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The Effectiveness of TVL Curriculum to the Graduating
Grade 12 Students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus
Background of the Study
In the field of education and to the entire nation, quality and excellence of learning is of
utmost importance. It is necessary that schools should produce quality graduates, who will develop
the social and economic components of nation building in order that the country can achieve full
development and progress. It is said that change is the only permanent reality in life; hence, the
Department of Education (DepEd) has opted for curricular change with the end in view of
improving further the Philippine Educational System. This 360-degree change is targeted on
extending basic education from ten years to twelve years. This is because that among the 193member states of UNESCO, only three countries have retained the 10-year program: the Republic
of the Philippines, Djibouti and Angola.
Education in the Philippines is managed and regulated by the Department of Education or
DepEd as it is commonly referred to in the country. The department controls the Philippine
education system, especially the curriculum used in schools, and usage of funds used for further
improvements, which includes the continual building of schools and its facilities, and the
recruitment of teachers and other staff, among others. According to the Official Gazette of DepEd,
the former basic educational system of the Philippines was composed of 6 years of elementary
education starting at the age of 6, and 4 years of high school education starting at the age of 12.
Afterwards, one can continue his or her education by enrolling in technical or vocational schools,
or in higher education institutions like universities. Although the 1987 Constitution states that
elementary education is compulsory, it was never put into force. The Philippines implemented a
new curriculum which started last 2012-2013. This is the shift from Basic Education Curriculum
to the new K to 12 curriculum. The said innovation in the Philippine education has been made
legally by the Republic Act 1033 or the Enhance Basic Education Curriculum 2013. There are
many innovations introduced to the curriculum such as the extension of years spent in school.
From the old disciplines to the new one. According to the presentation of B. Corpuz the Senior
High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a
specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will
define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. SHS subjects fall under
either the Core Curriculum or specific Tracks. There are seven Learning Areas under the Core
Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural
Sciences, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education subjects are
embedded in the SHS curriculum. Each student in Senior High School can choose among three
tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track
includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education,
Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM). Students
undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them
relevant exposure and actual experience in their chosen track.
Atty. Joseph Noel M. Estrada, in his presentation during the PAASCU General Assembly
(2013), said that there is an assumption that public schools will most likely go in to the technical
vocational track and the private schools in the academic track. Meanwhile former DepEd Secretary
Jesli A. Lapus is determined to push for technical-vocational education in public high schools
because of the results of the 2007 National Career Assessment Examination (NCAE) in which of
the 1.3 million high school senior examinees 711, 526 showed a high aptitude for Tech-Voc
programs while only 49, 066 showed a high aptitude for college (ELHC, 2009). These challenges
are also felt in Oro Site High School, Legazpi City, hence, a study on the effectiveness of TVL
curriculum among the graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus was
The primary goal of this study is to identify factors that influences the effectiveness of TVL
curriculum. In order to meet that aim, the study will focus on the following specific objectives: to
gain further information and knowledge, and discuss certain information from the graduates the
effect of TVL curriculum to them; and to inform, orient and educate people about the advantages
of taking TVL curriculum in senior high.
Statement of the Problem
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of TVL curriculum among the graduating
Grade 12 students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus. Findings of this study would serve as basis
for a proposed action plan. Specifically, this study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. The profile of the respondents in terms of:
a. Age
b. Sex
c. Tracks
2. The implemented programs in the TVL curriculum to develop the skills of the students.
3. The current situation of the TVL graduates.
4. The effectiveness rate of the TVL curriculum.
5. Recommendations to make TVL curriculum more effective.
Significance of the Study
The study has significance along with the following concerns:
To the Department of Education. This could serve as a basis for giving necessary support
in terms of additional trainings/seminars, provide guides, manuals, textbooks and other
instructional materials as well as educational facilities that would lead to a better K to 12
To the Forbes College, Legazpi Campus Administrators. With the findings of the
study, they could have clear picture on what is really happening in teachers’ tasks as
facilitators of learning, thus, school administrators could be able to provide vital assistance
to the teachers’ relevant needs. For the teachers, this will serve as a way for reflecting their
own repertoire and an avenue for professional growth.
