Monica Paz
CHS 245 OL- 14004
The panic of 1893 caused a major economic depression in 1893.
people were desperate to sell their products and get back on their
feet. The idea of expansion began to develop and spread across
the United States. They thought that perhaps “overseas markets
for American goods might relieve the problem of under
consumption at home and prevent the economic crisis that in the
1890s brought class war”
“In strict
confidence….I
should welcome
almost any war,
for I think this
country needs
one.”- Theodore
Roosevelt
 The idea of Expansion and trade over seas was nothing
new to some Americans already.
“Americans must now begin to look forward”
The American armed
forces had already made
108 intervention
between 1798-1945 with
other countries . Which
include Argentina,
Nicaragua, Japan and
China.
Captain A. T . Mahan of the U.S navy, helped with the
progression of expanding their trade to other
countries. He greatly influenced President Theodore
Roosevelt and other powerful leaders.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts was another
huge supporter of expanding American markets to other
countries. “It is a movement which makes for civilization and
the advancement of the race. As one of the great nations of
the world the United States must not fall out of line of
march.”
Although expansion did seem to have more gains than loses for
the United States, Howard Zinn and a editorial from the
Washington Post both wondered that perhaps this wasn’t about
just about economic reasons but perhaps a “lust for aggression”.
Was it just a way to become more powerful than other
countries?
“We are face to face with a strange
destiny. The taste of Empire is in the mouth of the people even as
the taste of blood in the jungle…”

Cuban- The United States was in full support of the Cuban
revolution , not because they wanted to help the rebels gain
their independence but because they wanted to use Cuba for
their own benefit. Another major reason for the intervention
of the United States in Cuban was that if the Cuban rebels won
of their own they feared another all Black republic would form.
Teller Amendment

–the United states was allowed help Cuba gain independence
but the needed to withdraw all its troops from the country.

February 1898-Battleship Maine mysteriously
exploded, 268 men were lost. President
McKinley and rich business owners were
desperate in getting Spain out of Cuba. The only
way possible was war. They quickly used this
event to trigger It by blaming the explosion on
Spain.
 “Many histories of the Spanish-American war have said that “public
opinion” in the United States led McKinley to declare war on Spain and
send forces to Cuba”
 American labor unions felt sympathy for the Cubans, they were against
any American expansionism.
 Socialists were also against the war , they believed it was “a favorite
method of rulers for keeping the people from redressing domestic
wrongs.”
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





