the root of the
countless political clashes, territorial disputes,
struggles for national liberation and interstate
wars that have become familiar features of the
politics of the Middle East”
MANDATE SYSTEM
INTRODUCTION.

-
What does the term ‘mandate system’ mean?
Following WWl, the League of nations created a
system of mandates. So essentially the mandate
system. This system had the intention of
preparing the ‘natives’ from various regions for
self governance.
* League of nations: an inter-governmental
organisation established after WW1. It’s aim
was to prevent the outbreak of a future war
by firstly encouraging countries to disarm and
secondly to use negotiation and diplomacy as
a means to resolve conflicts. (reference text
book)
MORE ON THE MANDATE SYSTEM
Instead of actually colonising the territories that
were apparently “note yet able to stand by
themselves” as said by the peacemakers, the
more developed and advanced countries would
administer their affairs until the time that the
less developed territories could manage on their
own. One country would be assigned the role of
Mandatory Power and the League of nations
would supervise their work through the
Permanent Mandates commission (PMC)
*PMC: a supervisory body. The Mandatory
powers were required to give an annual
report to this commission to show that they
had fulfilled their task in a satisfactory
manner.

3 GROUPS

The mandates were divided into 3 different
groups. These groups were made based on
the country’s location, level of political and
economic development and were then
assigned to Allied victors. (these were called
mandatory powers or mandatories)
CATEGORY A MANDATES.
Category
A Mandates:
Included the ex Ottoman
Arab territories in the
Middle East that were on
the brink of independent
statehood.
CATEGORY B MANDATES
 Category
B Mandates: These
consisted mainly of former
German colonies in Africa (with
the exception of South West
Africa), the Mandatory Power
guided the mandates away from
abusive customs such as slavery,
exploitation of native labour and
opened up the region for trade
with other countries.
CATEGORY C MANDATES
 Category
C Mandates: These
included South West Africa and
German islands in the Pacific. These
mandates were regarded as too
under developed and therefore not
ready for independence.
Consequently they came under total
control of the mandate power.
ARTICLE 22.
Article 22 of the Covenant of
the League of Nations,
summarised the model of
control. This gave broad
authority to the mandate
powers and regarded
preparation for self control.
ARTICLE 22.





Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of
Nations, 28 June 1919
which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to
stand by themselves under the strenuous
conditions of the modern world,
should be entrusted to advanced nations who by
reason of their resources, their experience or
their geographical position can best undertake
this responsibility, and who are willing to accept
it,
Mandatories on behalf of the League.
Must differ according to the stage of the
development of the people, the geographical
situation of the territory, its economic
conditions and other similar circumstances.





the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by
a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand
alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal
consideration in the selection of the Mandatory.
the Mandatory must be responsible for the
administration of the territory under conditions which
will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion,
the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the
arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of
the establishment of fortifications or military and naval
bases and of military training of the natives for other
than police purposes
administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral
portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards abovementioned in the interests of the indigenous population.
the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual
report in reference to the territory committed to its
charge.
CONCLUSION
 It
was made clear that the Mandatory
powers intended to pursue their
colonial and imperialist goals in total
disregard to the wishes of the local
communities. This led to frustration
and therefore encouraged
independence movements throughout
the different regions.
REFERENCES





Allaboutturkey.com (2006) Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne
- All About Turkey. [online] Available at:
http://www.allaboutturkey.com/antlasma.htm [Accessed: 26
Aug 2012].
Countrystudies.us (1995) Turkey. [online] Available at:
http://countrystudies.us/turkey/ [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012].
Historylearningsite.co.uk (1920) The Treaty of Sevres.
[online] Available at:
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_sevres.htm
[Accessed: 26 Aug 2012].
Infoplease.com (2012) Treaty of Lausanne —
Infoplease.com. [online] Available at:
http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0829043.html
[Accessed: 26 Aug 2012].
Milestonedocuments.com (n.p.) Treaty of Lausanne Overview. [online] Available at:
http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/treat
y-of-lausanne [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012].


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Britannica.com (n.d.) mandate (League of Nations) -Britannica Online Encyclopedia. [online] Available at:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/361608/m
andate [Accessed: 25 Aug 2012].
En.wikipedia.org (2012) League of Nations mandate Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. [online] Available at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations_mand
ate [Accessed: 25 Aug 2012].
Habibi, M. et al. (2010) History of Europe and the
Middle East. . New York: Oxford, p.190, 197.
Wiki.answers.com (2012) What was the World War 1
mandate system. [online] Available at:
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_was_the_World_War
_1_mandate_system [Accessed: 24 Aug 2012].
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