To the parents, community people and other stakeholders. With this study, they will
become fully aware on the needs of the teachers, thus, they can extend their full support and
active cooperation to the school’s program and project concerning to teachers’ needs.
To the future researchers. This will be a guide for conducting similar investigation.
Scope and Limitations
This research study will conduct by the Grade 12 TVL students to find out the effectiveness
of TVL curriculum among the graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus.
This study has a scope and delimitations that will enable the researchers to catch on the ideas,
further knowledge and deep understanding of the students regarding the aforementioned topic. The
respondents of this study will be the Grade 12 Senior High School graduating students from Forbes
College, Legazpi Campus and the researchers will assure outmost confidentiality from their
responses. This study was limited to the number of students at Forbes College, Legazpi Campus.
The profile group included only those TVL students who will graduate this school year 2018-2019,
at Forbes College, Legazpi City.
Chapter II
In order to establish a comprehensive background for this study, a survey of related
literature and studies has been conducted and have drawn out some concepts, ideas and data a
bases in formulating approaches, formats, instruments and necessary information in the conduct
of the study. This section presents the related literature and studies that have some bearings in this
investigation. It includes the summary of related studies and literature conducted by foreign and
local writers that the researcher considered relevant to the study being undertaken.
Related Literature
A. Foreign
According to Clikeman (2000), “Just because you have a classroom full of students who
are about the same age doesn’t mean they are equally ready to learn a particular topic, concept,
skill or idea. It was important for teachers and parents to understand that maturation of the brain
influences learning readiness. For teachers, this was especially important when designing lessons
and selecting which strategies to use.” She added that all children need to be challenged and
nurtured in order to profit from your instruction. Instruction that was above or below the maturity
level of a child’s brain was not only inappropriate; it can lead to behavior problems in your
classroom. Inappropriate behaviors — avoidance, challenging authority and aggression towards
other students — can be explained by a failure to match instruction to the brain maturity of your
students. Furthermore, she stressed that all brain functions do not mature at the same rate. A young
child with highly advanced verbal skills may develop gross and fine motor control more slowly
and have trouble learning to write clearly. Another child may be advanced physically but not know
how to manage his/her social skills. Others may be cognitively advanced but show emotional
immaturity. This relates to the present study because TVL curriculum is about enhancing the skills
of a student that could be use when they graduate from senior high and look for a job.
Azubuike (2012) added that Vocational/Technical education subjects ought to attract many
students because of its laudable importance but reverse has been the case. The reason for this
probably was due to people’s perception that it does not require specialized kind of training. The
students have the feeling that even if one was at home he or she can acquire the necessary skills
like Cooking, farming, masonry, etc. without formal training. People are ignorant of the
importance of the vocational subjects that could help male and female students receive formation
and were able to work solution to problems. This relates to the present study because TVL enables
the students to acquire skills, abilities essential for independent life met up with personal and
family needs more especially in this economic difficulties.
According to Dunn and Dunn, a student contract “should be a part of every dynamic
educational program,” and as a powerful teaching tool, it should stimulate individualized learning
(p. 31). They also stated that “individualized instruction is the one-on-one relationship between a
student and what he learns”. One of the reasons for selecting the Dunn and Dunn model for the
learning contract used in this study was their idea of individualized instruction. This relates to the
present study because TVL instructional tool gave the students more opportunities to be actively
involved in the educational process, and it enabled the teacher to offer a variety of learning
opportunities for the mixed-ability students. The learning opportunities changed with the types of
assignments, the availability of resources for hands-on activities, enrichment activities, and review
activities for reinforcing curriculum concepts.
Edward et al. (2002) made a literature review on Attitudes to Vocational Learning and
found out that females are more likely to continue with formal education and this applies to both
higher and further education. However, the rate of entering higher education has declined slightly
for both males and females; the rate for those entering further education has increased slightly for
both genders. This relates to the present study since gender is important to identify who between
males and females benefitted more in TVL curriculum.
