Modern Europe
Great Britain
History
1960’s and 1970’s
• Severe economic problems
• Outdated factories, low productivity = can’t compete
• Result  raised taxes & increase borrowing
• Result  unemployment & high inflation
1980’s and 1990’s
• Margaret Thatcher elected prime minister
(Britain's first female prime minister 1979 to 1990)
• Govt. & Economic reforms = economic growth mid 80’s
• John Major elected prime minister (1990-1997)
Recent History
2000’s
• Tony Blair elected prime minister (1997 to 2007)
- strong ally w/ U.S. in War in Iraq & Afghanistan = hurts him politically
• Gordon Brown prime minister (2007 to 2011)
- 2008-09 recession hurts economy and banking
• David Cameron prime minister (2011 to Present)
Economy
• Type: Market Economy
• Welfare State w/ recent reductions in public ownership
• GDP: 2.174 trillion
• GDP Rank: 7th
• Labor Force: Farming: 4%, Industry: 24%, Services: 72%
Northern Ireland
Background & History
• Northern Ireland is a part of Great Britain
• Northern Ireland is protestant & Ireland catholic
Background:
• 1967 to 1972  Northern Ireland Civil Right Movement
leads civil resistance campaign
• 1969 to 1997  Irish Republican Army (IRA) catholic
paramilitary group in the north who use violence to achieve
goals of driving out British & uniting all of Ireland
Recent Times:
• 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement
• 1994 cease-fire between IRA & U.K.
• 1998 Belfast Agreement (Good Friday Agreement)
• 2005 IRA decommission their arsenal
• 2007 First Minister of Northern Ireland elected
• 2011 Sinn Fein left wing political party (rep. 25%)
France
History
Fourth Republic: 1945 to 1958
• Economic growth after WWII
• Conflict overseas (Algeria & Indochina)
• Result  govt. grows weak & unstable
Fifth Republic: 1958 to Present
• 1958-1969 Charles de Gaulle president
- ends conflicts overseas, strengthens presidency, economy falters
• 1969-1974 George Pompidou president
- introduce social programs, increase trade, alliance w/U.S. grows
• 1974-1981 Valery Giscard d’Estaing president
- reduce state control of economy, cooperation overseas
• 1981-1995 Francois Mitterrand president
- increase role of govt., nationalized banks, raised taxes on rich,
social programs, unemployment hit 10%
Recent History
2000’s
• 1995-2007 Jacque Chirac president
- conservative, increase govt. role in economy, guilty of corruption in 2011
• 2007-Present Nicolas Sarkozy current president
- 2008-09 recession leads to debt crisis, increase cooperation w/U.S. & U.K.
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy (moving towards Market)
• GDP: 2.145 trillion
• GDP Rank: 5th
• Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 25%, Services: 74%
France
Germany
History
Divided Germany: 1945 to 1990:
• East Germany (Communist) and West Germany (Democratic)
• 1990 Reunified as one Germany
Modern Germany: 1990 to Present
• 1982-1998 Helmut Kohl chancellor
- strong ally w/U.S. & U.K.
- re-unification economic challenge
- 1994 Berlin becomes capital again (Berlin Republic)
Recent History
2000’s
• 1998-2005 Gerhard Schroder chancellor
- economic problems, active role in E.U., sends forces to help NATO
• 2007-Present Angela Merkel current chancellor
- first female chancellor of Germany
- central role in European Financial & Debt Crisis
- domestic policy: healthcare reform & energy development
- considered the world’s most powerful women (currently)
Economy
• Type: Market Economy
• GDP: 2.94 trillion
• GDP Rank: 4th
• Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 31%, Services: 68%
Italy
History
• 1946 Italy became a voted be become a republic
• 1948 Italy ratified a constitution
1960’s and 1970’s
• Severe economic crisis (Years of Lead)
• Social conflict & terrorism
• Result 1978 assassination of leader
1980’s
• Coalition govt. forms = political stability
• Free Market reforms = economy improves
1990’s
• Results  national debt, corruption,
scandals, coalition govt. disbands
Recent History
2000’s
• Weak bureaucracy
• Wealth gap (between north & south)
• European debt crisis  internal financial problems
• Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi resigns (2011 sex scandal)
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy
• GDP: 1.77 trillion
• GDP Rank: 8th
• Labor Force: Agriculture: 5%, Industry: 32%, Services: 63%
Greece
History
• Greek Civil War (1946-1949): democratic army vs. communist
army; democratic govt. wins with help of Truman Doctrine
1960’s and 1970’s
• Colonels Military coup (1967) overthrows King Constatine II
• Counter-coup (1973) establishes dictatorship (till 1974)
• Republic govt. created in 1974; constitution in 1975
1980’s and 1990’s
• Join E.U. in 1981  leads to period of
sustained economic growth
• Standard of living increases
Recent History
2000’s
• Replace currency with Euro in 2001
• 2008-09 European Financial Crisis  leads to Greek Debt
Crisis and billions in bailouts from E.U.
