MIDDLE EAST PEACE SETTLEMENTS AND MANDATE SYSTEM Sophie, Gavin INTRODUCTION With the end of WW1, the fate of the Ottoman Empire had to be decided by the Allies. Much like the Treaty of Versailles which imposed severe sanctions on Germany, the Middle East also saw a great deal of political and geographical change with the signing of peace treaties. PEACE SETTLEMENT TREATIES The Allies came to an agreement at the San Remo Conference in April 1920. The peace agreement of 1920, called the Treaty of Sevres, imposed restrictions equal or greater in severity as those imposed on Germany. The two peace treaties signed were: Treaty of Sevres in 1920 Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 TREATY OF SEVRES What was the treaty of Sevres? The treaty of Sevres was a peace treaty signed with the Ottoman Empire after the end of World War One. The treaty outlined the territorial redistribution of the Ottoman Empire and stripped the Ottoman Empire of its military capabilities, finances and land. MAP OF TREATY OF SEVRES TREATY OF SEVRES IMPACTS The treaty detailed the Kingdom of Hejaz international recognition. Recognised Armenia as an established state Created a region for ethnic minorities such as the Kurdish people, although no definite borders were outlined for the establishment of Kurdistan. Allies controlled the Ottoman Empire’s finances Army was reduced to 50,000 TREATY OF SEVRES: IMPACT ON THE TURKISH The treaty showed a great deal of disregard to the Turks and built on the sentiment of nationalism. This led to the outbreak of the Turkish War of Independence in 1922. With the establishment of a Turkish state, Turkey was in a position to renegotiate the terms of the imposition. This led to the creation a second treaty TREATY OF LAUSANNE The Treaty of Lausanne was signed in 1923. The treaty revoked the terms and sanctions imposed in the Treaty of Sevres. The treaty granted the Republic of Turkey International recognition as an independent state. MAP: TREATY OF LAUSANNE TREATY OF LAUSANNE: IMPACTS State of Armenia was dissolved Proposed state of Kurdistan was also dissolved Turkey had control over its finances, judicial and legislative matters. CONCLUSION “Post World War 1 peace settlement is not just a chapter in history but the essential background to contemporary politics. It lies at the root of the countless political clashes, territorial disputes, struggles for national liberation and interstate wars that have become familiar features of the politics of the Middle East” MANDATE SYSTEM INTRODUCTION. - What does the term ‘mandate system’ mean? Following WWl, the League of nations created a system of mandates. So essentially the mandate system. This system had the intention of preparing the ‘natives’ from various regions for self governance. * League of nations: an inter-governmental organisation established after WW1. It’s aim was to prevent the outbreak of a future war by firstly encouraging countries to disarm and secondly to use negotiation and diplomacy as a means to resolve conflicts. (reference text book) MORE ON THE MANDATE SYSTEM Instead of actually colonising the territories that were apparently “note yet able to stand by themselves” as said by the peacemakers, the more developed and advanced countries would administer their affairs until the time that the less developed territories could manage on their own. One country would be assigned the role of Mandatory Power and the League of nations would supervise their work through the Permanent Mandates commission (PMC) *PMC: a supervisory body. The Mandatory powers were required to give an annual report to this commission to show that they had fulfilled their task in a satisfactory manner. 3 GROUPS The mandates were divided into 3 different groups. These groups were made based on the country’s location, level of political and economic development and were then assigned to Allied victors. (these were called mandatory powers or mandatories) CATEGORY A MANDATES. Category A Mandates: Included the ex Ottoman Arab territories in the Middle East that were on the brink of independent statehood. CATEGORY B MANDATES Category B Mandates: These consisted mainly of former German colonies in Africa (with the exception of South West Africa), the Mandatory Power guided the mandates away from abusive customs such as slavery, exploitation of native labour and opened up the region for trade with other countries. CATEGORY C MANDATES Category C Mandates: These included South West Africa and German islands in the Pacific. These mandates were regarded as too under developed and therefore not ready for independence. Consequently they came under total control of the mandate power. ARTICLE 22. Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, summarised the model of control. This gave broad authority to the mandate powers and regarded preparation for self control. ARTICLE 22. Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations, 28 June 1919 which are inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world, should be entrusted to advanced nations who by reason of their resources, their experience or their geographical position can best undertake this responsibility, and who are willing to accept it, Mandatories on behalf of the League. Must differ according to the stage of the development of the people, the geographical situation of the territory, its economic conditions and other similar circumstances. the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a Mandatory until such time as they are able to stand alone. The wishes of these communities must be a principal consideration in the selection of the Mandatory. the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion, the prohibition of abuses such as the slave trade, the arms traffic and the liquor traffic, and the prevention of the establishment of fortifications or military and naval bases and of military training of the natives for other than police purposes administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory, subject to the safeguards abovementioned in the interests of the indigenous population. the Mandatory shall render to the Council an annual report in reference to the territory committed to its charge. CONCLUSION It was made clear that the Mandatory powers intended to pursue their colonial and imperialist goals in total disregard to the wishes of the local communities. This led to frustration and therefore encouraged independence movements throughout the different regions. REFERENCES Allaboutturkey.com (2006) Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne - All About Turkey. [online] Available at: http://www.allaboutturkey.com/antlasma.htm [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012]. Countrystudies.us (1995) Turkey. [online] Available at: http://countrystudies.us/turkey/ [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012]. Historylearningsite.co.uk (1920) The Treaty of Sevres. [online] Available at: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/treaty_of_sevres.htm [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012]. Infoplease.com (2012) Treaty of Lausanne — Infoplease.com. [online] Available at: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0829043.html [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012]. Milestonedocuments.com (n.p.) Treaty of Lausanne Overview. [online] Available at: http://www.milestonedocuments.com/documents/view/treat y-of-lausanne [Accessed: 26 Aug 2012]. Britannica.com (n.d.) mandate (League of Nations) -Britannica Online Encyclopedia. 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