• The capture of General Emilio Aguinaldo at
Palanan, Isabela in 1901.The Filipnino-American
war ended.
• The resistance can be conveniently seen in three
sectoral perspectives: Christian, Muslim, and
• After the Aguinaldo-led resistance ended, The inertia of
the katipunan revolution that began from Bonifacio
• The remaining leader of the the Aguinaldo Army: General
Miguel Malvar in Batangas, General Vicente Lukban in
Samar, and other remaining officers continued the war in
their respective areas.
• The most prominent of the final efforts to continue the
revolutionary struggle in Luzon was led by Macario Sakay,
from 1902 to 1906 in Bulacan, Pampanga, Laguna, Nueva
Ecija and Rizal.
• Sakay was eventually persuaded by Dominador Gomez
to yield.
• The resistance was reported by the americans in the
strategic areas of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.
• In Luzon in 1905, disturbance were reported in Cavite and
• Governer David Shanks of Cavite noted outbreaks at San
Pedro Tunasan, Paranaque, Taal, and San Francisco de
• The leaders of the resistence were former officers of the
revolutionary army who were respected by the people.
• The conditions of the province led the resistance movement
• By 1907, the mystification of the resistance had expressed
itself in a strong mass movement led by Salvador Felipe.
• He was known as “Apo Ipe” by his intimates.
• His movement was called the Santa Iglesia Movement
which means crusade of the “Holy Cross .
• Salvador and his church gained a number of followers
in the regions of Pampanga, Bulacan, Tarlac, and
Nueva Ecija.
• Weakening of the inertia by the year 1910, hv found a
a short-lived outbreak in Nueva Ecija led by Simeon
• The policy of rapid filipinization initiated by Governor
General Francis Burton Harrison in 1913. Led to the
Filipino’s elite successful campaign to win Filipino
• One of the movements that worried the americans was led
by Simeon Ola and about 1500 insurrectos (rebel) in Albay.
• He was a hero of the Philippine Revolution and the last
general to surrender to American forces during the
Philippine-American War.
• Col. Harry H. Bandholtz noted the significance role of Ola in
the anti-colonial resistance, he regarded Ola as nothing but
a ladron (thief)
• Reconcentration System was the answer of the Americans
to Ola’s movement. (March-October 1903)
• The effect of the system was, inadequate food and
accommodation’s to the people brought into the
reconcentration area. Therefore, Diseases took their death
toll and sufferings continued.
• About 300,000 was estimated total casualities of the
reconcentration system.
• Governer Taft justify the method a “reign of terror” had been
inaugurated by Ola in the province and other areas.
• Negotiations were initiated by the authorities to persuade
Ola to surrender.
• Vice Governor Luke Wright and Dr.Trinidad Padro de Tavera
went to Albay to help bring Ola to surrender to avoid the
deployment of the U.S army.
• September 22, 1903, Colonel Bandholtz signed an
agreement with Ola Promising the latter immunity and other
• By October, Ola finally surrendere, he felt it was better than
the prospect of being confronted by the U.S troops that
would be ordered to get him and his men. 500 to 600 of his
followers joined the surrender.
• Ola turned state witness against those who had
joined him.
• Ola was given thirsty yeas of prison for turning
state witness.
• SAMAR AND LEYTE – presented
a serious challenge to the
American Colony
popular image of liberators
and benefactors of the poor
–reported that large portion of
samarenos left their homes to
join the bands (rebels).
William H. Carter
JULY 1904
• Tauiran affair -100 houses
were burned, 21 people
were killed
• Cantaguic affair–the police
lieutenant of the town and
others were killed
• Juliano Caducoy – (leader
of the raiders) led the killing
of the local teniente on
command and the burning
of american flag
• Similar outbreaks in the
island of Negros, Panay,
Cebu, Leyte
• Vice Gov. Henry C. Ide
-ordered Gov. George Curry
of Samar to persecute all
the people who joined the
“pulahan movement”
• Pulahanes – name given to
the insurrectos
• March 24, 1906 – Taylor and
Curry had an agreement
with the pulahanes to
• Nasario Aguilar – (leader of
pulahanes)attacked the
constabulary garrison
• Jaime de Veyra – (governor of Leyte) is the most obnoxious
anti-american leader in the archipelago
• 1907 – American declaration of peace
• William Howard Taft - reported that a group
of “outlaws” entered the town of Surigao
• and attacked the Constabulary under Capt.
Clark. The captain was killed and the
• Mr. Luther S. Kelly – (provincial treasurer and
indian scout of yellow stone) held the
attackers while waiting for reinforcement
• Murderers of Capt. Clark were captured and
• Pres. Theodore Roosevelt commended Kelly
for his heroic deed
• Misamis (May 1903)- the resistance is unlike in
Surigao because real insurrectos were part of
the resistance.