According to Daresh (2007), curriculum can be understood to by “schools and individual
teachers choose to do in their encounters with children”. He also pushes the idea even further,
arguing the curriculum could also be everything that learners acquire, both within the school and
within the home. This relates to the present study because of the following reasons: if the
classrooms are important factors in achieving quality education, then the teachers play the most
crucial role in facilitating student learning. Teachers’ professional attitude, energy, and motivation
are critical in combination with teaching skills, in creating quality learning. These teaching skills
include many interacting factors: knowledge of the young learner, appropriate and varied
methodologies and subject matter knowledge, understanding of the curriculum and its purposes,
general professionalism, ability to communicate, enthusiasm for learning, sensitivity to others,
general character, discipline, ability to work with others, dedication, and relationship within the
school and community. Teachers should possess the competencies needed in their daily interaction
with the students.
B. Local Literature
Aquino, G.V. as an educator says ‘regardless of view of which the curriculum maybe
considered, the success or lack of success of that curriculum primarily lies in the hands of the
classroom teacher’. In this regard, as mentioned in the significance of the study, it is believed that
TVL instruction depends on the teacher’s preparation in teaching, the teaching methods and
techniques, evaluation instruments and the resourcefulness in solving problems met in instruction.
Rocco (2002) stated that the reconstructing the curriculum is part of an on-going effort to
improve the quality of learning. There is focus on the basics of improving the literacy and
numeracy while inculcating values across learning areas to make it dynamic. Change is the only
permanent thing, the Department of Education must open its mind and strive to do things better.
This relates to the present study because the quality of what the students learn depends on how
teachers and students operationalized the curriculum.
According to Angara, work force development is the top most concern of every sector of
society. Thus, vocational education should be given more focus. It is for this reason why the
Presidential Commission on Education has given priority to the retooling of work force to meet
the demand for trained workers. This relates to the present study because TVL curriculum focus
on developing trained workers with different skills.
To improve the quality of education and to help the Philippine economy, one strategy is to
establish linkage between vocational school and Technical Advisory Committees (TAC’s)
Bautista pointed out the following objectives of TAC’s; 1.) to link school and industry in
developing more relevant and appropriate programs of instruction in order to improve the
responsiveness of vocational schools and state universities offering technical courses and training
center in supplying the man power development and contribute to the long term economic growth
of the country. This relates to the present study since the implementation of TVL curriculum in
senior high is one of the best ways to suit in the economic trends.
According to Uy, the K-12 program was precisely supposed to either prepare students for
gainful work after basic education or prepare students for college. It intends both to equip the
students with the skills necessary for gainful employment and to prepare them for college within
the same time constraint. And because the designers are all college graduates with PhD’s from
the best of higher educational intentions, but without the experience of training students in
handling a lathe or a welding machine, we now have a policy which has effectively shut out
meaningful skills development in favor of pre-college preparation. This relates to the present study
because the K-12 program has been reduced thereby to pre-college preparation whose TVL
curriculum will prepare the student for college according to the College Readiness Standards of
the CHED.
Related Studies
A. Foreign Studies
In their study on “’Measuring and Targeting Internal Conditions for Schools Effectiveness
in the Free State of South Africa”, Abraham and Keith (2006), used a questionnaire as the basis
for constructing an index of school effectiveness. Their findings revealed that teachers were the
key drivers of internal school conditions for effectiveness, development and school change. This
relates to the present study because we can distinguish an effective curriculum through the teachers
that teach their students.
Schagen (2011) espoused that quality teachers need to be ready in the implementation of
any changes that may come. In his study entitled “Readiness to Implement the New Zealand
Curriculum “, which was carried out in 31 secondary schools and 265 primary schools where they
were evaluated, the extent to which each school considered it was found out that most schools
were progressing well in their preparations for implementing the new curriculum. This relates to
the present study because teachers as expected, overall were more advanced in their progress
towards quality education and aiming for competencies in teaching.
