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 is defined as an awareness of one’s own personality or individuality. The term
“self” often refers to yourself, myself, himself/herself, oneself, and your own self.
This term refers to a person in a prime condition, as entire person or individual.
Awareness is defined as having or showing realization, participation in,
commitment to, and knowledge of the development of one’s values.
Self-management Sequence (Helmstetter & Shad, 2000)
 Life is not matter of luck or fortune. If we leave our lives up to chance, chances
are, we will fail. Success in self-management is always the result of something
else, something that leads up to it. Most of what seems to happen to you,
happens because of you something you created, directed, influenced, or allowed
to happen.
The Self-management Sequence:
The Five Steps That Control Our Success or Failure
1) Behavior
 The step that most directly controls our behavior what we do or do not do.
 Behavior means our actions. Each moment of day will determine whether
or not we will be successful that moment or that day in everything that we
2) Feelings
 Every action we take is first filtered through our feelings. How we feel
about something will always determine of affect what we do and how we
do it.
3) Attitudes
 Our attitudes are the perspective from which we view life. Some people
seem to have a good attitude about most things. But when we look closer,
we will find that most of us have a combination of attitudes some are
good; some are not so good.
4) Beliefs
 What we believe anything will determine our attitudes about it, create our
feelings, direct our actions, influence us to do well or poorly, and lead us
to succeed or fail.
5) Programming
 We believe that we are programmed to believe. Our conditioning form the
day we were born has created, reinforced, and nearly permanently
cemented most of what we believe about most of what goes on around us.
 What we believe dictates our attitudes, affects our behavior, and
determines our success of failure, thus:
a. Programming creates;
d. feelings determine actions; and
b. Beliefs create attitudes;
e. actions create results.
c. Attitudes create feelings;
Human Person
 The human person is the subject of education: he/she is a human person
learning and being taught. The human person is also the object of education:
he/she is at the center of the curriculum and the entire program.
Values Development
 Latin word “valere” to be worth or to be strong.
 A thing has value when it is perceived to be intrinsically good and desirable.
 To develop a value is to acquire it gradually, and by successive changes, to
move from the original position to one providing more opportunity for effective
Values Education
 is the process by which values are formed in the learner under the guidance of
teachers and parents as the former interacts with his/her environment.
The Values of Being and Giving (Eyre & Eyre, 1993)
 A true and universally acceptable “value” is one that produces behavior that is
beneficial both to the practitioner and to those on whom it is practiced.
1) Values of Being
 Honesty
o Honesty must be practiced with other individuals, with instructions,
with society, and within oneself.
o The inner strength and confidence are bred by exacting
truthfulness, trustworthiness, and integrity.
 Courage
o to attempt difficult things that are good. It is the strength not to
follow the crowd, to say no and mean it, and influence other by it.
 Peaceableness
o the calmness, peacefulness, and serenity. It is the tendency to
accommodate rather than argue.
o the ability to understand how others feel rather than simply reacting
to them. It mean the control to temper.
 Self-reliance and Potential
o refer to a person’s individuality, awareness, and development of
his/her gifts and uniqueness.
o tendency to blame others for difficulties must be overcome. Must
have a commitment to personal excellence.
 Self-discipline and Moderation
o refer to physical, mental, and financial self-discipline. Involve
moderation in speaking, in eating, and in exercising.
o avoiding the dangers of extreme or unbalance viewpoint.
 Fidelity and Chastity
o refer to the value and security of fidelity within marriage and of
restraints and limits before marriage.
o involve the commitment that go with marriage and responsibility
that go with sex.
2) Values of Giving
 Loyalty and Dependability
o refer to loyalty to family, employers, country, church, schools, and
other organizations and institutions.
o These mean reliability and consistency in doing what one says
he/she will do.
 Respect
o means respect of life, property, parents, elders, nature, and the
beliefs and rights of others. It refers to courtesy, politeness, and
o means self-respect and the avoidance of self-criticism.
o it means individual and personal caring that goes beneath and
beyond loyalty and respect.
o love for friends, neighbors, even adversaries, and a prioritized,
lifelong commitment of love for family.