Panglima Hassan
•siit- a secret landing of Wood’s campaign
against Hassan.
•Col. Hugh W. Scott- captured Hassan
September 22, 1853 – April 30, 1934
• Jolo- is where Hassan was to be taken for
imprisonment when he was captured.
• Moro-patient intelligence
-brought confirmed reports of Hassan’s
location in the crater of Bud Bagsak.
• Krises and Barungs- weapons used
A Malay or Indonesian dagger with
a wavy blade.
known as kalis in the southern Philippines
a thick, leaf-shaped,
single-edged blade
sword. It is a
weapon used
by Islamic tribes in
the Southern
• 26- Bullet wounds sustained in Hassan’s
• Renegade Pala- followed the Panglima’s
exploits after Hassan’s death
-Authorities had been
looking for him after a
series of murderous
robberies associated with
him in Borneo.
-Organized his own rebel
band and defied American
rule from 1905-1906.
They were responsible for making the 1st
American decade in Sulu:
• Datu Usap
• Paruka Utik
• Salip Masdal
• Maharaja Untung
• Jikiri
• Nakib Amir
• Most significant emergence of armed conflicts:
-Bud Bagsak Affair in 1913
-Jikiri Threat in 1909
Bud Dajo
-located in the northern series of mountain
• To confront the Muslims was a relatively small
contingent of American troops composed of
65 men from the 6th Infantry, 65 men from the
4th Cavalry, and 130 soldiers from the 28th
Mountain Battery.
• Col. Hugh W. Scott of Zamboanga
Constabulary and Captain John White
were ordered to procedd to Jolo with 50
• Prominent leaders of Patikul that were tapped
as peace emissaries:
-Datu Kalbi
-Datu Julkanain
-Panglima Bandahala
• The battle began on March 5, 1906 and lasted
up to the morning of March 8.
• Colonel Duncan- was placed in command of
the entire operation during the battle.
• April 16, 1906- Wood
held his last conciliatory
conference with the
datus and local leaders
before turning over the
governorship of the
Moro Province to Gen.
Tasker H. Bliss.
Jikiri, 1907
• Jikiri– a native of jolo began his “piratical” attacks on trading
vessels or villages early in the american period but he
became notorious and known to media about 1907.
• 1907-he had established a staging point in cabingaan island
between the jolo and siasi island groups.
• Jikiri’s notoriety was based not only on the killings of victims
and the carting away of anything of value but also on his
obsession to get beautiful women for his booty.
• Jikiri’s obsession for beautiful maidens to some psychological
problems caused or heightened by ugly facial features
nature had given him since birth.
• After long and tendious pursuit, reliable intelligence data
were gathered by julius shuck’s people on the hideout of jikiri
at patian island.
• Jikiri was finally killed after a hand to hand combat
liquidated the rest of his band.
• With the death of jikiri’s, an irritating era of “piracy” came to
an end and once again american rule had proven its
successful campaign against recalcitrants in sulu.
• 1909-marked the beginning of political change from the
tasker bliss to the john pershing approach to the
government or the affairs of the moro province.
• Gen pershing assumed the governorship of the moro
province and started a vigorous “disarmament campaign”in
• The result was the revival of resistance which found tangible
expression in the “battle of bud bagsak”
Bud bagsak, 1913
• June 1912- loose firearms had been collected in jolo, except in
lati and luuk where the opposition to disarmament was strong.
• Panglima indanan- a powerful leader was arrested and
disarmed, together with his aides and sons.
• This was accompanied by the violent operations of the scouts
in eastern part of the jolo, especially in lati where the sabilallah
attacks on american troops became the source of colonial
• The number of defiant rebels was about 6000 to 10000, which
include 10% combatants and warriors.
• It appeared that the whole lati community was defiant against
american rule under circumstances where the killings of non
combatants was a grim reality.
• The americans authorities appealed for non combatants and
combatants to return to their abondoned farms and homes.
• The non combatants were persuaded to avoid
conflict and only the warriors remained determined
to fight the colonial forces. Part of the compromise
was the withdrawal of american troops from jolo
• American intention was not to resort to final use of
arms but rather to persuade them to surrender their
fire arms for the sake of peace.
• American strategy was to separate the noncombatants from the combatants. When this was
achieved, pershing ordered immediate troop
movements to bagsak which was reached by june
11, 1913.
• The bud bagsak affair ended with pax americana
dawning in sulu as over 500 rifles were gathered from
the island.
• DATU ALI Known as Raja Buayan, he was the ruler of the
Upper Valley of Cotobato and was the acknowledged
leader of the Maguindanaos in the 1900s.
• He led the revolt against the American government from
1903 to 1906, first fighting the enemy in open battle, and
then using guerrilla warfare.
