PowerPoint Presentation - Franklin D. Roosevelt and

Franklin D. Roosevelt
and the New Deal
Redefined Democracy:
Political Rights  Economic
Security  Social Justice
Reasons for Hoover’s
 thought business should
be self-regulating
 desperate to balance the
 lacked political finesse
 Hoover was viewed as a
“do-nothing president”
Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Appeal
 perceived as a man of action
 “can-do” attitude
 projected an air of friendliness and
 knew how to handle the press
 willing to experiment
 two-term governor of New York
 distant cousin of former president
Theodore Roosevelt
 Results: a landslide for Democrats
(both presidency and Congress)
Situation When FDR Entered Office
 In March 1933, the country was
virtually leaderless, banking
system had collapsed
 20th Amendment (Feb. 1933)
moved presidential elections
from March to January did not
apply (to avoid “lame duck”
Inaugural address, “The only
thing we have to fear is fear
The “Brain Trust”
During the “lame duck”
period, FDR worked with
a group of advisors:
They became known as
the “Brain Trust” worked with FDR to
“a new deal for the
American people”
3 Goals of the New Deal
Relief: for the needy,
provided jobs for the
unemployed, protected
farmers from foreclosure
Recovery: economic, get
the economy back into high
Reform: financial, to
regulate banks, abolish child
labor, conserve farm lands
First Hundred Days
 March 9 – June 16,
 Congress passed
more than 15 major
pieces of New Deal
 Significantly
expanded the
government’s role
in the nation’s
Fireside chats – radio talks
about issues of public concern;
explained New Deal; Americans
felt like FDR
was speaking
directly to them
Prohibition Repealed - 1933
In order to raise
government revenues by
taxing alcohol; 21st
Amendment passed
Concerns with the New Deal
 policy of deficit
spending (spending more
money than the
government receives in
 FDR felt it was a necessary
evil - only to be used at a
time of great economic
 supported by British
economist John Maynard
Criticisms of Conservative Opponents
 American Liberty League
 felt New Deal violated respect for and rights of individuals
and property
added to the national debt
($35 billion)
wasted money on relief
and encouraged idleness
violated the Constitution &
States’ rights
increased power of
the Presidency
Senator Huey Long (Louisiana)
 an early supporter of the New Deal
 turned against FDR
 planned to run for president
 advocated a Share-Our-Wealth plan
 guaranteed annual income of at least $5,000
for every American
 to be financed by confiscating wealth of
people who made over $5 million per year
 Slogan: “Every Man a King!”
 Very popular – 1935 claimed 7.5 million
members of Share-Our-Wealth clubs
 Killed by Dr. Carl Weiss at a rally (Long died
at hospital; Weiss killed at scene)
Father Charles E. Coughlin
 radio priest from Detroit
 combined economic, political
and religious ideas
 favored a guaranteed annual
 wanted nationalization of banks
 claimed there was an
international bankers conspiracy
and Jews were responsible
 Anti-Semitic views led to
Dr. Francis E. Townsend
 an elderly physician from
 felt FDR’s plan didn’t do
enough for poor and
 created a pension plan for
the federal government to
pay $200 per month to
unemployed people over
 plan financed by a 2%
national sales tax and
each pensioner would be
required to spend the
money in 30 days;
stimulating the economy
The Election of 1936
Relied on traditional base of
political support:
Broadened constituency by
appealing to:
big business
big farmers
small farmers of Midwest
urban political bosses
Ethnic blue collar workers, Jews,
African Americans
Popular Vote: 60.80%
Alfred Landon: 36.5%
Electoral Vote: 98.5%
Protection of New Deal Accomplishments
 Steps FDR took to protect New
Deal accomplishments (both
 Court-Packing Plan (proposed increasing
Supreme Court from 9 to 15 members,
caused in revolt in Dem. Party)
 Election of 1938
 evidence that FDR interfered in a state
campaign upset voters
 Republicans gained strength in both houses of
Decline of New Deal Reform after 1937
 Court-packing plan made Congress irritable
 Recession of 1937-38 weakened confidence in New
Deal measures (spending cuts in order to balance
budget), led to Republican strength in Congress
 Conservative Democrats ; voted with Republicans
to block New Deal legislation
 Increasing focus on foreign affairs
Impact: The New Deal
 Government responsibility:
 for the health, welfare, and security,
as well as the protection and
education of its citizens
 Extension of Democracy:
 defined the concept of democracy; it
now included not only political
rights but economic security and
social justice as well
 Revitalized politics:
 Reasserted presidential leadership
 Parties seen as vehicle for the
popular will, instrument for effective
How does the Great Depression end? Does
the bombing of Pearl Harbor by the Japanese
pull America from economic crisis? Yes? No?
It is still debated today!
Pearl Harbor
October, 1941
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