JESUS CHRIST: GOD’S REVELATION TO THE WORLD CHAPTER 5 KINGS AND PROPHETS AWAITING THE MESSIAH The Bible on Friendship Putting others first Confidentiality Dependability Humility Positive influence Conquest of the Promised Land Joshua The Lord fought for Israel, and without his help, the Israelites would never have settled in the “land flowing with milk and honey.” Joshua led the Israelites into the Promised Land. Judges In ancient Israel, judges were those who acted as temporary military leaders, as well as arbiters of disputes within and between tribes. Judges were also expected to remind the people of their responsibility to God. DEBORAH GIDEON JEPHTHAH SAMSON Cycle of Apostasy Israelites sinned Judge died . . . YHWH pitied them God’s discipline Israelites repent The Monarchy of Israel Israel’s Final Judge Samuel was Israel’s last and most significant judge. Toward the end of his life, the people clamored for a king. Samuel warned against this. Choosing a King Saul was selected king but lost the kingship because he disobeyed divine commands. David was anointed by Samuel to replace Saul. Saul fell on his sword in despair. Israel’s Greatest King David became the sole king of Israel, uniting all tribes into a single nation. David brought the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem to show YHWH’s abiding presence to the new nation. David had has faults for which he begged forgiveness. Solomon succeeded his father as king. A Divided Kingdom Solomon was known for his wisdom. Solomon was corrupted by his office. After his death, Israel was split into the Kingdom of Judah (south) and the Kingdom of Israel (north). Assyria’s destruction of the northern kingdom in 721 BC Babylonian captivity of the southern kingdom in 587-586 BC God Sends Prophets Prophet— ”one who speaks for another” 1. There is only one true God— YHWH 2. The one God is holy, and God demands that we renounce sin 3. God would not abandon His promises to send the Messiah Prophets of the Northern Kingdom Elijah and Elisha Elijah taunted the king’s pagan prophets Next to Moses, Elijah is the greatest of the OT prophets. He was present at Jesus’ Transfiguration Elisha succeeded Elijah Prophets of the Northern Kingdom Amos Message: Worship of God must show itself in concrete deeds of mercy and justice to the weak and the poor. Hosea Message: To accuse Israel of sin and infidelity to God but show that God still loved the Chosen People Prophets of the Southern Kingdom Isaiah Largest of all the prophetic books The Chosen People must imitate God’s holiness by righteous living and true worship. Compared the nation to a vineyard that God cultivated Prophets of the Southern Kingdom Jeremiah Shouted the love of a God who desperately wanted the Chosen People to repent Became a living symbol of God’s message Compared YHWH to a potter who would mold the nation in his hands Prophets of the Southern Prophets Micah Message: Foretold a coming Messiah who would lead Israel to peace and justice Ezekiel Message: keep the Sabbath and follow the law of holiness The Babylonian Exile Living in a foreign land and intermarriage led to a loss of identity. Without a Temple, Jewish exiles gathered in synagogues where they studied and prayed together. The Message of Second Isaiah SUFFERING SERVANT SONGS • • • • Speaks of God’s Chosen One who will bring justice to the world and treat the bruised reed tenderly Tells how God chose the servant before his birth Describes how God’s special messenger runs into resentment Parallels to Jesus Christ’s suffering—lamb led to slaughter Return and Recommitment After the return to the Holy Land, a purified Judaism was more faithful to its vocation of witnessing to the nations by keeping the Law. Jesus Christ—the Messiah—was born in Bethlehem while Herod the Great ruled as king of Judea.