Standard 7
Students will explain the process of
economic growth, its regional and national
impact in the first half of the 19th century,
and the different responses to it.
Industrial Revolution
 It was an ongoing
effort over many
decades to increase
production by using
machines powered by
sources other than
humans or animals.
 The most important
invention at this time
was the steam engine
by James Watts.
The Cotton Gin
 It is a machine that
separates the seeds
from raw cotton fibers.
 It was invented by Eli
 Gin is short for engine.
The Effects of the Cotton Gin
 Profit per pound of cotton skyrocketed, and with it
the amount of cotton planted for harvest.
 Many southern planters began to depend on
cotton as their only major crop.
 Planters began to expand their land holdings.
 Planters increased the importation and breeding of
slaves to keep up with the demand for cotton.
Between 1790 and 1820, the slave population rose from
700,000 to 1.5 million.
 · Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, in Georgia.
· "Cleaned" the cotton by removing the seeds.
· Increased daily production rates from one pound per
day, per worker, to as much as 50 pounds per day, per
 These statements are describing the
A. cotton gin.
B. grist mill.
C. John Deere plow.
D. McCormick reaper.
 The cotton gin was an important invention
A) it inadvertently led to the spread of
B) it made cotton much easier for slaves to
C) it caused people to stop needing so much
D) it angered northern farmers who could
afford it.
 Which statement is the BEST description of the
immediate effect of the cotton gin on cotton production in
the south?
A) Although now easier to produce, cotton was still less
profitable than rice and tobacco.
B) Daily rates of production rose from 1 pound of cotton
per slave to as much as 50 pounds per slave.
C) Daily rates of production rose from 20 pounds of
cotton per slave to as much as 40 pounds per slave.
D) It had little effect on cotton production because the
machines were too expensive for most planters to
Manifest Destiny
 It is the belief that the
US was supposed to
cover the whole of the
North American
 From sea to shining
 James K. Polk was the
president most
associated with this
The concept of Manifest Destiny meant it
was providential that American settlers
A. Build railroads to encourage trade between
B. Settle the United States from the Atlantic to
the Pacific Ocean
C. Establish river towns to encourage the use of
steam power
D. Ban slavery in all new states entering the
Whose Presidency was MOST concerned
with fulfilling the country's Manifest
A) John Adams
B) James K. Polk
C) Andrew Johnson
D) William H. Harrison
Overland Trails
 People began to travel
across the Great Plains
following the Oregon Trail,
Santa Fe Trail, and the
Mormon Trail.
 The trip could take up to six
months and cost up to
 The pioneers and Native
Americans got along quite
well in the beginning.
 Problems didn’t begin until
the 1850s.
Why move West?
 Acquisition of lands held by Native Americans
 Economic Pressure:
North: War and embargo had lessened opportunity
South: New lands needed for cotton cultivation
 Improved Transportation:
Railroads, canals, roads and steam power made travel
much easier than in previous times.
 Immigration:
Europeans were attracted by the lure of cheap land, not
something to be found in most of Europe.
In the early 1800s, many people in the
United States migrated westwards
A) of the growing timber industry.
B) of the availability of farmland.
C) transportation was easy thanks to the
Transcontinental Railroad.
D) they wanted to escape slavery, which
was illegal in western territories.
The Temperance Movement
 It was an organized
campaign to eliminate
alcohol consumption.
 They taught abstinence
from alcohol.
 Women reformers in
particular saw drinking as a
threat to family life.
 This movement had a
dramatic impact on the
amount of alcohol
consumed between the
1830s and the 1860s.
The Abolitionist Movement
 This is the movement to
end slavery.
 It was started by a group
of free African Americans
and whites in the 1830s.
 The movement steadily
increased the tensions
between the North and
the South.
The Beginnings
 From 1777 to 1807, every
state north of Maryland
passed laws abolishing
 The importing of slaves
ended in 1808.
 By the end of the 1820s,
nearly 50 African American
antislavery groups had
formed throughout the
 Some abolitionists favored
sending free African
Americans and freed
slaves back to Africa.
 The nation of Liberia was
created for this purpose.