• His brother Djimbagan was captured at fort Serenaya and
then used as hostage to force him to surrender, but he did
not yield. He continued to fight until October, when in the
Battle of Simpetan, he and most of his men were killed. In
another battle later that month, three of his sons were also
• DATU ALAMADA He continued Datu Ali's resistance
to American rule in Cotobato after Ali's death in
• With 300 men, he led attacks on American colonial
forces in Buldon and Upper Cotobato, and
commanded the loyal support of thousands of
• His influence was so strong that the Americans
thought of hiring to destroy him. He refused to
surrender to the Americans preferring to surrender
to a Filipino official in 1913.
Highlander Relations
• The indigenous peoples of the Philippines consist
of a large number of indigenous ethnic groups
living in the country. They are the descendants of
the original inhabitants of the Philippineswho have
managed to resist centuries of Spanish and United
States colonization and in the process have
retained their customs and traditions.
• In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal
groups constituted approximately 3% of the population. The
upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin like other
lowland Filipinos, although they did not have contact with
the outside world. They displayed a variety of social
organization, cultural expression and artistic skills. They
showed a high degree of creativity, usually employed to
embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, baskets, clothing,
weapons and spoons. These groups ranged from
various Igorot tribes, a group that includes the Bontoc, Ibaloi,
Ifugao, Isneg, Kalinga, Kankana-ey and Tinguian, who built
the Rice Terraces. They also covered a wide spectrum in
terms of their integration and acculturation with lowland
Christian and Muslim Filipinos. Native groups such as
the Bukidnon in Mindanao, had intermarried with lowlanders
for almost a century. Other groups such as the Kalinga in
Luzon have remained isolated from lowland influence.
• There were several indigenous groups living in the Cordillera
Central of Luzon in 1990. At one time it was employed by
lowland Filipinos in a pejorative sense, but in recent years it
came to be used with pride by native groups in the
mountain region as a positive expression of their ethnic
identity. The Ifugaos of Ifugao Province, the Bontocs,
Kalinga, Tinguian, the Kankana-ey and Ibaloiwere all farmers
who constructed the rice terraces for many centuries.
• Other mountain peoples of Luzon are the Isnegs of northern
Kalinga-Apayao Province, the Gaddangs of the border
between Kalinga-Apayao, and Isabela provinces and
the Ilongots of Nueva Vizcaya Province and Caraballo
Mountains all developed hunting and gathering, farming
cultivation and headhunting. Other indigenous people such
as the Negritos formerly dominated the highlands
throughout the islands for thousands of years, but have been
reduced to a small population, living in widely scattered
locations, primarily along the eastern ranges of the
• In the southern Philippines, upland and lowland tribal groups
were concentrated on Mindanao and western Visayas,
although there are several indigenous groups such as
the Mangyan living inMindoro. Among the most important
groups found on Mindanao are collectively called
the Lumad, and includes the Manobo, Bukidnon of Bukidnon
Province, Bagobo, Mandaya, and Mansaka, who inhabited
the mountains bordering the Davao Gulf; the Subanon of
upland areas in the Zamboanga; the Mamanua in the
Agusan-Surigao border region; the Bilaan, Tiruray and Tboli in the region of the Cotabato province,
and the Samal and Bajau in the Sulu Archipelago. The tribal
groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden
figures, baskets, weaving, pottery and weapons.
Back to traditions
• The Philippines has a tremendous number and
variety of customs, traditions, fragments of old
beliefs, fiestas, styles of dress both among the
lowland Philippine people and the many tribal
groupings. Here is a list of common Filipino
Homeowner throws coins on
housewarming day to bring
• Count the steps of the house;
make sure it's not 13. This is
"bilang Hudas" and it's bad luck.
• Make sure the master bedroom
is constructed so that it faces
the east or has a window facing
that direction.
• Open the east window in the
morning to let God's grace in.
• Place some coins in the
foundation of the cornerstone;
or keep them below the master
bedroom. However, don't put
them by the doorstep or wealth
will go away.
• Avoid doors that look like
thorough fares.
• * When moving into a new
home, see to it that rice is
brought in first.
• * Have your home blessed for
safety and good fortune.
• * Enthrone a statue of Christ the
King; Sacred Heart of Jesus, and
Immaculate Heart of Mary or
have the statue of the Infant
Jesus in the house. Make sure
they face the door to greet your
• * Toss coins on house warming
day for good luck.
• * Friends coming to a new
home must enter through the
front doors.
• Lovers must not give rosary or
necklace to each other, if it
breaks, the relationship might
also get broken
• * The bride or groom whose
candle lasts longer will have a
longer life to live.
• * Bride: When the priest gives
the signal "stand up or kneel
down", make sure, you make
the first move. This is so the
husband does not completely
rule over you.
• * Never try on your wedding
gown; it's a sign that the
wedding may be cancelled.
• * The Bride and groom shouldn't
be traveling to distant places
before the wedding; they are
accident prone at this time.
