The Protestant Reformation

The Protestant Reformation
Mrs. Tucker
Victor Valley High School
Main Points
• The social and religious
origins of the Reformation.
• Martin Luther’s role in the
German Reformation.
• The course of the
Reformation in
Switzerland, France, and
• The Catholic CounterReformation’s
• The social impact of the
Reformation in western and
central Europe
The Spread of the Printing Press
Society and Religion
The Protestant Reformation grew out of concerns
about matters of faith, of course, but it also had
roots in political, social, and economic concerns
that were pervasive in Europe.
The emergence of centralizing national
governments was challenging local custom and
authority through much of Europe; in Germany
and Switzerland, the free imperial cities were
important early hotbeds of Protestantism.
Often, groups (such as guilds) or regions in which
people felt pushed around by authority figures
were particularly receptive to Protestantism.
Lay people were gaining power to criticize, and
attempt to reform, the church, both because lay
people were gaining cultural authority in general
and because the church's crises had cost it so
much credibility.
The benefice system, the sale of indulgences, and
the clergy's immunities of place and of person had
fed secular grievances against the church.
Why the German
The Holy
16th Century
Martin Luther
Martin Luther, like many other Germans, was
concerned about the church's sale of
indulgences and other financial and political
Luther also had profound misgivings about
the gap between human sinfulness and the
righteousness required for salvation.
An ordained priest with a doctorate in
theology, he developed the doctrine of
justification by faith alone, which offers
salvation to believers in Christ.
In 1517, Luther posted 95 theses against
indulgence to the door of a church in
Wittenberg, thereby sparking the
In the following years, Luther developed and
publicized his theology; he was
excommunicated in 1521.
German humanists, peasants, and others
supported Luther and his ideas, though in
the peasant revolt of 1524-1525 Luther
urged princes to suppress the peasants.
The Spread of Lutheranism
The Peasant Revolt
In Switzerland, France, and elsewhere in
Europe, variations of Protestantism
In the 1520s, Ulrich Zwingli orchestrated the
Swiss Reformation, from his post as the
people's priest in the main church of Zurich.
Zwingli believed a literal reading of Scripture
should guide Christian beliefs and practices.
More radical groups emerged, including
Anabaptists, who believed baptism should
only be performed on adults, who were
capable of choosing their religion.
John Calvin and his followers wanted to
transform society morally, starting in Geneva
in 1540.
In the second half of the 16th century,
Calvinism displaces Lutheranism as Europe's
dominant form of Protestantism.
Spread of Calvinism
Spread of Protestant Churches
in 16th Century - France
• Between 1530 and 1552,
emperor Charles V made
repeated attempts to persuade or
force Protestants to revert to
• The 1555 Peace of Augsburg
formalized Lutheranism's official
status in the empire.
• Lutheranism also became the
official state religion in Denmark
and Sweden.
• Calvinists and Anabaptists,
among others, were still excluded
from official recognition
throughout Europe.
Spread of Anabaptists
King Henry VIII's messy marital history had
dramatic consequences for England's
religion: because Henry wanted to marry
Anne Boleyn, and because Pope Clement VII
would (and could!) not annul Henry's
marriage to Catherine of Aragon, Parliament
decreed that the king, not the pope, was the
"supreme head in earth of the Church of
Ironically, by the 1530s, many of Henry's
subjects were far more sympathetic to
Protestantism than the king himself was;
Henry's Church of England differed little from
the Catholic church.
Only under the reign of his son, Edward VI,
was Protestantism really instituted in
And the change in state religion did not help
Henry's personal life; he married six times
before he died in 1547.
Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Anne Boleyn and Jane Seymour
Anne of Cleves and Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr and Thomas Seymour
Family of Henry VIII – Allegory of Tudor
Edward VI and Lady Jane Grey
Mary I and Elizabeth I
Thomas More and Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Cranmer and John Fisher
Catholic Reform
Protestants were not the only critics of the
Catholic church.
Although the popes resisted reform, many
new, reform-oriented orders were
established in the 16th century.
Ignatius of Loyola founded what became one
of the most significant of these orders, the
Jesuits, who stressed a powerful
combination of discipline and traditional
Between 1545 and 1563 -- with frequent
interruptions for wars, plagues, papal
successions, and other events – a council of
the church met at Trent to reassert Catholic
As a result of the Council of Trent, internal
church discipline was reformed, but doctrine
became if anything even more strongly
traditional and Scholastic in orientation.
