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W4 - Assessment of Immune Function

Name:Angela Marielle P. Buhawe Date:9/9/23
Assessment of Immune Function
Activity A. Fill in the blanks.
1. The immune system is essentially composed of bone marrow, lymphoid tissue, and white blood
2. White Blood Cells (WBCs) involved in immunity are primarily produced in the bone marrow
3. T lymphocytes, descendants of stem cells, mature in the thymus .
4. Granulocytes, which fights invasion by releasing histamine, do not include lymphocytes.
5. The leukocytes that arrive first at a site where inflammation occurs are neutrophils.
6. WBCs that function as phagocytes are called monocytes.
7. The body’s first line of defense is the nonspecific defense mechanism.
8. The primary cells responsible for recognition of foreign antigens are T cells.
. 9. Antibodies are believed to be a type of protein.
10. A deficient immune system response that is congenital in origin would be classified as a
Primary Immunodeficiency disorder.
11. During the proliferation stage of an immune response, lymphocytes interfere with disease by
picking up specific antigens from organisms to alter their functions.
Activity B. Briefly answer the following.
1. What does cellular membrane damage result from?
- A number of processes including the activation of complement, the appearance of killer T cells, and the
recruitment of macrophages, can cause damage to cellular membranes.
2. Describe how effector T cells destroy foreign organisms.
- The cytotoxic (killer) T cell of the cellular response interacts with the surface antigen of the external
invader, either through the humoral response antibody or the effector stage. This makes things get going
- consisting of interactions between antibodies (humoral immunity), complement, and cytotoxic T cell
activity (cellular immunity).
3. Decribe four ways that disorders of the immune system occur.
- Excesses or deficiencies of immunocompetent cells
- Alterations in the function of these [immunocompetent] cells
- Immunologic attack on self-antigens
- Inappropriate or exaggerated responses to specific antigens
4. Distinguish between natural and acquired (active and passive) immunity.
- Natural immunity, which is non-specific, offers a wide range of infection resistance and protection.
Because it defends the host without recognizing earlier interaction with an infectious agent, it is regarded
as the initial line of host defense after antigen exposure.
- Acquired (adaptive) immunity typically develops as a result of prior antigen exposure through
immunization (vaccination) or illness, both of which induce a protective immune response.
- Active acquired immunity refers to immunologic defenses produced by the individual's own
body. This immunity often lasts several years, if not a lifetime.
- Passive acquired immunity is temporary immunity transmitted from outside the body from a
source that has established immunity through previous sickness or immunization.
5. What is complement, how it is formed, and how does it function?
- Complement, a class of circulating plasma proteins that are produced in the liver and activated when an
antibody interacts with its antigen. In the defense against microorganisms, complement is crucial. It takes
more than just the binding of the antibody and antigens to destroy an invading or attacking organism or
toxin; it also calls for the complement system to be activated, killer T cells to show up, or macrophages to
be drawn in. Complement performs three key physiological tasks: protecting the body from bacterial
infection, bridging innate and acquired immunity, and getting rid of immune complexes and inflammationrelated byproducts.
6. How do biologic response modifiers (BMRs) affect the immune response?
- The goal of BRM therapy is to change the immunologic connection between the tumor and the cancer
patient (host) in order to provide therapeutic benefit. BRM therapy may involve the use of naturally
occurring or recombinant (made through genetic engineering) medicines or treatment approaches. The
aim is to eliminate or halt the malignant growth, even if the mechanisms of action differ depending on the
kind of BRM. The body's natural immunological defenses against cancer must be restored, modified,
stimulated, or increased as the foundation of BRM treatment.
7. What age-related changes affect immunologic function?
● Immune
● Gastrointestinal
● Urinary
● Pulmonary
● Integumentary
● Circulatory
● Neurological function
8. What effects do adrenal corticosteroids, antimetabolites, and antibiotics have on the immune system?
- Antimetabolites prevent immune cell development and function, while antibiotics primarily target bacteria
but can indirectly modify the microbiota and immunological responses by changing the balance of helpful
microbes. Adrenal corticosteroids reduce immune reactions and inflammation.
Hinkle, J.L. & Cheever, K.H. (2018). Brunner & Suddarth's Textbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (14th ed.).
Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer.