Review Session 5
1750 - 1900
An Era of Incredible Change
• The Industrial Revolution (with increasing
urbanization as a result)
• The Atlantic Revolutions
• Imperialism
• Capitalism and Socialism
• Latin American Revolutions
• Abolition of Slavery
• Began in Britain in the late 1700’s
(18th century)
• Spread to the U.S. and Germany
and the rest of Europe after that
• Began with money from colonies
and was brought on by the 2nd
Agricultural Revolution which
increased crop yields and
allowed more people to move to
cities to find work in factories
• The Enclosure System also
contributed to urbanization
(small farmers lost land to
wealthy landowners and moved
to cities looking for work)
• To improve textile manufacturing and
shipping, key inventions were made in the
1700’s and early 1800’s:
– The Spinning Jenny
– The Flying Shuttle
– The Cotton Gin
– The Steam Engine
The telegraph
The telephone
The light bulb
The internal combustion
• The radio
• The airplane
– All of these inventions came
in the late 19th century
• Made manufacturing more efficient and thus increased
• Created jobs for people but these jobs were often very
labor intensive and done in poor conditions
• Women and children worked alongside men
– Women had to do double duty as moms and workers
– Children as young as six worked 16 hour days in deplorable
• A middle class develops in Europe as a result of
• People in favor of industrial productivity and profits
maintained that Laissez Faire Capitalism (Adam
Smith) was the best way to achieve economic stability
and growth
– Adam Smith taught that the government should
stay out of the economy and let it regulate itself
with the laws of supply and demand
• The Wealth of Nations (1776)
• Some people opposed to exploitation of cheap labor
believed that Socialism was right
– Karl Marx taught that the proletariat would
eventually overthrow the bourgeoisie and that
would lead to Communism once all resources had
been redistributed equally
• The Communist Manifesto (1848)
• Rapid urbanization (factory jobs were in cities)
– Rough living conditions in crowded cities
• Industrialized nations were the strongest and took advantage
of non-industrialized nations
– Remember the Berlin Conference in Africa and the Opium
Wars/Spheres of Influence in China???
• Middle class is born and even more specialization of labor
• Poor women had to work in
factories and still take care of
family needs
• Wealthy women stayed home
and had less power outside the
home in industrial age
• Middle Class women became
involved in reform movements
(abolition, suffrage)
• Women still had family
• Society still very patriarchal
• Women were leaders in the
abolition movement to end
• Women were leaders in other
movements as well (temperance,
child labor, etc.)
• These leadership roles prepare
women to fight for their political
rights (voting = suffrage)
• The right to vote came after long
battles in Britain and the U.S.
(right around World War I)
Many European and American people took
Darwin’s theory of evolution and “survival of the
fittest” and applied it to humans
Belief that advances and conquest surely meant
that the white man was superior to all other races,
making subjugation and/or extermination of
inferior races the natural thing to do
Some used Social Darwinism to inspire missionary
efforts, educational efforts, etc. while others used
the theory as justification for everything from
slavery to genocide (Nazi Germany in WWII)
During this time period, Europeans and Americans
colonize and attempt to “civilize” huge areas of
Africa, Asia, and Oceania
– The “White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling
• England defeated France to take over land in North America and India
in the 18th century
• The Raj began as the British East India Company took over trading
ports (mercantilism)
• Eventually the British government claimed India as a colony and ruled
it for almost 100 years
• England took raw materials (such as cotton) out of India and shipped
it to England to manufacture textiles and then sold those textiles to the
world, including to India!
• #Profit!
• Indians benefitted little from colonialism, but Britain became even
more wealthy and powerful as a result of their Indian colony
• The Sepoy Rebellion was an attempt at Indian nationalism and
independence in the mid-1800’s but it failed to overthrow the Raj;
however, Indian nationalism will only get stronger over the next
century and paves the way for Mohandas K. Gandhi
• Many people moved during this era
– European migration to the Americas
– Chinese and Japanese migration to
the U.S. and parts of Latin America
– Slavery ending in the 19th century
meant a need for workers in Cuba
for example (Chinese coolies)
– African migration to Europe
(colonialism brain drain)
– Indians to Africa and the Americas
– REASON: For Work or better living
• Previous state structures:
decentralized, feudal system
• From the 1200’s forward,
central authority becomes the
norm in Europe with a monarch
and the nobility in charge
(Great Britain and the Magna
• French Revolution in late 18th
century fueled French
nationalism, seen later under
Napoleon and conquests
• Loyalty to the state, a national
consciousness emerges
• Nationalism, however, is seen
as a threat to empires
(Ottoman, Russian, Austrian)
because these were diverse
empires with different groups
You Say You Want a Revolution?