Benefits of the war
iron and coal are at an all time high
More jobs are available
Higher wage
Downside of the war
The poor became poorer
The prices on products increased
The Spanish were defeated within three months
•American Military ignored the presence of the
Cuban rebels.
•When the Spanish surrendered no Cuban was
allowed to confer or sign on it
•Old Spanish authorities were left in charge not the
Cubans
•The U.S. only cared about the business networking
 Americans began to take over Cuban railroads, mines and sugar.
 Within the next few years, $30 million of American capital was invested.
 1,900,000 acres of Cuban land was bought for merely 20 cents per acre.
 United fruit moved in the Cuban sugar industry.
 By 1901, 80 percent of Cuban exports was American.
 American lumber industries planned on taking over the 1,9000,000 acres of
forest
Cuba wanted to be fully independent and rule their own country.
•Workers went on strike. “…the workers of Cuba will no longer tolerate
remaining in total subjection”
•Strikers were arrested, U.S. troops took over their jobs.
•Police went through out the city of Havana breaking up meetings.
•The Platt Amendment was a loop hole to the Teller Amendment.
•The U.S. was not allowed to annex Cuba, but under the Platt
Amendment, but the U.S. "the right to intervene for the preservation of
Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for
the protection of life, property, and individual liberty. . . . "
-Peace treaty was signed with Spain.
-Spain turned over Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines , in return the U.S Paid $20
million dollars.
-The United States did not know what to do with the Philippines.
-President McKinley stated “The truth is I didn't want the Philippines….
And one night late it came to me this way -- I don't know how it was, but it came:
1) That we could not give them back to Spain -- that would be cowardly and dishonorable.
2) That we could not turn them over to France or Germany, our commercial rivals in the
Orient -- that would be bad business and discreditable.
3) That we could not leave them to themselves -- they were unfit for self-government -- and
they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain's was; and
4) That there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all and to educate the Filipinos,
and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God's grace do the very best we could
by them, as our fellow men for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed and went to
sleep and slept soundly.”
 “The Filipinos did not get the same message from
God”
 February 1899, rebelled against American rule
just like how they rebelled against Spanish Rule.
Emilio Aguinaldo , Filipino leader
•First brought from China to lead soldiers into Spain.
•Became leader of the insurrectos, aided the fight against the
United States.
• proposed Filipino independence under U.S. protectorate, but
his proposal was rejected.
Philippine American war ended in 1902,
it took three years for the United States
to crush the rebels.
-four times as many troops were used
than in Cuba
- Filipino death right was enormous.
 Albert Beveridge of the senate , stated on January 9,1900,”the Philippines are
ours forever...” that it was the United States destiny to take advantage of the
land, and use it in the name of freedom.
 The Philippines was there entrance into trade with the Chinese markets.
Imperialism: "an unequal human and territorial relationship, usually in the form of
an empire, based on ideas of superiority and practices of dominance, and involving
the extension of authority and control of one state or people over
another.”(Dictionary of Human Geography)
•It became very clear to the Filipinos and some Americans, that the United States
was going to take full advantage of the Philippines, and get rid of anyone who got in
their way .
Harvard philosopher, wrote a letter to the Boston Transcript
saying that the “Philippine operation ‘reeked of the infernal
adroitness of the great department store, which has reached
perfect expertness in the art of killing silently, and with no
public squalling or commotion, the neighboring small
concerns’”
•Formed of American businessmen, politicians and intellectuals.
•Wanted to educate the American people of the “horrors of the Philippine war
and the evils of Imperialism.”
•Everyone in the group had different opinions, but they all agreed to the
statement made by William James ,”God damn the U.S. for its vile conduct in the
Philippines Isle.”
•Racism increased during this time, the soldiers stationed in the Philippines were
careless about what happen to the Filipino people.
 Between the years 1889 and 1903, racism in the United States was intense.
 African Americans suffered greatly during this time, “on average , every week,
two negroes were lynched by mobs—hanged, burned, mutilated.”
 Filipinos were also a target for their distinct characteristic differences to those
of the White people.
In 1901,the Manila correspondent of Philadelphia Ledger reported what was
really going on in the Philippines, innocent people were being killed by the
hundreds.
However the United States military showed no remorse for their actions.
Instead they would come up with excuses for their actions. That they only
shot in self defense.
 The Americans had more advanced firepower than the Filipinos.
 “Dead Filipinos were piled so high that the Americans used their bodies for
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breastwork”
Although there was no denying the brutality that went on during the Philippine
American war and the accusations made by the anti-imperialism league, some
trade unions were in full support of the crimes committed in the Philippines.
If it meant they could sell their products to other countries and make big money,
it was all worth it.
Annexation of the Philippines was completely out the question.
Although the Anti-imperialist league provided arguments against taking the
Philippines, most of the members were working class, women and Blacks. Giving
people at the time even less reason to listen to them .
Some theories on why African Americans joined the army are:
•To get ahead in society, the military offered opportunities to them they
couldn’t get anywhere else.
•Race pride, “the need to show that blacks were courageous, as patriotic as
anyone else”
Black soldiers still had to deal with racism outside the United States.
Their White comrades were just as brutal to them as they were in the States.
“The Filipino rebels often addressed themselves to ‘the Colored American
soldier’ in posters, reminding them of lynching back home, asking them not
to serve the white imperialist against other colored people.”
•Many Black soldiers joined the Filipino rebels.
 Back in the United States a groups of African Americans sent a message to
President McKinley, basically saying they were tried of his ignorance of their
suffering. How he was just as bad as the people who slaughter innocent Blacks
for no reason.
 And how when he did go visit them in the south he would almost commend
the murders for their crimes, and turn the other cheek for the victims who
actually needed him.
 “In the first few years of the twentieth century ,despite all the demonstrated
power of the state, large numbers of Blacks, Whites, men, women became
impatient, immoderate, unpatriotic.”
 Slide #2 : Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg297)
 Slide #3: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg299,300)
 Slide#5: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg306)
 Slide #6: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg308)
 Slide #7: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg310,311)
 Slide #8: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to
Present. New York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg312,315)
 Slide #9: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg313)
 Slide #10: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg313)
 Slide #11: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg314,315)
 Slide #12: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg315)
 Slide #13: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg316)
 Slide #14: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg318)
 Slide #15: Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States: 1492 to Present. New
York: HarperPerennial, 1995. Print.(pg320)

Chapter 12: The Empire and The People