How did the Spanish American War help the US become a world

Becoming a World Power
United States Imperialism
1865 - 1920
Big Idea
Embracing a foreign policy of
imperialism enabled the U.S to
become a World Power
What is the foreign policy spectrum?
• The foreign policy spectrum is the range of
foreign policy positions taken by the U.S.
throughout our history
– Isolationism: Strict non-involvement in the affairs of
other nations (Loner)
– Collective Security: Working with other countries to
influence world affairs (Team Player)
– Internationalism: Getting involved in foreign
countries’ to promote important national interests
and/or to safeguard national security (World
– Imperialism: Gaining power and or wealth by
acquiring territory or taking advantage of weaker
nations to gain power or wealth (World Bully)
What is the foreign policy spectrum?
World Bully
World Policeman
Collective Security
Team Player
Foreign Policy Spectrum
Read the Foreign Policy Actions document in your packet and decide
which policy or policies best fit each country and explain why.
What was the progression of U.S. foreign policy
leading to the period of imperialism?
• Isolationism
– George Washington (1796 ) - In his farewell address to the nation he
warns of us to not get involved with foreign nations for anything but
• Internationalism
– Monroe Doctrine (1823) – President Monroe warns Europe that any
attempt to take new colonies in the western hemisphere will be viewed
as an act of war
• Imperialism –
Early – Japan (1852), Hawaii (1893) & China (1899)
Spanish American War (1896) - Philippines, Puerto Rico, Guam & Cuba
Panama (1903)
Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1904) – expands the
Monroe Doctrine by claiming U.S. rights to get involved in Latin America
whenever it is in our interests
Why did the U.S. want to extend its influence
to other parts of the world using imperialism?
• Economic Interests: Economists believed that
expansion would increase financial prosperity.
– Many industrialists saw the new colonies as a
potential source of cheap raw materials.
• Military Interests: By establishing a military
presence overseas the U.S. could protect its trade
in far away places.
• Cultural Superiority: Many Americans believed
that their government, religion, and race were
superior to those of other countries.
– Extension of Manifest Destiny
– White Man’s Burden by Rudyard Kipling (1899)
“The White Man’s Burden”: Kipling’s Hymn to U.S. Imperialism
Take up the White Man’s burden—
Send forth the best ye breed—
Go send your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need
To wait in heavy harness
On fluttered folk and wild—
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half devil and half child
Take up the White Man’s burden
In patience to abide
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple
An hundred times made plain
To seek another’s profit
And work another’s gain
Take up the White Man’s burden—
And reap his old reward:
The blame of those ye better
The hate of those ye guard—
The cry of hosts ye humour
(Ah slowly) to the light:
"Why brought ye us from bondage,
“Our loved Egyptian night?”
Take up the White Man’s burdenHave done with childish daysThe lightly proffered laurel,
The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood
Through all the thankless years,
Cold-edged with dear-bought wisdom,
The judgment of your peers!
What were the first examples of U.S.
• Japan – Commodore Matthew Perry - 1852
– Sails the U.S. fleet into Japan - against Japanese wishes
opens Japan to American trade & investment
– By 1880 Japan is a major naval & industrial power
competing with Europe & the U.S.
• We awakened the sleeping dragon!
• Samoa – annexed in 1899 after U.S., Germany &
Great Britain make a deal without consulting the
– Fueling and military purposes
What were the first examples of U.S.
• Hawaii – Queen Liliuokalani tried to limit the power of
American sugar farmers’ in Hawaii because they
dominated the economy.
– When her attempt did not work the farmers remained
concerned about the threats to their economic and
political interests.
– With the help of the U.S. military, the farmers
overthrew the queen and asked to be annexed by the
U.S. in 1893 - Annex means to attach or take
– Hawaii was officially annexed by the U.S. in 1898
• In 1891, Queen
Liliuokalani became the
leader of Hawaii and
attempted to restore the
kingdom’s independence.
• President Cleveland was an anti-imperialist and refused to
annex Hawaii.
“His Little Hawaiian Game Checkmated”
Uncle Sam and
Pres. Cleveland
are playing
chess with
the U.S.
senators and
Lili'uokalani .