• American Revolution 17761783
• French Revolution 17891799
• Haitian Revolution 17931802
• Latin American Revolutions
• Meiji Restoration in Japan
• Mexican Revolution 19101920
Latin American Revolutions
• Inspired by American, French Revolutions & the Enlightenment
• Resentment over Spanish colonial policy and Peninsulares’ power
led Creoles to lead the revolutionary cause
• Mexico: Father Hidalgo, Morelos, Iturbide
• S. America: Simon Bolivar, Jose de san Martin
• Brazil: peaceful break from Portugal
• Haiti: slave revolt led by Toussaint L’ouverture
• Post-independence struggles: lack of industrialization and wealth
inequalities will make these nations struggle for stability and will
cause them to be vulnerable to foreign domination of industries
(railroads, factories)
• The powerful core states of Europe and the U.S. will become
dominant in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in the 18th and
19th centuries
• Spain and Portugal are declining as Britain, France, Holland,
and the U.S. gain strength (Germany will come along and be
a real force in the late 19th century)
• Imperialism going strong for the core states, gaining
resources and markets from the periphery states they
dominate (think Britain/India relationship and U.S./Japan)
• Imperialism: powerful nations extend
control over less-powerful nations
• Colonialism: powerful nations conquer
and settle in less-powerful nations
• Control can be direct (British Raj in
India) or indirect (American railroads in
• Nationalism in Europe and the U.S.
helped spur on more imperialism (don’t
want to lose out to England if you are
• Industrial Revolution increased
Imperialism (needed raw materials and
open markets for your own
manufactured products)
• Imposition of culture, values, and
religious systems on the colonized
• China represented another key
market for European domination
• After the failed Macartney Mission of
1793, Britain shipped tons of opium
into China during the 1800’s and got
Qing Dynasty China hooked; a
weakened China was no match for
British forces and the Treaty of
Nanking opened up China to trade
(spheres of influence) and foreign
• Open Door Policy (U.S. domination)
• Boxer Rebellion attempted to stop
foreign domination but it failed, and
the Qing Dynasty fell in 1911
J A P A N I N T H E 1 9 th C E N T U R Y
• From the 1600’s on, Japan had chosen the path of isolation, fearing too
much western influence would damage them
• In 1854, they were surprised by the “black ships” of Admiral Perry as the
U.S. demanded trading privileges with the Japanese in the Treaty of
• Frightened into action, the Japanese got organized and changed greatly as
a result:
– Centralized government (ended Shogunate)
– Actively sought western help in industrialization and modernization to become
a dominating power instead of the one being dominated (like China)
– Built up their military too, fighting successful wars against Russia and China
– The Meiji Restorations ended Japanese seclusion but saved them from foreign
domination in the long run
Berlin Conference and the
Scramble for Africa, 1884-1885
• European powers met to divide up Africa
for themselves
• If you could control it, you could have it
• Interested in resources and markets for
• Major players included Britain, France,
Belgium, Spain, Portugal, and Germany
• Led to colonization of the whole continent
and control of Africa for the next 80 years
• Slavery, although officially outlawed, was
still the norm in many colonies (Belgian
King Leopold’s Congo Free State)
China, Japan, and the Ottoman Empire: A
Case Study in Responses to Imperialism
• China refused to acknowledge western threats and paid
dearly for not innovating to meet the challenge (Opium
Wars, Treaty of Nanking, and Spheres of Influence followed
by collapse of the Qing Dynasty in 1911
• Japan was scared straight in 1854 by Admiral Perry’s black
ships, and the Meiji Restoration brought centralized
government and industrialization to Japan, making it a new
world power by the 20th century
• The Ottomans waited too long to reform, but did try to
westernize/modernize with the Tanzimat Reforms and the
Young Turk Movement; in the end it was too little too late
as they lost World War I and saw the empire collapse and
get divided up among European powers Britain and France
Egypt, East Africa, and Southern Africa:
Responses to Imperialism
• Egypt tried to modernize while still part of
the Ottoman Empire under leadership of
Muhammad Ali, but Europeans do not
allow Egyptians to gain control of their own
land and defeat them and took the Suez
Canal away from Egyptian control
• Ethiopia is a success story of African
resistance as the leader Menelik II helped
fight off Italy’s attempt at colonizing Ethiopia
• Zulus in Southern Africa fight European
settlement; but superior British army and
weapons defeat the Zulu and later diamond
and gold discoveries bring even more
European settlements
• South Africa created in 1910 (Apartheid
• Analyze the similarities and differences in the
industrialization of Western Europe and
Eastern Asia
• Analyze the changes and continuities in the
role of women in Europe from 1600-1900.
• Immerse yourself in World History for the next
week and a half
– Study group in Coach Biggers’ room after school
– Study groups this weekend
– Review Sprite Charts while eating meals
– Every Night next week (SUN-WED) look over the
power point review online and your notes
– Memorize the basic essay pointers for each type
of essay

AP WORLD HISTORY Review Session 4