 Most African Americans
viewed themselves as
American and did not want
to return to Africa.
 Colonization was thereby
doomed to failure.
Public School
The idea of public school began in New
The reasoning being that people needed
to be able to read the Bible.
Horace Mann became a leader in the
educational reform movement.
He promoted the idea of public education for all.
Horace Mann is MOST associated with
what issue during the 19th Century?
A) child labor
B) education reform
C) women's suffrage
D) abolition movement
Who led reform of America’s public school
system in the 1800s?
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Andrew Jackson
Eli Whitney
Horace Mann
Cultural and Legal Limits on
 Most people believed that
women should remain in
the home.
 Most states didn’t even
consider the possibility of
giving women the right to
 As women began to work
outside of the home, they
generally could not keep
the money they earned.
 Which statement BEST describes women's
suffrage for much of the first century of the United
States' history?
A) the federal government barred women from
B) women were allowed to vote in most northern
C) most state Constitutions did not address the
issues of women's suffrage
D) women could vote only if their husbands gave
them legal permission to do so
Fighting for Reform
 Women played a
prominent role in
nearly every
avenue of reform,
from temperance
to abolition.
The Seneca Falls Convention
 It was the first women’s
rights convention in U.S.
 The convention was led
by Elizabeth Cady
Stanton and Lucretia
 It called for suffrage.
 The convention lead to
considerable public
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
organized a national meeting at Seneca
Falls in 1848. The primary purpose of this
convention was to organize the
A) abolition movement.
B) temperance movement.
C) women’s suffrage movement.
D) Native American assistance
Jacksonian Democracy
Politics of the Common Man
 Universal male suffrage
Improved education
State suffrage laws (no religious or property clauses)
 Party nominating conventions
 Popular elections of electoral college
SC was the only state to have legislature choose
 Two Party system
Large political parties are needed to campaign to the
 Spoils System
The giving of government jobs to political supporters
Jackson was a strong supporter of this system
 The period of "Jacksonian Democracy" can be
characterized by
A) greater influence of land-owning citizens.
B) elimination of the Spoils System in
C) a decrease in the power of the Executive
D) increasing the right to vote in the United
"Jacksonian Democracy" is associated
with what political party?
A) Democrat
B) Federalist
C) Republican
D) Whig
Jackson and the Indians
 Jackson’s democracy was not extended to
Native Americans.
He was openly hostile to them, as he had
been in the military
In 1830 he signed the Indian Removal Act
that sent Native Americans West of the
Mississippi to live on reservations
This led to the Trail of Tears
He also defied the Supreme Court ruling in
Worcester v. Georgia
 ·More than 45,000 American Indians were relocated to the
·About 100 million acres of Indian land was ceded to the U.S.
·The Treaty of New Echota was signed, giving up all
Cherokee land in Georgia
·Almost 4,000 Cherokee died on what became known as the
Trail of Tears
 These statements are describing events from the presidency
A) John Marshall.
B) Andrew Jackson.
C) James Buchanan.
D) Winfield Scott.
The Nullification Crisis
 Although Jackson was a states’ rights supporter, he
was also a Unionist
 The Nullification Crisis exploded over the Tariff of
1828, a large tariff on imports
 SC held a secession convention and passed a
resolution not to collect the tariff. Jackson
threatened to send troops.
 A compromise was reached when the tariff was
lowered and SC disbanded the convention
Jacksonian Democracy in Perspective
 Jackson helped to develop the 2 party system
 His methods of campaigning were important to help
bring democracy to the common man.
 By the election of 1840, an unbelievable 78% of eligible
voters turned out for the election.
 This is testament to the democratic forces unleashed by
Jackson and his supporters
 His record as a politician is less democratic, with the
Indian Removal Act, defying the Supreme Court, and the
threat of military action against South Carolina
 He was successful in opening up shipping ports in the
West Indies.
 "Jacksonian Democracy" is associated with
which of these characteristics?
A) suffrage for all people in the United States
B) voting rights extended to all adult, white
C) a nation governed by upper and middle
class educated property owners
D) laws promising full political equality
regardless of race, sex, or wealth

Standard 7