Uncle Sam: "Grover this game has been too deep for you. Every
move you've made has been a blunder, and now you've lost your
Black Queen and the game.”
• Hawaii was annexed in
1898 when President
McKinley took office
and became the fiftieth
state in 1959.
A woman (Hawaii) and
Uncle Sam are getting
married, kneeling before
the minister (Pres.
McKinley) who is
reading from a book
entitled "Annexation
Policy". The bride seems
ready to bolt.
What were the first examples of U.S.
• China –
– Foreign countries wanted to exploit (take advantage of)
China’s resources.
– Japan and major European powers expanded their Spheres
of Influence in China - areas where counties claimed special
rights and economic privileges.
– The U.S. was concerned that all of the competition between
the Spheres was interrupting American trade in China
– Open Door Policy - 1899 - U.S demands that no nation is
allowed to control the trade markets in China
• Many Chinese resented the foreign influence and disrespect
toward the Chinese culture.
• As a result a violent uprising known as the Boxer Rebellion
killed many foreigners before it was put down by international
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• Cuba – Cuba rebels against the oppressive
Spanish rule
– Cubans were not happy being a Spanish Colony
• numerous rebellions took place in the 1800’s
– An economic depression angered them even more.
– The rebellions were of great concern to the U.S.
• Hurting our ability to trade with Cuba
– American newspapers felt a war in Cuba would
help sell newspapers
• Used Yellow Journalism (stories that distort, or
exaggerate the news to attract readers) about Spanish
cruelty in Cuba.
Yellow Journalism
- Joseph Pulitzer’s World and William Randolph Hearst’s
Journal competed to publish the most grisly stories of Spanish
Example of Yellow Journalism:
· Political cartoons that portrayed the Spanish as bloodthirsty.
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• How America gets involved – 1898
– President McKinley did not want war because he had seen
the horrors of the Civil War
– But public opinion stirred up by sensational newspaper
reports (Yellow Journalism) forced McKinley to take action.
– McKinley sent the U.S.S. Maine to Cuba to protect U.S.
citizens & demonstrate our power to Spain
– A month later the Maine exploded and sunk killing all 260
American seamen
– The U.S. blames Spain although no one knew the cause of
the sinking - most historians now believe it was an
accident – “Remember the Maine!” becomes a rallying call
for war
– McKinley officially calls for Cuba’s Independence & when
Spain did not respond, the Spanish American War began.
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• War in the Philippines – Although the stated purpose of
the war was Cuban independence, the first major battle
against Spain took place in a Spanish colony on the other
side of the world called the Philippines
– Before the war began, U.S. Secretary of the Navy Theodore
Roosevelt put a fleet of American ships commanded by
Admiral Dewey in Hong Kong on alert because the entire
Spanish fleet was docked at Manila (capital of the
– When the war began Roosevelt sent Dewey and his fleet
set off for Manila. The battle of Manila Bay lasted only 1
day and by noon, Dewey’s forces destroyed the entire
Spanish fleet
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
– By August Filipino rebels aided by the United
States military took control of the Philippines.
– Filipinos thought that they had won their
independence, but the U.S. claimed them as a
colony (imperialism)
• They fight on against the U.S. for 3 years until they
finally surrender (more Americans die than in the
actual war)
• The U.S. calls a colony a territory (an area completely
controlled by another country).
• The Philippines remained a U.S. territory for 48 years
U.S. soldiers
in a trench
Manila, the
during the
Spanish –
War. (1898)
Spanish-American War
The Philippines
· Commodore George
Dewey defeated the
Spanish navy in the
Philippines after only six
hours of battle.
Commodore George Dewey
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• War in Cuba – When the Spanish American
War began only 28,000 men were in the U.S.
Army. Within four months, more than 200,000
signed up.
– Roosevelt organized the 1st ever Volunteer Cavalry
called the Rough Riders.
– This group headed for Cuba from Southern Florida
to help fight the Spanish in Cuba.
– The Rough Riders along with the Cuban rebels and
the U.S. military drove the Spanish back and after
only 4 months Spain was defeated.
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• Peace Agreement with Spain
– Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam become U.S.
colonies or territories
• Puerto Rico and Guam are still territories
– In Cuba, the United States did not want to grant Cuba
complete independence.