Improvements in the education and behavior
of local clergy helped revive parish life.
Social Significance
While the Reformation was politically
conservative, it revolutionized religious
practice and institutions in part of Europe.
In cities that became Protestant, many
aspects of everyday life were transformed.
The numbers of clergy in Protestant cities
declined by two-thirds, at least one-third of
all churches were closed, there were onethird fewer religious holidays, and most
cloisters were closed.
Some changes did not endure: more than
half the original converts to Protestantism
returned to the Catholic church by the end of
the 16th century.
Protestants and the Counter-Reformation
both altered education.
Protestant reformers helped disseminate
humanist learning and culture.
The ideal of the companionate marriage and
other Protestant views helped improve,
though only slightly, the status of women.
Family Life
Marriage occurred at a later age (mid- to
late-twenties for men, early to mid-twenties
for women) in the 16th-18th centuries than
it had previously in Europe and England.
One reason for this shift was that, in a time
of population growth, it took couples longer
to accumulate the capital needed to raise a
Parents were generally involved in arranging
their children's marriages, though the
couple's own wishes also carried significant
Generally, two to four children survived to
adulthood in the European nuclear family.
Birth control was not very effective; wetnursing was controversial.
Though they sometimes exhibited it in ways
that may seem strange to us, early modern
parents almost certainly loved their children,
and probably also each other.
Literary Imagination
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra and
William Shakespeare are among the
most renowned authors of this
Cervantes lived and worked in
Catholic Spain, while Shakespeare
was a product of Protestant England.
Their writings reflect their very
different situations and interests.
Cervantes' most famous work, Don
Quixote, pays homage to the
tradition of chivalric romance.
Shakespeare's dramas cover a wide
range of topics, including history; his
universal themes and brilliant
technique explain his enduring
Late 16th Century Protestant Europe
Martin Luther's 95 Theses inaugurated the
Protestant Reformation, which altered
religion and society throughout Europe.
Soon, not just Lutheranism, but also
Calvinism and other Protestant sects were
winning converts and challenging the
Catholic church.
Catholics, meanwhile, were critiquing their
church from within, and some of them were
founding new orders, in part to encourage
reform from within.
The Counter-Reformation brought many
Europeans back to the Catholic church, but
religious unity in Europe was a thing of the
Developments in family life and in literature
reflect some of the competing influences on
early modern society.
Essay Question
• Evaluate the influence
of Renaissance
humanism on Catholic
reforms and the
Protestant Reformation.
• 2007 AP Exam, Free
Response Essay;
Grading Rubric
8–9 Points
• Explicit thesis responds fully to all prompts: humanism, Catholic reforms,
and the Protestant Reformation.
• Consistently clear organization supports the argument.
• Discusses Catholic reforms and the Protestant Reformation with multiple
supporting details.
• Clearly links Renaissance humanism to both Catholic reforms and the
Protestant Reformation.
• Well-balanced discussion among all prompts
. •Errors do not distract from the argument.
6–7 Points
• Explicit thesis is responsive to the question, perhaps less fully than the
8–9 category.
• Organization is clear but may not be consistently followed. •
Essay is balanced, with humanism, Catholic reforms, and the Protestant
Reformation all covered at least briefly.
• All assertions are supported by at least one piece of specific information.
•Linkage of humanism to Catholic and Protestant reforms is attempted.
• Errors may detract from the overall essay.
4–5 Points
• Thesis is explicit but may not respond fully to the entire question.
• Organization is less effective than in essays scored higher.
• Essay shows some imbalance. Some major topics (humanism, Catholic
reforms, or the Protestant
Reformation) may be seriously neglected or have minimal specificity.
• Most of the major topics are supported by at least one relevant piece of
• Suggests linkage between humanism and Catholic/Protestant reforms.
2–3 Points
• Thesis is not explicit or merely rephrases/repeats the question. •
Unclear, ineffective organization. •
Serious imbalance—major topics
are neglected (e.g., discussion of the Protestant Reformation but
no information on Catholic reforms). • No clear linkage between
humanism and both reform movements. •
Several distracting
0–1 Point
• No discernable attempt at a thesis.