Likewise, in the study conducted by Banu (2011) entitled “Teachers
Readiness for
Computer Education Classes in the Secondary of Bangladesh”, it showed that the qualifications
and competencies of computer education teachers were inadequate for conducting computer
classes, classroom performance of the teachers were poor and CE school curriculum were not fully
integrated into the Bachelor of Education courses. This study was conducted among the 42
computer education teachers in 42 secondary schools where 81% of the teachers were not recruited
as computer teachers, only 195 introduced themselves a computer education teachers and they
were newly recruited with a teaching experience of not less than 10 years. She further suggested
that teachers should be provided with extensive-in –service-training programs focusing on
computer education contents, providing content based teaching materials inclusion of contents
which were not included in the bachelor education computer education. This relates to the present
study because teacher’s readiness is important in any curriculum changes that will be implemented
and they should be equipped with the necessary background and knowledge as to how to
effectively implement much.
In a study conducted by Kumar, et al. (2008) with the title “Teacher’s Readiness to Use
Technology in the Classroom: An Empirical Study”, it dealt with the relationship between actual
usage of computer (AUC) and technology acceptance constructs among secondary school
Mathematics, Science,
and English language(MSE) teachers in Malaysia. The preliminary
observations revealed that the (MSE) teachers are not utilizing these facilities in their teaching.
Although teachers were sent to batches of training to gain knowledge and skills in the Actual Usage
of Computer (AUC) and ICT(AUC) and ICT(AUC) and ICT equipment, many have returned to
the traditional mode of teaching. Among the 65 secondary schools included in the study with 318
as respondents, it was found out that the AUC among these teachers to improve in their usage of
computers. This relates to the present study because this implies that the introduction of
innovations in the educational system needs to be implemented and monitored regularly to ensure
its effectiveness and efficacy.
Mays (2013) in her study entitled “A comparison of constructivist and traditional
instruction in Technical Vocational Education” studied the challenges facing technical vocational
education he emphasized that the technical school is a place to acquire practical knowledge and
hands-on experience in addition to the basic theory in the chosen field of specialization. This
relates to the present study because technical-vocational education affords an individual a chance
to acquire practical knowledge and requisite skill training needed in the job market or for
immediate self-employment.
Teachers should therefore be provided with the needed knowledge, skills and attitudes in
the implementation of any programs or innovations being introduced to ensure its effectiveness.
Aside from the studies conducted by foreign people, there are also local literatures that can be
shared and studies conducted in the Philippines that are related to the study.
B. Local Studies
Sison (2011) conducted a study about “The Specialization Courses Offered for Livelihood
Program in Lipanto National High School”. He concluded that that the effectiveness in terms of
application of what the learners have acquired during the training course and its application in turn
is affected by various factors, the most important of which is organizational framework and climate
with in, to apply the ideas learned from the course. He furthered emphasize that training is not
transferred until it is well integrated and successfully applied in a given job for which it was
The study of Pala (2012) entitled “The Industrial Arts Institution in San Clemente District
of Tarlac”; one of the significant aspects he considered was the trade testing of grade six pupils
along the industrial arts component of EPP in the district. His objective was to determine whether
the grade six pupils were ready for their secondary training in TLE. The Trade test was patterned
after the STEP competition. The result revealed that a great majority of the respondents had
approaching proficiency performance and few were under the proficient performance category.
The study of Facun (2011) entitled “Performance of Grade VI pupils I EPP in San Jose
District of Tarlac” tried to describe the performances of the pupils along the three core areas of
EPP which are Agriculture, Home Economics and Industrial Arts. He determined a trade test which
was patterned after the STEP competition. The study revealed that the pupils were proficient in
Agriculture and Industrial Arts while in Home Economics their performance fell under the
developing proficiency category. He concluded that instruction delivery in Agriculture and
Industrial Arts was strong; while in Home Economics, it was categorized as weak.
On the other hand Talambayan (2008) entitled “Readiness of General High School in the
Implementation of Technical-Vocational Program in the Division of Laguna: Inputs to Skill
Development Training Model”, insists in his salient findings that in terms of level of readiness as
to managerial skills particularly in planning, the school heads and the teachers are in agreement
and that the school heads involve their staff in policy formation regarding the implementation of
technology instruction. In terms of physical plant and facilities specifically adequacy of TechnicalVocational textbooks and manuals, adequacy of school buildings and workshop, an
implementation of computer technology to become competent to handle classes involving
electronic devices like computers it was revealed that there are inadequacies on the level of
preparedness as perceived by the respondents.
Casasola, C. (2006) conducted a study about “Technical Skills, Behavioral Response and
Academic Performance of Secondary Vocational School”, she concluded that higher learning was
mandated to produce graduate who will not only perform well in academics but also in the
development of their technical skills. It is hoped that these graduates will be managers or skilled
technicians in their respective fields of specialization.
Synthesis of the Study
From the review of related literature, the foreign literature taken from Clikeman, Azubuike,
and Dunn and Dunn discussed that TVL curriculum enables the students to enhance skills, acquire
skills and give students more opportunities. It is said that when these three aspects in a graduate
student is present, the curriculum can be concluded as effective. Moreover, Edward and Daresh
enumerated two important factors to know the effectiveness of TVL curriculum which are the
gender of the students and the teaching skill of the teachers. The local literature, in addition,
supported these foreign ideas. Aquino and Rocco concluded that teaching method and techniques
are vital for the operation of the TVL curriculum. But, this was not tackled by Angara that opined
TVL curriculum can be effective if they had develop trained workers, which was supported by
Bautista to suit in the economic trends. Uy’s ideas focus on the preparation of TVL curriculum
when graduate students prepare in college.
From the review of related studies, the foreign studies of Abraham and Keith, Schagen,
and Banu concentrated on the evaluation of teachers in TVL curriculum. They revealed that the
effectiveness of TVL curriculum in different schools was based on the teachers’ competencies and
readiness. On the other hand, the study of Kumar contradicted because according to him,
educational system needs to be implemented and monitored regularly to ensure its effectiveness.
However, Mays said that an effective curriculum may help individual acquire practical knowledge
and requisite skill training for self-employment. From the local studies, the present study and the
studies of Sison, Pala (2012) and Facun (2011) are similar because the three studies dealt with
identifying the proficiency level of the students on different special skills in line with TVL.
However, the three studies are different because the local studies dealt with determining whether
the grade six pupils were ready for their secondary training in TLE while the present study dealt
with the effectiveness of TVL curriculum to the graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College,
Legazpi Campus. In the study of Talambayan (2008) and the present study are similar because
both studies dealt with Technical-Vocational programs. However, the local study is different from
the present study because it dealt with the readiness of the students.
Gap bridged by the Study
After going through a thorough analysis of the related literature and studies, the researchers
identified gaps that the present study has to bridge. The related literatures mostly focused on the
factors and aspects that influences the effectiveness of the TVL curriculum, which was identified
as gender, teaching skill, methods and techniques. There are also related literature and studies
focused that TVL curriculum can be effective if students enhanced and acquired skill training, and
have positive output in their job opportunities and college level. None of these reviewed studies
dealt on the effectiveness of TVL curriculum to the graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes
College, Legazpi Campus. None of these studies also dealt in evaluating the graduate student of
the said curriculum. Thus is the gap, which the study attempts to bridge.
Theoretical Framework
The law of effect by Thorndike (1930). He was an American psychologist who
state that learning happens when an activity propensity is excited through preliminary alteration,
set or disposition. Thorndike’s research showed the correct response was strengthened and the
incorrect responses were weakened. He then identified the three major laws of learning to explain
the process of law of effect, experiences and readiness. The law of effect is satisfying effect
following the response strengthens the connection between the stimulus and the behavior while
the law of exercise is the repetition of the experience increases the probability of a correct response.