• "Sukob sa taon" (within same
calendar year) marriages
among brothers and sisters must
be avoided. There will always
be life competitions between
the two couples.
• * Don't ever turn down any offer
to sponsor a baptismal,
confirmation or wedding. It's a
• * Don't mend or hem clothes
while they are on your body if
you don't want to bear a child
without an anus.
• * If a pregnant woman's
stomach is rounded, she is likely
to have a girl; if it's pointed,
she's likely to have a boy.
Moles & other beliefs:
• A birth mark around the eye
means you are appealing to
Other Beliefs:
• * A birth mark on the chest
means you are a true lover.
• * Don't sweep the ground at
dusk; the Virgin Mary is taking a
walk and might catch the dust
in her eyes.
• * If someone has a mole on the
sole of the foot, it means that
person loves to walk all the time.
• * If someone has a mole on his
back, it means that the person
wants to lie around and be
plain lazy.
• * A mole on the eyebrows
means good luck in business.
• * A mole on the palm means
good luck.
• * Never discard dirty, old
clothes; wash them first.
• * It's a bad luck to meet a black
cat on a Friday morning.
• * Breaking a mirror or glass is a
bad omen.
• * Having a disabled or
handicapped child is your luck;
caring for the child will give you
more fortune.
• * When you bit your lip/tongue,
it means you're the subject of a
Subanun Affair 1909
• On Nov. 1, 1909, Subanuns abandoned their homes & farms to head
toward Mt. Dapeok & Malindang. This is because of the “call of the two
boy prophets” who told them that the end of the world is coming.
• The authorities were alarmed as it might be a trick by the Moros to
deprive Subanuns of their valuables and harvest.
• On Nov. 28, 1909, Captain Elarth together with his troops went to
Dapeok in an attempt to stop the movement.
• After several talks with the leaders of the group, the troops positioned
nearby to persuade the people to abandon their activities.
• But the Moros and Visayans started to agitate the Subanuns which
caused thousands of them to attack the troops.
• 6 constabulary, 1 policeman, & 4 cargadores were killed during the
fight. The troops decided to withdrew and went back to their camps to
avoid another attack.
Literature of Resistance
• A way or form of expressing resistance to the colonial government
through literature.
• Sedition Act of 1902
• A law that punishes anyone who makes any form of agitation or
sedition through writing and drama plays.
• Despite this Act of 1902, many writers still expressed resistance
through literature.
• Tagalog writers also expressed resistance through zarzuela which
was a popular form of entertainment during the Spanish period.
• Dramas were also effective during the American colonialism.
• The literature of resistance was not only limited to dramatists and
playwrights. Newsmen and journalists were also active in
articulating the value of independence and the need for
• The successful suppression of the various
revolutionary outbreaks or disturbance following
the formal end of the Filipino-American War.
PHASE 1899-1913
• The 1899, the Schurmann Comission, the first
significant body created by President Mckinley,
with Jacob Schurman, president of Cornell
University. Initiated the non-military approach of
American colonialism and succeeded.
• *A notable example of this readiness of the Filipino elite to
collaborate was the case of the Negritos Island. This had
early witnessed as early as 1898.
• *Among the Negros elite who eventually became stalwart
supporters of the American rule were Juan Araneta, Jose
Lazuriaga,Leondro Locsin,Demetrio Larena, and Agustin
• *November 1898, they organized theirselves into a
provisional government.
• *February 1899, a committee of landowners from Negros
were welcomed by the military government under General
E. Otis.
• On March 1,1899 he created
the Visayan Military district with
General James F. Smith as of
Governor of Negros.
• The Shurman Comission
organized municipal
governements, starting in
Baliwag, Bulacan.
• *The Negrense Provincial Junta
became its useful all in the
American Countermeasures
against the Malolos
• *In February 1899, the process of
pacification was focused on the
local government.
• *Represented in Negros by
Aguinaldo-appointed emissaries
: Quintin Salas, and Zoilo
• *And their masses led by their
charismatic leader “Papa Islo”
or Dionesio Magbuela in real
Attempts oby Aguinaldo to win the
elite failed and the open conflict
between the colonial forces and
Malolos government erupted.
• *Penetration of towns by
American “peace feelers and
• *1901 the American colonial
government could disclose the
pacification of the islands and
the establishment of the civil
government. Except in the
Muslim South where civil rule
would not be formed until the
abolition of the militarygoverned Moro Province in
• Highly Centralized Government those few
occupying the top Executive, Legislative, and
Judicial exercised vast powers and influence in
national affairs
• The involvement of the Filipino elite was
represented by those who are appointed as
members of Philippine Comission.
• Philippines had a highly centralized government
composed of top executive, legislative, and
judicial positions.
• Filipino elites like Gregorio Araneta and Benito
Legarda were appointed as members of the Phil.