• Greek government Confidence votes bring govt. to edge of
dissolving
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy
• GDP: 318 billion
• GDP Rank: 34th
• Labor Force: Agriculture: 20%, Industry: 20%, Services: 59%
Spain
History
• 1947 Falange (civil war regime) becomes National Movement
• Francisco Franco is dictator (political & economic isolation)
1960’s and 1970’s
• Cold War = U.S. influence in region
• Spanish Miracle (economic growth)
• 1975 Franco dies; Juan Carlos becomes king
• 1978 Spanish Constitution = democracy & regional power
• ETA (separatist group from Basque region) use terrorism
1980’s
• 1981 failed military coup
• Economic problems
• Strong democracy
Recent History
2000’s
• Replace currency with Euro  economic growth
• Terrorism by Islamic extremists (2004 train bombing)
• European debt crisis  Spanish Financial Crisis (08-12)
Basque Region
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy
• GDP: 1.37 trillion
• GDP Rank: 17th
• Labor Force: Agriculture: 7%, Industry: 29%, Services: 64%
Portugal
History
1960’s and 1970’s
• Portuguese Colonial War (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea)
• Carnation Revolution (1974): bloodless military coup led
by Antonio de Spinola ousts authoritarian regime
• Result  political and economic instability
1980’s and 1990’s
• Free enterprise reforms = economic growth
• continued economic growth
Recent History
2000’s
• Export-based economy grows till 2008-09
• European Financial crisis  borrow money from E.U. to
stabilize finances
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy
• GDP: 247 billion
• GDP Rank: 42nd
• Labor Force: Agriculture: 10%, Industry: 30%, Services: 60%
Russia
History
1990’s
• December 1991 Soviet Union falls; 15 soviet states are now
independent……. Biggest = Russia!
• Boris Yeltsin is president of Russia
-Economic restructuring & privatization= companies in hands
of those with connections….. Result: economic crisis in 90’s
-Rise of organized crime, corruption, and lawlessness
-Separatists movements (Chechen) and Terrorism (Islamic extremists)
- resigns in 1999 after 1998 economic crisis and social issues
2000’s
• Vladimir Putin elected president in 2000 (took office1999)
- Market Economy reforms  economic growth
- Political & Social reforms  seen by West as “un-democratic”
 return order & stability to Russia
Recent History
Late 2000’s
• 2008 Dmitry Medvedev elected President of Russia
- Putin elected Prime Minister
• 2012 Vladimir Putin re-elected President of Russia
- protests against him and his election met with resistance
Economy
• Type: Mixed Economy
• GDP: 2.22 trillion
• GDP Rank: 9th
• Labor Force: Agriculture: 12%, Industry: 23%, Services: 65%
Czech
Republic
and
Slovakia
Recent History
Background:
• 1989 Velvet Revolution  communist regime collapses and
Czechoslovakia becomes independent
• Vaclav Havel  revolution ledr becomes president
- democratic reforms and free market reforms
- ethnic tensions rise in 1992
• 1993 Czechoslovakia dissolves : Czech Republic & Slovakia
Czech Republic Economy:
• Type: Market Economy
• GDP: 261 billion
• GDP Rank: 45th
• Most stable & prosperous
post-communist states
Slovakia Economy:
• Type: Market Economy
• GDP: 120 billion
• GDP Rank: 62nd
• Most privatization has
taken place (banking)
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Montenegro
Podgorica *
History
Post WWI
• Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941)
WWII
• Invaded by Axis Powers in 1941
• Controlled by Axis Powers 1941-1945
• Soviets expel Axis Powers in 1945
Post WWII
• 1946 = Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia created
as a communist state (modeled after Soviet Union)
- Josip Broz Tito elected to lead as prime minster
- expelled from Soviet Bloc by Stalin (non-alignment in Cold War)
•
1963 = name changed to Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia w/ Tito as “President for Life”
History
1970’s :
• Ethnic tensions and Economic crisis
1980’s
• Josip Broz Tito dies in 1980
• 1986 Slobodan Milosevic elected president of Serbia
- believed in Serbian nationalism & dominance over all other ethnicities
Ethnicities of Yugoslavia:
- Serbians, Macedonians, Montenegrins (Orthodox Christian)
- Croats & Slovenians (Roman Catholic)
- Albanians, Bosnians & Herzegovinians (Muslim)
Ethnic Unrest
• 1991 : Croatia & Slovenia declare independence
– Result: Yugoslav army invades U.N. peacekeepers sent truce
• 1992-: Bosnia & Herzegovina declare independence
– Result: Yugoslavia left w/Serbia &Montenegro  Yugoslav troops
invade  seize 70% of land  carry out ethnic cleansing against
Bosnian Muslims  Bosnian Muslims carry out revenge killings 
U.N. & NATO intervene w/air strikes  ends w/1995 Dayton Peace
Accords international peacekeepers remain in Bosnia
Ethnic Unrest
• Crisis in Kosovo
– Province of Serbia (90% Muslim)
– 1989-1997 Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA)
wage guerilla war vs. Serbs
• Crisis in Kosovo
– 1998 Milosevic orders police & military campaign against KLA  ethnic
cleansing Albanian Kosovars flee
– 1998 U.N. demands cease-fire  agreed to  then fight starts again
– 1999 NATO intervened w/air strikes  Yugoslav forces leave Kosovo 
international peacekeepers remain
Recent History
2000’s:
• 2000 Slobodan Milosevic forced to resign
• 2001 International Criminal Tribunal arrest Milosevic & others
- charged w/crimes against humanity & violation of customs of war
• 2003 Yugoslavia = Serbia & Montenegro
• 2006 Montenegro declares independence
• 2006 Milosevic dies in jail cell of heart attack (no verdict)
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