But it will not enhance learning without a satisfying effect following the responses. And lastly the
law of readiness is the execution of an action in response to a strong impulse is satisfying but the
blocking of an action or forcing it is annoying. Reactions that create a wonderful impact in a
specific circumstance turn out to be bound to happen again in that circumstance, and reactions that
deliver a discomforting impact turn out to be less inclined to happen again in that circumstance.
His concept as a part of the researchers’ ideas is formed; it is the force that will
establishes the preparedness of the TVL Grade 12 students in learning new things relating to their
knowledge. This can be the result of the effect of K-12 curriculum to the graduates as their
learnings are concerned to be applied.
Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm
The Laws of Learning
(Edward Thorndike)
Law of Effect
Law of Exercise
Law of Readiness
The Effectiveness of TVL
Curriculum to the Graduating
Grade 12 students of Forbes
College, Legazpi Campus
Conceptual Framework
The researcher conceptualized that if there is a study on the teaching competencies
of the TVL teachers, essential matters could be revealed, and this could be an avenue for
handling solutions. The following figure shows how the study works.
The Effectiveness
of TVL
Curriculum to the
Grade 12 students
of Forbes College,
Legazpi Campus
Action Plan
Figure 2. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study
As shown in the paradigm of the study, the researcher would like to evaluate the
respondents’ practices along the mentioned areas. From this evaluation, the researcher would
then propose a relevant action plan intended to uplift the effectiveness of TVL curriculum to
the graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus. This will substantiate the
study from educational point of view.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined conceptual and operational in the context of the study to
provide the readers a common frame of understanding.
Curriculum. Is the planned interaction of pupils with instructional content, materials,
resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. In this study, it
refers to the process includes the use of literacies and data that are interwoven through the use of
digital media and/or texts that address the complexities of learning.
K-12 Curriculum- It describes how the new educational system makes the student
enhance their skills and knowledge. Curriculum can refer to: the courses or subjects students study
in school, the general learning goals and activities for a course, set of courses, or grade level, the
specific learning objectives or standards to be mastered.
Senior high school-It is part of K-12 Curriculum that adds two years in high school. A
Students’ Academic Performance. The execution of an action/something accomplished
(Merriam-Webster Dictionary). In this study, it refers to the academic performance of students in
Science subject on first quarter.
Teaching Competencies. These are the measurable or observable knowledge, skills,
abilities, and behaviours (KSABs) critical to successful job performance of persons.
(www.hr.wa.gov/WorkforceDataAndPlanning/.../Competencies/.../default) In this study, it refers
to the personal capacity of teachers which include knowledge, attitude and skills that enable them
to perform their job successfully in accordance with the standard of performance required by the
Department of Education.
Technical-Vocational-Livelihood graduates- these are the respondent of the study
wherein they are the first batch of graduate in TVL strand in Forbes College, Legazpi Campus.
This graduate will give the effects of new curriculum after applying what they learn. SHS students
can earn a senior high school diploma, Certificate of Competency, and national certifications that
follow TESDA’s training regulations. This will allow them to gain mid-level skills and offer more
chances of landing a job or becoming an entrepreneur. (K-12Philippines.com)
Technical-Vocational-Livelihood (TVL) program- this program is about those
students who have skill and not yet prepared for college. The government will form links with
many companies for technical and vocational courses to enable students to gain experience while
studying. This step will give them the chance to work for the partner companies. TechnicalVocational-Livelihood track will equip you with job-ready skills in the future. This track also
invests primarily on skills that can gain you requisite COCs (Certificates of Competency) and NCs
(National Certifications) which would be essential when looking for better career opportunities in
agriculture, electronics, and trade. This is also important when applying abroad where the skills
you gain would prepare you as you join the workforce. Also, according to the Department of
Education, the TVL specializations may be taken between Grades 9 to 12. Exploratory Subjects at
40 hours per quarter are taken during Grades 7 to 8. (edukasyon.ph)
Chapter III
This chapter presents the research design used in this study, respondents of the study,
questionnaire to be used, method of gathering data and the statistical treatment of data to answer
the problems posted in the first chapter.