• Cayetano Arellano, lawyer, professor of law in UST
was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme
• American gov’t appointed only the Filipino Elites
to occupy the position in the gov’t because of
their readiness to accept colonialism
• Americans were also successful in coopting the
ruling elite at the start of American rule. In the
tribal communities, American teachers and
missionaries opened the path to an understanding
of American benevolent policy through schools,
religious missions, and especially, medical work.
- It was a part of the American strategy to make the
local datus and leaders to promote the need for
social services.
- The building of schools was undertaken with
American supervision of native workers using
existing materials. It was illustrated by Datu
Santago of Cotabato and his men.
- The same was true of the campaign against
unsanitary living conditions and diseases that
frequently led to epidemics like cholera,
dysentery, smallpox and malaria
- Local leaders, with only a few exceptions, helped
by setting personal examples of hygiene and
proper sanitation
- Education of children was very much emphasized,
especially those of the ruling class.
- The schools of the Subanuns, the Tausugs in Sulu,
and even a proposed Datu School in Zamboanga
were to prepare ruling for active involevment in
their own local areas.
- The critical role of American teachers was
underlined by the Governor of the Moro Province,
Brig. Gen. John J. Pershing. He remarked: “ The
school system depends for its success entirely
upon the American teachers, and although Filipino
teachers do excellent work under proper
supervision, educational direction must for some
time remain in the hands of the American
- One of the most effective instruments of American
educational politics was Dr. Najeeb M. Saleeby, a
medical practitioner turned educator.
Dr. Najeeb M. Saleeby
- He is a Christian Arab.
- With education obtained from the American
University in Beirut and a medical degree from
New York’s Bellevue Medical School, gave him the
kind of advantage to deal with the education of
the Muslims in the Molo Province.
- His knowledge of Arabic and Islam provided him
with a personal touch that enabled him to win a
lot of friends among the Muslim leaders, including
those that were opposed to American rule like
Datu Ali of Cotabato, the royalties of Cebu, and
the datus of Lanao
• His initial work as medical surgeon in Malabag,
Lanao provided opportunities to win the Ilanuns, a
Muslim sub-ethnic group.
• - His appointment as School Superintendent for the
District of Mindanao and Jolo on June 1, 1903,
after a brief assignment as Assistant Chief of the
Bureau of educational objectives in the Moro
In The Cordilleras
•Cordilleras- where Americans were
confronted by many problems of the FilipinoAmerican War which had brought retreating
forces of 200 Filipinos under Aguinaldo to the
traditionally hostile Ifugao country.
• Sagbangan and Hapao- two conflict Ifugao
•Humiwat- leader of an Ifugao band that
beheaded an American soldier,
surrendered and offered his cooperation
in the American effort to establish a
presence in the Cordilleras.
• Dr. David P. Barrows- head of the Bureau of
Non-Christian Tribes.
• Secretary of the Interior Worcester- had gotten
Dominga Atandada of Dullayan and Rafael
Baluyunoan to accept American rule.
• 92 chiefs and headmen of the Ifugao country
answered the American call for a conference
to organize a government in the Ifugao area.
• Nagacaran Ifugaos- they were the only ones
who resisted the offer and boycotted the
• The pacification efforts of the Americans found
very encouraging prospects in the pioneering
activities of former military men like Samuel
Kane and Al Hora whose business explorations
and adventures provided later American
officers and officials insights into Ifugao
character and psychology.
• Capt. Lewis Patstone and Lt. Levi Case- army
officers who contributed a lot in preparing the
Ifugaos for the eventual establishment of
American political structures in the area,
integrating not only the Ifugaos but also the
other Igorots into the Constabulary as soldiers
and into the local government as presidentes
(mayors) or cabecillas.
• Lt. Jeff D. Gallman- by the beginning of 1906,
his entry into Ifugao country saw the beginning
of an era of peace among the Ifugaos and
American rule set pace and patterns for the
rest of the Cordilleras.
Treaty Traps
• Bates Treaty- signed by Sultan Jamalul Kiram
and Gen. John C. Bates on August 20, 1899.
-Guaranteed peace between the Americans
and Muslims in Sulu.
-The Tausug version of this treaty clearly
substantiates this view. While the English version
clearly provides for the establishment of
American rule in Sulu and the acceptance of
American sovereignty by the Sultan and the
• English version of the treaty- allowed the
Americans to interfere even in the resolution of
disputes concerning matters related to slavery,
taxes, peace and order, trade, commerce,
foreign relations, except in the matters
pertaining to religious practices and customs.
• The conflict between the Sulu people and the
American authorities creates an adverse
situation that presaged the unilateral
obligation of the treaty in March 1904 by the
colonial government as expressed through
Governor-General William Howard Taft and
Moro Province Governor Leonard Wood.