Unselfishness and Sensitivity
o pertain to becoming more extroverted and less self-centered.
Learning to feel with and for others.
o refer to empathy, tolerance brotherhood, and sensitivity to the
needs of people and situations.
Kindness and Friendship
o refer to awareness that being kind and considerate is more
admirable than being tough or strong.
o necessitate the ability to make and keep friends. Involve
helpfulness and cheerfulness.
Justice and Mercy
o refer to obedience to law and fairness in work and play.
o involve an understanding of the natural consequences and the law
of the harvest.
Value Formation
 is a lifelong process of growing which gets its strength from Jesus’ sermon on the
Two Factors Affecting Value Formation
1) Influences
 these depend on a person’s internal traits and characteristics such as
intellectual and emotional capabilities.
2) Experiences
 like good influences, good experiences are needed in value formation.
Four types of experiences Affecting Value Formation
• Liturgical experience
• Learning experience
• Bible experience
• Human experience
Value Clarification
1) Value clarification is a difficulty task.
2) Values are better than rules.
3) Values serve as outline.
4) Values send a message.
5) Values shape an organization.
Core and Related Values
 The seven core values are made specific and further explained and ramified into
particular values. The human dignity is the overarching value; all other values are
pursued because of the inner worth of the human person.
Self-awareness gives you the capacity to learn from your mistakes as well as your
successes. It enables you to keep growing. ~Lawrence Bossidy
 an act involving a wide range of activities, including traditional forms of mutual
aid and developmental interventions that provides an enabling and empowering
environment both on the part of the beneficiary receiving, and the volunteer
rendering the act, undertaken for reasons arising from socio-developmental,
business or corporate orientation, commitment or conviction for the attainment of
the public good and where monetary and other incentives or reward are not the
primary motivating factors. (From RA 9418 or The Volunteer Act of 2007)
- Free will, no compulsion
- No financial gain
- Benefits a third party
is the act, practice, or principle of contributing one’s time, talents, and resources
freely to worthwhile purposes without tangible compensation.
it is considered the most fundamental act in the society.
it is geared toward good causes that helped alleviate the suffering of others.
it promotes peace, solidarity, and trust among citizens.
Who is involve in this Volunteerism? What do you call a person doing volunteerism?
 volunteers
Moore (2002) describes a Volunteer as:
 a volunteer is a person who is a light to others, giving witness in a mixed-up age,
doing well and willingly the tasks at hand, namely, being aware of another’s need
and doing something about it.
 is a person who strives to make other people happy, who takes loneliness out of
the alone by talking to them, who is concerned when others are unconcerned,
who has the courage to be a blessing and to say the things that have to be said
for the good of all.
 is a person whose charity is fidelity, who is faithful in an unfaithful world, grateful
in an ungrateful world, giving when all are grasping, listening when others need
to tell about their fears and problems.”
Why do people volunteer?
 To share and to help
o People want to give back to society while others want to make difference
and touch other people’s lives.
 To be part of or to belong to society
o Volunteers want to feel valued.
 To learn
o People volunteer in order to gain new skills, experience or knowledge.
What can you offer as a Volunteer?
 Time
 Talent
 Treasure
Is NSTP a form of volunteerism?
Volunteerism and NSTP
 Building awareness and appreciation and inculcating the value of volunteerism in
personal, community and national development
Preparation for future volunteer engagement in the NSRC and other individual or
institutional volunteer programs
Volunteer Act of 2007
Volunteerism is strengthen by R.A. 9418
 This legislation recognizes that volunteerism or “bayanihan” can be harnessed
as a strategy for national development and international cooperation. The Act
commits government to partnership to achieve the needed social transformation
and sustainable development through volunteerism.
There are three main interrelated objectives of the Volunteer Act of 2007.
 It aims to provide the policy framework that shall underscore the fundamental
principles necessary to harmonize the broad and diverse efforts of the voluntary
 It aims to provide a conducive and enabling environment for the mobilization and
nurturance of volunteers and volunteer organizations.