• Cuba had to add the Platt Amendment to its constitution
allowing the U.S. to go into Cuban anytime we felt there
was a threat to life, property or individual liberty.
• Cuba also had to allow a U.S. naval base at Guantanamo
Bay (we are still there)
Theodore Roosevelt and the Rough Riders atop
San Juan Heights, 1898
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
"The war of the United States
with Spain was very brief.
Its results were many,
startling, and of world-wide
--Henry Cabot Lodge
1. Cuba was given its independence, but U.S. had influence in
the country.
2. The U.S. was given control of the islands of Puerto Rico,
Guam and the Philippines.
How did the Spanish American War help the U.S.
become a world power?
• Result of war = U.S. a World Power
– Naval supremacy over Spain at Manila
– Acquisition of colonies or territories
– Economic and military dominance of other countries
• The Anti Imperialist League
– Many Americans were against imperialism including
Andrew Carnegie, Mark Twain, and Jane Addams
joined to form the Anti Imperialist League.
– These people believed taking colonies was antiAmerican
• The U.S. should not deny people the right to govern
“School Begins” - In the back of the classroom students representing
California, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico and Alaska are quietly
reading. In the front row are boys representing the Philippines, Puerto
Rico, Cuba, and Hawaii looking as if they would rather not be there.
“The American Policy”
Miss Columbia, teacher at
the Liberty School, is ringing
a bell. Uncle Sam, switch in
hand, is dragging by the ear a
Filipino boy in loincloth and
amulet. Boys from Hawaii,
Cuba, and Puerto Rico are
standing around watching.
Ruling Cuba
Ruling Cuba, Puerto
Rico and the
The Teller Amendment
gave Cuba their
independence in 1899 at
the conclusion of the
Spanish – American
How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish
American War?
• The Panama Canal - U.S. leaders proposed a canal
to connect the Atlantic Ocean and Pacific Ocean
– U.S. ships would not have to go around South America
to get from the East Coast to the West Coast
– The best spot for the canal on the Isthmus (a narrow
strip of land connecting two larger bodies of land) of
Panama which was part of the Country of Colombia
– Colombia would not sell the land to the U.S. for the
– President Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy to support a
revolution in the Isthmus region of Colombia and in
1903 the new nation of Panama was created.
The Panama Canal
• Colombia refused to grant
the U.S. permission to
complete the canal project.
• Therefore, the U.S.
encouraged the people of
the region to revolt against
• On November 3, 1903, Panama declared their independence
from Colombia and allowed the U.S. to build the canal.
How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish
American War?
• U.S. builds the canal & connects the 2 oceans
– Panama granted the U.S. rights to a ten mile wide
strip of land called the Canal Zone
• Panama received $10 million and an annual fee of
• Latin Americans and Europe opposed the move made by
the U.S. & forced the U.S. to pay Colombia $25 million in
1921 for the loss of Panama
• Despite Panamanian protests, the U.S. maintained control
of the Canal Zone until 1979
– Many large ships could no longer fit through the canal so
it was no longer essential to U.S. interests
How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish
American War?
• Roosevelt’s Imperialist Foreign Policy
• The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine
expands the Monroe Doctrine by claiming U.S. has the
right to get involved in Latin America whenever it is in
our interests
• The U.S. made itself the Bully of the western
hemisphere in order to insure stability and protect our
business interests in the region
– For example bananas, coffee, copper and sugar
• As a result of the Panama Canal incident and the
Roosevelt Corollary, the U.S. is still distrusted and often
disliked in Latin America
How did U.S. imperialism continue after the Spanish
American War?
• Americans rarely questioned U.S. actions in Latin America -They
felt that we were defending U.S. interests
– A policeman
• Latin Americans saw the U.S. as only an imperial power looking
out for their own best interests.
– A bully.
• Long term effects of U.S. imperialism
– The U.S. becomes a major world power
– The U.S. gains access to trade and business opportunities throughout the
– The U.S. sets itself on a collision course with Japan that culminates in the
bombing of Pearl Harbor & WW II
– Many people in Latin America and elsewhere in the world mistrust the
United States
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