• Datu Kalbi and Datu Julkanain- signed the
document, the Patikul political leadership
which had been added to those who
supported American rule.
• Maimbung- the Sultanate’s political center
-the flourishing trading point in the
southern part of Jolo.
• Patikul- center of activities in the northern part
• Lanao and Cotabato- where Moro armed
disturbances were effectively suppressed.
- where the Americans demonstrated
military technology
• Hassan Revolt- was partly attributed by the
Americans to the encouragement given by
the Sultan.
• The kiram –carpenter agreement (march 22, 1915)-the
agreement divested the sultan of all his political power and
prerogative. He was only allowed to exercise the rights and
duties of a spiritual leader.
• The agreement created problems for the would be
difficult to truly exercise spiritual influnce without the political
authority the sultan previously enjoyed.
• “note” preliminary to the main part of agreement
These are:
• Recognition of the independent sovereignty of the sultanate
prior to american occupation
• The recognition of the partial exercise of sovereignty of the
sultanate by spain during the latter part of the spanish
occupation of the philippines but only in relation to foreign
affairs and to a lesser degree, ony on the port of jolo and
four other points occupied by “spanish military garrisons”
• The recognition ofa partial but de facto temporal
sovereignty of the united states under the bates treaty,
whose provisions in article ix allowed the united states to
deal with cases of crimes and offenses “committed by
moros against moros”.
• There is, therefore, no doubt that with
comprehensive provisions of the agreement, the
beginning of the end sultanate was initiated, at
the same time also the gradual rise of the filipino
power over the moros would become a reality in
subsequent political developments in moroland.
• Increase in filipino participation
• Political change in the united states
• 1912-the poltical climate in the us had changed
not only was a new president coming in woodrow
wilson but a new political orientation was
expected to emerge from the change to
democratic rule.
• The republican administration had been associated with the
acquisition overseas colonies for the business or economic
interest of american society.
• The establishment of american colonies, including the
philippines, was part of the expansionist inertia that came
from the vigorous, westward expansion of the american
colonist the vast frontiers of indian territories looking for new
opportunites and lands until the pacific coast of california
was reached.
• The need for raw materials and markets added an econimic
dimension to american territorial expansion just as the
influence of the great comission brought in the religious
vision of the fundamentalist of america to see the gospel
message preached to the “regions beyond”.
Effects on Colony
• This was the start of the Democratic party administration after
the Republican defeat.
• In 1913, Francis Burton Harrison became the first Democratic
Governor –General for the Philippines. American policies were
• In the executive branch, there was a change from an
American to a Filipino majority in the Philippine Commission in
1913 and in the Council of State and the Board of Control in
• The Council of State was the advisory body of the Chief
Executive while the Board of Control regulated government
participation in business corporations and firms.
• By 1913, the Civil service had become 70% Filipino. By the end
of Harrison’s term in 1921, it had only about 6% Americans
• Rapid Filipinization of the government was also
evident in the legislative branch of the government.
• Before 1916, legislation was still under dominant
control of the Americans. Only the Philippine
Assembly, which was cleared in 1907, was Filipino.
• In 1916, the Jones Law was passed, and it was only
during this time that the legislative power in the
islands was given to the Filipinos. Only the veto
power of the Chief Executive in the presidential
system remained as the source of American control
over legislation.
• Under the Jones Law, a bicameral legislature was created. It is
composed of a 24-member Senate as the upper house and a House of
Representatives as the house chamber. All the members of the
legislature were elected except the two senators from the non-Christian
sector, who were appointed by the governor general
• The Filipinos’ role in local administration from provincial to municipal level
was strengthened.
• The American influence in the position of provincial treasurer was held by
the Americans.
• Except for the general power of supervision,the municipal government
was under Filipino control.
• In 1899, The Supreme Court was created wherein Filipinos had substancial
participation in the judiciary.
• In 1901, Cayetano Arellano became Chief Justice. The lower courts had
both American and Filipino judges, with increasingly growing number of
Filipino judges.
Limits to Filipinization
Restraints of Elitism
• Filipinization involved only the upper crust of Filipino
society, those who belonged to the national and local
• Filipino members of the Philippine Commission were from
the landlord and capitalist families, so were those in the
choice positions in the Civil Service. Even the municipal
level of the government was manned by elective
officials who came from the local elite. Under the law,
those who could run for office must be able to read and
write, and must be property owners, or have been
government employees during the Spanish period. So
the election law already limited participation to the elite.
• The Americans saw the natural inclination of the
elite to the colonial power. The interest of the elite
were compatible with those of colonialism and the
Americans were ready to give them significant
share of power, wealth, and status in the islands.
Aside from that, their rights to new access to
external power was recognized. Therefore, a lot of
practical advantages were given to the elite from
the American colonial government compared to
the almost nil offerings under Spanish rule.
• That had lead to the Filipino elite’s cooperation and
loyalty to the United States.
• That was also the basis of American
readiness to give more and more to Filipinos
the administration of the bureaucracy
except the highest executive post in the
islands, the position of Secretary of Public
Instruction, and The National Treasury, The
BIR, Bureau of Customs and the local
• Thus Filipinization, as implemented by the
Democratic administration, fitted into overall
scheme of colonial rule.
Economic Limitation
The dilemma of Filipino leadership was best seen in the economic
relations with the United States during the Harrison era (1913-1920).
Before this period, the economic policy of the United States was
anchored entirely on the ambiguities of the Paris Treaty of 1898 and
later, on the “free trade” provisions of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff act
of 1909. Until 1909, American economic interests would be
affected by the most-favored-nation treatment given to Spain for a
period of ten years under the Treaty of Paris, thus preventing the
enactment of any trade policy favorable to American economic
interests. The end of the ten-year privilege in 1909 gave the United
Stated the first opportunity to initiate what became popularly
known as “Free Trade”. This was a unique kind of relation because
the exercise of freedom by the United States and the Philippines
was not equal. The freedom of Filipino interests was limited by a
quota system while that of American interests was absolutely free.
The limitation to Filipino economic interests involved the volume
and kind of export, while no similar restriction was placed on
American interests
• Consequently, the Philippines became an exclusive American market
with American goods literally moving into the colony without limitation.
But Philippine exports to the American market were governed by
quotas and limited only to raw materials needed by American
business. Thus, as relations of economic dependency became the
pattern of Philippine relations with the United States, conversely,
American control of the Philippine economy, and consequently,
Philippine leadership, was firmly established by the time the
Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act was enacted in 1913 abolishing the
quotas on Philippine exports
• There was, therefore, “free trade” literally between the Philippines
and the US during Harrison’s term and beyond until 1943 when
quotas were reimposed by the Tydings-McDuffie Law. It was during
this liberal trade policy that the partnership between Filipino and
American economic interests was strengthened by the
dependence of Filipino landowning class on lucrative American
markets for their agricultural exports. This economic dependence
would continue to be reinforced through the years and the role of
the Filipino elite would also be inextricably tied with the
preservation of American rights and privileges not only in the
economic area but also the political, social, and cultural fields.
Tradition Vs. Modernism
• The establishment of American liberal democracy as the
new pattern of the Filipino way of life would bring about the
confrontation between Filipino traditional ways and the new
system. This new system would create a dichotomy of
systems in which democratic form & a traditional essence
were welded to create “democracy Filipino style”
• The Filipino elite were no longer viewed as “collaborators”
but “partners” in the new democratic system.
• The new democratic system involves: free education, health,
& sanitation, public works & transportation, various
employment opportunities, and ready markets for
agriculture products.
Democracy Filipino Style
• Before the end of Harrison’s term, the American colonial noticed
that the essence of democracy had yet to be developed due to
the continuous manifestation of the Filipino values in the actual
operation of the new democracy. Which they considered as
counterproductive to the new democracy.
• The Americans failed to see is that the Filipinos saw no
contradiction between the new democratic institutions and
traditional practices.
• Ritual kinship such as pakikisama, utan na loob, and other values
preserved harmony in the native society.
• Charges of Filipino incompetence in the bureaucracy, graft and
corruption, and the unpreparedness of the Filipinos for
independence became the basis of criticism against the
administration of Gov. Francis Burton Harrison.
• Despite this criticisms the Filipinos considered his term the best
because it was a demonstration of what trust could do to FilipinoAmerican relations.
Wood-Forbes Mission:
• Wood–Forbes Mission, (1921), fact-finding commission sent
to the Philippines by newly elected U.S. president Warren
Harding in March 1921, which concluded that Filipinos were
not yet ready for independence from the United States.
• In 1913 Woodrow Wilson had appointed the liberal Francis
B. Harrison as governor general of the Philippines. Harrison
was convinced that the best method of preparing Filipinos
for independence was to give them as wide a latitude as
possible in managing their internal affairs. Passage of the
Jones Act in 1916, which announced the U.S. intention of
granting Philippine independence, encouraged Harrison in
his policy of replacing Americans in the Philippine civil
service with Filipinos.
• Republicans in the United States argued that Harrison’s
policy of Filipinization was premature and that the takeover
of jobs by Filipinos resulted only in a marked deterioration of
services. To support this position, Harding sent out
Gen. Leonard Wood and W. Cameron Forbes. The two
reported in October 1921 that the islands were not prepared
for independence and that many educated Filipinos wished
to remain under American tutelage.
• News of the Wood–Forbes report was received with anger in
the Philippines. Wood, who served as governor general for
the next six years, though an honest and efficient
administrator, remained highly unpopular with Filipinos.