 It hopes to strengthen the Philippine National Volunteer Service Coordinating
Agency (PNVSCA) as an effective institution to support volunteerism in the
Being a framework, the Volunteer Act recognizes the different roles of different sectors
of society, including government. It is tasked to provide the environment for
volunteerism to prosper. It shall be facilitative, coordinative and promotive in performing
its functions. To a certain extent, this means taking a backseat.
The Volunteer Act specifically calls for integrating volunteerism in the education
curriculum. Such integration provides students with the volunteering arena by which
they can channel their idealism and vigor into something worthwhile.
Benefits of Volunteers
Volunteerism yields the following benefits:
1) Community Development
2) Development of the skills of the volunteers
3) Peace, solidarity and trust among citizens
4) Career opportunities for volunteers
5) Friendship among citizens
6) Experienced and self esteem gained by volunteers
Values Expected of Volunteers
1) Commitment
 Volunteers are attached to, identified with, and involve in community
2) Professionalism
 Volunteers observed work ethics in performing their responsibilities with
socially and morally accepted behavior.
3) Creativity
 Volunteers search constantly for new strategies and methods of doing a
task for improved results
4) Unity
 A volunteer supports teamwork to achieve the common goal.
Volunteers Opportunities
The 2001 National Survey of Giving, Volunteering, and Participating shares the
following questionnaire, the answers to which help determine what kind of Volunteer
opportunities will be suited to the individual volunteer.
1) If you have all the human and financial resources in the world, what problem
would you love solve, what would you change, and what would you create? Your
answers will tell you what matters the most to you.
2) What kind of time commitment are you willing to make? Are you looking for a
regular/weekly volunteer commitment or a short-term/one-time opportunity?
3) Would you like to volunteer with other people or by yourself?
4) Would you like to volunteer from your own home or would you prefer to volunteer
in an organization?
5) If you would like to volunteer away from home, where is the best location for
6) Do you have specific skills or talents that you would like to share in an
7) Would you like to develop specific skills?
8) What are your personal goals? Would you like to re-enter the workforce or meet
new people?
Potential Volunteer Opportunities are as follows
A. Based on the interests of an individual
1) If you like animals, you can help out at an animal shelter or the nearest zoo.
2) If you like working with kids, you can get involved at a day-care or preschool
center or help younger students with their schoolwork.
3) If you enjoy playing sports, you can play games with the kids at a nearby
sports complex or organize a mini-sports fest.
4) If you like to cook, you can get together with friends and teach moms or
housekeepers new recipes, the latest about food preparation and
preservation, and entrepreneurship opportunities in cooking.
5) If you enjoy arts and crafts, you can teach how to make curtains or
bedspreads, embroider pillowcases and towels, and make unique fashion
accessories at a women’s shelter, nursing home, or orphanage.
6) If you enjoy the outdoors, you can help organize a clean-up drive in your
street or park or help a neighbour plant flowers.
7) If you enjoy dancing, singing, and acting, you can participate in your
community’s cultural show group.
8) If your grandparents have passed away or live far away and you do not get to
see them as often as you want to, you can make friends with a senior citizen
and adopt him/her as your grandma or grandpa.
9) If you are interested in foreign culture, you can volunteer at a school that
accepts foreign students.
10) If you are concerned about people with disabilities, you can volunteer at an
agency or institution that care for people with physical or mental disabilities.
B. Based on the future career goal of an individual
1) If you like to work in the medical field, you can volunteer at a community
health center or a government hospital or clinic.
2) If you are interested in teaching, you can volunteer at a public school.
3) If you are interested in science, you can volunteer at the local science
museum or zoo.
4) If you like to work in an office someday, you can volunteer at a non-profit
Community Service
 is identified by the Higher Educational Institution (HEIs) in consultation with the
local government, community-based organizations, and non-government
organizations as designed to improve the quality of life of community residents,
particularly low-income individuals, or to solve particular problems related to their
 Community Service includes the following:
1) First aid training or health care, preschool storytelling, social welfare,
social services, trauma counseling, group dynamics, crime prevention,
recreation, street dancing, and community improvement.
2) Serving in the youth corps as defined in the NSTP Act of 2001
3) Assisting students with disabilities
4) Tutoring, supporting educational and recreational activities, and
counseling, including career counseling
Volunteer Community-Service
 can be rendered in government offices, private companies or in any place where
services may be needed. Volunteers can also work from their homes.