The Research Design
This study is a descriptive qualitative. It is descriptive because the data gathered were
presented as they had been actually existing. In gathering the data needed, a questionnaire checklist
is prepared. Informal interview and observations were also availed by the researcher themselves
to identify the effectiveness of TVL Curriculum to the graduating Grade 12 students of Senior
High School of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus.
After the projected needs for human and material resources were identified, insights for the
further improvement of the school preparations will be proposed. Finally, the implication of the
study to TVL curriculum will be realized.
Respondents of the Study
The researchers will use random sampling in the selection of the respondents. The
proponents will select the all graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College, as the respondents
of the study. The researchers will assure the utmost confidentiality from their answers.
Sources of Data
Data collection will be use through secondary and primary sources. Primary data sources
included the key informants for each study answering the questionnaires to be provide. Secondary
data sources will cover mainly the government publication or documents and annual reports.
Secondary data will cover different sources and provide essential preparation for the survey
questionnaire. They will also support in exploring the particular response of the respondents during
The key informants: The key informants of the study will be the senior high school
graduating Grade 12 students of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus. The researchers will observe
the informants and they will be interviewing them during the process. They will supply the bulk
of data that the researchers will obtain through inquiries. They will provide information regarding
the learning process, coping mechanisms, the struggles, and the process they undergo.
Documents: Documents like books, surfing in the internet and several of undergraduate
theses about the TVL curriculum and K-12 program will be used for gathering data. It will also
use as a guide and basis of this study.
Instruments to be Used
The surveyed questionnaires will base to know the effectiveness of TVL Curriculum to the
graduating students of Senior High School of Forbes College, Legazpi Campus. The questionnaire
is in a form of a checklist that will support this study. The checklist will be based on the experiences
of the students while taking Senior High strand offered by the school.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers utilized the following steps and procedures in gathering data needed in the
study. First, the researcher will seek for the approval of the subject adviser to conduct the survey.
Next, the researchers will formulate a survey questionnaire that is going to use in gathering
information from the respondents. Then, the researchers will distribute the questionnaires to the
respondents. After gathering all the information needed in the study, the researchers will organize,
analyze and interpret the data to be gather from the respondents.
Validation of Instrument
For a proper way to start the data gathering. The researchers have sent a letter to the office
of the principal to ask approval from the principal to conduct a data gathering. Noted by the thesis
adviser and recommended by the thesis mentor.
A survey will conduct to the selected Grade 12 students of TVL strand from Forbes
College, Legazpi Campus. Once the conduct of survey is being approve by the principal and the
adviser, the researchers will have to pre-test the survey tool to volunteers who would qualify to
the sampling criteria afterwards; they will ask to answer the survey questionnaire. The responses
of the volunteers will provide evidence on the reliability of the survey instruments through
evaluating their comments pertaining to the tool. Once the research instrument is find reliable, it
is time to conduct the survey. The survey will be conducted during free time.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The primary instrument used for this study is a questionnaire checklist. Simple frequency
counts and percentages will be used in the study. It made use of the descriptive approach in the
presentation of the data. Tables and figures will be utilized to give the reader a comprehensive
picture of the gathered data and information. The data gathered will ensure their validity and
After each questionnaire is collected, tabulations of raw data were made in a frequency
distribution matrix. Percentage and mean values are computed. Tables were constructed showing
the items, frequency, counts, percentages and mean values.
The criterion used in interpreting and analyzing the collected data was the data weighted
To get the percentage of the frequency distribution, the given frequencies were divided by
the total number of frequencies distribution, the given frequencies were divided by the total
number of frequencies or number of population and the quotient was then multiplied by one
hundred (100). The formula is 𝑃 = 𝑁 × 100 (Viscara, 2003).
To get the weighted mean, the formula was 𝑋 =
is the weighted mean
is the frequency
is the weight of the score
is the total number of respondents