WOOD (1921-1912)
• The choice of Leonard Wood as a GovernerGeneral demonstrate that the President Harding
accepted the Wood-Forbes Mission’s
recommendations as to Philippine policy.
• *The administration of Governer Wood was
marked by vigourous political agitation- the most
intense Philippine-American relations since the
end of the Filipino-American War.
• *He took the position that the Jones Law- organic
act operating in the Philippines. Could not be
modified except by action of the US Congress
• JULY 17, 1923 – Gov. Wood’s filipino cabinet
members resigned, due to “cabinet crisis”
• Filipinos hated Gov. Wood, they regarded him an
enemy of Philippine autonomy and
• 1922 –Quezon was having trouble in assuring his
ascendancy among his followers and political
rivals within the Nacionalista Party.
• Quezon reconciled with Osmena’s nationalistas
inorder to dominate the legislature. A move which
his followers considered an outrageous betrayal of
people’s trust
• Gov. Wood got himself caught in the web of
filipino partisan politics combined with the highly
emotional issue of independence
The Conley Case & Cabinet Crisis
• Wood’s action on a police matter known as the
Conley Case provided Quezon with an issue, and
he used it to bring on the “Cabinet Crisis”.
• By engineering this crisis, Quezon succeeded in
electrifying an electorate which promptly
supported the Quezon-Osmena coalition.
• Conley case is a controversy over charges of
misconduct in office filed against an American
named Ray Conley who was the chief of the vice
squad of the Secret Service branch of the Manila
Police Dept.
The Veto Power of
Governor Wood
• In the eyes of the Filipino leaders, was being
excessively exercised, “on the most flimsy
• Showed the following: From October 1923 to
February 1924, the Sixth Philippine Legislature
passed 217 bills and concurrent resolutions, out of
which 46 were vetoed.
• In the first session of the Seventh Legislature in
1925, 24 out of 72 bills were vetoed, and in the
second session in 1926, the Legislature passed 122
bills, out of which 44 were vetoed.
• Harrison only vetoed 5 measures in 7 years in
- The Governor did not only liberally his power to veto
bills passed by the Legislature, but he even went to
the extend of altering measures already passed by
the Legislature, and then affixing his signature after
the alteration made.
- The Filipino leaders were also annoyed that Wood
should veto bills of local interest and insisted that
before the Governor-General acted unfavorably on
any bill, their views must first be heard.
- Wood explained that they are due to serious defects
or unconstitutional provisions. This unsatisfactory
condition was largely due to the rushing through a
large number of bills during the last hours of session,
without opportunity being given for their careful
- Wood was convinced that the Filipino leaders
deliberately showered him with impracticable
legislation to draw his vetoes and thus give him fresh
opportunity to charge him with “despotism”
The Board of Control Controversy
• Wood was convinced that the Board was illegal
because the Governor-General occupied a minority
position in it, and so he could never get the consent of
the two Filipino members(the Senate President and the
House Speaker) to get the government out of business.
• Two fundamental reasons advanced by Wood for
getting the government out of business: first, the
Philippine treasury needed the money invested in the
business enterprises to spend it for the greater benefit of
the public; second, the governments were not qualified,
in any nation of the world, to conduct business or
engage in any industries which would compete with
private initiative
Leonard Wood: in Retrospect
• Filipino politicos- led by Quezon openly
challenging the authority of the American
representative in Manila.
• Harrison-any Governor-General who was
sent to the Phil. After him would have
found the Filipino leaders particularly
difficult to handle, unless they went as far
as he did in allowing the Filipinos a generous
share in the direction of their affairs.
• 1923- Wood governed the Philippines
without any serious disruptions to
governmental functions.
The administration of henry l. Stimson:
cooperation restored
• The administration of henry l. Stimson: cooperation restored
• Henry l. Stimson –was inaugurated governor-general of the
philippines on march 1, 1928.
• He seemed better able to understand the uses of power in
dealing with dependent people.
• He was firm in asserting his rights as chief executive.
• Expressing his view that only that would “save the islands
from the danger of immediate independence”.
• He sympathized with the filipino demand for more
• Stimson had only one year in the philippines this year was
generally characterized by very cordial relations between
the filpinos and american elements in government and
• The first complete cabinet since july 1923 was named.
• Stimson also established a “new era” for the philippines by a
change of emphasis as to the prerequisites for
• At the end of his year’s experience in the philippines stimson
was pleased at the “general mental change”.
• He had discerned among the filipino leaders who had
begun to consider the “economic foundations of their
political problems”.
• The most significant achivement of stimson’s year in the
philippines was “the cessation of the period of acrimonious
deadlock” and friendly feelings between the american
authority and filipino leadership
• He was able to accomplish because he understoof what
was necessary in order that the sensitive filipinos would not
be “provoked into fanatical outbursts”

american colony