Community Volunteerism
 entails identifying resources, building up present strengths; empowering partners
or individuals to reach their potential; facilitating new connections within the
community and strengthening such connections; and fostering relationships that
enhance the ability of groups and individuals to have a sense of belonging and a
desire to be involved.
“Youth in Nation-Building Act”
 An act creating the NATIONAL YOUTH COMMISSION, establishing a
Section 2
 The State recognizes its responsibility to enable the youth to fulfill their vital role
in nation-building and hereby establishes the National Comprehensive and
Coordinated Program on Youth Development, creates the structures to
implement the same and appropriate adequate funds to provide support for the
program and implementing structures on a continuing sustained basis.
 The State hereby declares that “Youth” is the critical period in a person’s growth
and development from the onset of adolescence towards the peak of mature,
self-reliant and responsible adulthood comprising the considerable sector of the
population from the age of fifteen (15) to thirty (30) years.
 Humankind needs to take lessons from its past in order to build a new and better
tomorrow. One lesson learned is that, to prevent our violence – ridden history
repeating itself, the values of peace, non-violence, tolerance, human rights and
democracy will have to be inculcated in every woman and man- young and old,
children and adults alike.
 Peace education does not simply mean learning about conflicts and how to
resolve them peacefully. It should also involve participation of young people in
expressing their own ideas and cooperating with each other to eliminate violence
in our individual lives, in our communities and in our societies. ~Ambassador
Anwarul K. Chowdhury (UN Representative)
I. Holistic Understanding of Peace and Violence
 is the absence of war or direct violence
 absence of death and destruction as a result of war and physical/directive
violence (Thee2002)
 is the absence of violence, not only personal or direct but also structural or
indirect (Johan Galtung)
 Humanly inflicted harm (Reardon)
Types of Violence
 Physical or direct violence
 Structural violence
 Direct violence can be categorized as:
o Organized violence – refers to war which describes as organized and
collective violence which occurs between states or within a states. (Birgit
Brock-Utne 1989)
o Unorganized violence – includes wife battering, rape, child abuse and
street crime.
Culture of Peace
 The Declaration of (UN,1998) states that “a culture of peace is a set of values,
attitudes, traditions, modes of the behavior and ways of life that reflect and
 Respect for life and for all human rights
 Rejection of violence in all its forms
 Prevention of violent conflict by tackling their root cause through dialogue and
 Recognition of the right of everyone to freedom of expression
 Devotion to principles of freedom, justice, democracy, tolerance, solidarity,
cooperation, pluralism, cultural diversity, dialogue and understanding between
nations, ethnic, religious, cultural and other groups and between the individuals.
II. Peace Education as Transformative Education
What is Peace Education?
 Peace education, or an education that promotes a culture of peace, is essentially
transformative. It cultivates the knowledge base, skills, attitudes and behaviors.
Why educate for peace?
 Educating for peace is an ethical imperative considering the negotiation of life
and wellbeing caused by all forms of violence. The ethical systems of the major
world faith traditions, humanitarian ethics and even primal and indigenous
spirituality have articulated principles that inspire the striving of peace.
Education for peace: List of knowledge areas, skills, and attitudes/values
1) Holistic concept of Peace
 Peace is not just the absence of direct/physical violence but also the
presence of conditions of wellbeing, cooperation and just relationships in
the human and ecological spheres.
2) Conflict and violence
 Conflicts are natural part of person’s social life, but they become a
problems of violence depending on the methods of conflict resolution
Some Peaceful Alternatives
A. Disarmament
 the goal is abolishing war and educing global armed forces and
B. Nonviolence
 study the philosophical and spiritual underpinnings of non-violence as well
as its efficacy as a method of change
C. Conflict Resolution, transformation and prevention
 study the effective ways of resolving conflicts non-violently and how these
can be applied their lives
D. Human Rights
 it is important to learners to have integral understanding of human rights
and to reject all forms of repression and discrimination based on beliefs,
race ethnicity, gender and social class.