• No discernable organization.
• One or none of the prompts (humanism, Catholic reforms, or the
Protestant Reformation) is mentioned.
• No understanding of humanism or any linkage to Catholic/Protestant
. •Little or no supporting evidence
. •Numerous errors that distract from the thesis.
Review Questions
What is an indulgence? How did it become a major reform issue by the
late 15c?
What aspects of Luther's personality and experience contributed to his
reforming zeal?
What was Luther's core theological premise? Make a list of his major
How did the church initially react to the printing and dissemination of
Luther's 95 Theses in Wittenberg? Why did they have such a strong
appeal in Germany?
Luther and Erasmus both attacked what they saw as abuses and
pretensions of the church and the clergy. Compare their criticisms and
their approaches to Church reform.
Although there had been heretics and reformers in the Catholic Church
before Martin Luther, none had threatened the unity of the
church. What were the social, economic, and political conditions in
Germany that contributed to the enormous success of Lutheranism?
What were the religious and political implications of Luther's reforms?
Why did the Holy Roman Empire, Charles V, in collaboration with the
Pope, issue the Edict of Worms in 1521? What were the implications of
this move?
Why did many German political authorities [especially the nobility]
support Luther's cause? Why was their support so essential to his
What were the causes of the Peasants' Revolt of 1525-1526? What was
Luther's position in this upheaval? Why did he take that position?
Where was Lutheranism most successful in the 16c?
What role did the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, play in the
Protestant Reformation?
What were the provisions of the Peace of Augsburg of 1555? How was
it a religious compromise? What issues were left unresolved?
Review Questions #2
Identify the main religious beliefs of Ulrich Zwingli. How
were they similar to Luther's beliefs? How were they
What were the basic beliefs of the Anabaptists? Why do
you think that they were labeled the "radicals" of the
Protestant Reformation movement?
Who were the Melchiorites? Why were they so intensely
List the major beliefs of John Calvin. How were they
similar to Luther's beliefs? How were they different?
What was life like in Calvin's Geneva under his
Ecclesiastical Ordinances?
To where did Calvinism spread throughout the 16c?
What impact did Reformation doctrines have on the
family, education, and popular religious practices?
How did the role of women in some Protestant churches
change in the 16c? Why did their social and religious
positions remain the same in most others?
According to most Reformation thinkers, what was the
most important role of a woman in the Christian
What groups in European society were most attracted to
Calvinism? Why?
Review Questions #3
How did Henry VIII's marital difficulties
lead to a break with Rome and the
creation of an independent Church of
What did Henry VIII do to the property of
the Catholic Church once he was
excommunicated by the Pope?
Who much of Catholicism was retained
during Henry VIII's reign?
When and how did the Church of England
become more Protestant?
Why did Henry VIII's break with Rome have
so much support from the English people?
How did Mary I attempt to restore
Catholicism in England? Why did she fail?
How did the power of the British monarchy
increase during the reign of the Tudors?
What new political
institutions/government structures were
created during this period?
Review Questions #3
What were the differences in interpretation of the two terms--Catholic
Reformation and Counter-Reformation?
What were the accomplishments of Pope Paul III? of Pope Paul IV? How
did they differ in their approach to church reform?
How did the responses of the church hierarchy differ from the responses of
lay people?
What were the primary goals of the Council of Trent?
List the major positions taken by the Council of Trent on dogma and church
What was the condition of the papacy as it emerged after the Council of
List some of the new religious orders created during this period and briefly
identify the religious mission of each.
How did Ignatius Loyola organize the Jesuit order? What was its purpose?
How did the Jesuits differ from previous Catholic religious orders?
How did Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises and the Jesuit movement itself
represent a continuation of Renaissance humanism?
Why was the Jesuit order so fit to serve the Catholic Counter-Reformation?
How did women react to the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation?
What appeal would the reforming tendencies have held for women? Why
do you suppose other women remained faithful to the Catholic Church?
What were the political, economic, and social legacies of the "Two
Review Questions #4
• What is the origin of the
word "baroque"?
• What was the goal of
Baroque art? What
were the characteristics
of the Baroque style?
• How was the Baroque
movement a reflection
of the CounterReformation
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