E. Human solidarity
 all humans have common basic needs and aspirations and a shared
membership in an interdependent human/global community. We have only
one home (Planet Earth) and a common future.
F. Development based on justice
 aware of the realities and tragic consequences of structural violence.
G. Democratization
 democracy provides the environment within which peoples fundamental
rights, interests, and wishes are respected.
H. Sustainable development
 learners need to understand the interdependent relationship between
humans and the natural environment and understand the changes that are
necessary to ensure the wellbeing of earth’s ecosystem
1) Self-respect
 having a sense of their ownworth and a sense of pride in their own
particular social, cultural and family background as well as a sense of their
own power and goodness which will enable them to contributes toward
positive change.
2) Respect for others
 having a sense of the worth and inherent dignity of other people, including
those with social, religious, cultural and family backgrounds different from
their own.
3) Respect for life / Non violence
 valuing of human life and refusal to respond to an adversary or conflict
situation with violence.
4) Gender equality
 valuing the rights of women to enjoy equal opportunities when men and to
be free from abuse, exploitation and violence
5) Compassion
 sensitivity to the difficult conditions and suffering of other people and acting
with deep empathy and kindness toward those who are
6) Global concern
 caring for the whole human community transcending or going beyond the
concern which they have for their nation or local /ethnic community
7) Ecological concern
 caring for the natural environment, preference for sustainable living and
simple lifestyle.
8) Cooperation
 valuing cooperative process and principle of working together towards the
common goals.
9) Openness/Tolerence
 openness to the process of growth and change as well as willingness to
approach and receive other people’s ideas and beliefs.
10) Justice
 acting with a sense of fai rness towards others, upholding the principle of
equality (in dignity and rights) and rejection of all forms of exploitation and
11) Social responsibility
 willingness to take action to contribute to the
shaping of a society characterized by justice, nonviolence and wellbeing ; sense of responsibility
toward present and future generations.
12) Positive vision
 imaging the kind of future they prefer with a sense of
hope and pursuing its realization in ways that they can.
1) Reflection
 the use of reflective thinking or reasoning, through which they deepen
their understanding of themselves and their connectedness to others and
to living earth.
2) Critical thinking and analysis
 ability toapproach issues with an open but critical mind ; knowing how to
research, question, evaluate and interpret evidence.
3) Decision – making
 ability to analyze problems, develop alternative solutions, analyze
alternative solutions considering advantages and disadvantages and
having arrived preferred decision.
 creating and imagining new paradigms and new preferred ways of living
and relating
 listening attentively and with empathy, as well as ability to express ideas
and needs clearly in an non- aggressive way
Conflict resolution
 ability to analyze conflicts in an objective and systematic way and to
suggest a range of nonviolent solutions
 the ability to see the perspective of another person or group and to feel
what that person or group feels.
Group building
 working cooperatively inone another in order to achieve common goals.
III. The Comprehensive Scope of Peace Education
Disarmament Education
 to educate and to campaign against armsproliferation because it fuels armed
conflicts and draws resources away from the basic needs of the people.
Human Rights Education
 contributes to peace, the enjoyment of the fundamental human rights and
freedoms by the people provide the foundation for a nonviolent social order.
Global Education
 education for responsible participation in an interdependent world community;
human value-centered, world oriented and future oriented
Conflict Resolution Education
 to create a safe and constructive learning environment; to enhance students
social and emotional development and to create constructive conflict
Multicultural Education
 educational movement that has developed first in countries that are multicultural
or have culturally diverse population. It promotes person’s uniqueness of his own
culture as a positive characteristics and enables one to accept the uniqueness
of the cultures of others.
Education for International Understanding
 the primary principles include the importance of education in promoting peace,
human rights and democracy and the recognition of their intimate relationship.
Interfaith Education
 to bring together religious and spiritual leaders of diverse traditions to engage in
dialogue, to educate each other and their audience about respective traditions.
Development Education
 emerged to challenge the mainstream model of development which then
equated development with modernization. T criticized the unjust and
unsustainable economic order which has resulted to hunger, homelessness and
Gender-fair / Non-sexist Education
 seeks to foster among the learners respect for the abilities and rights of both
sexes and to develop awareness of the gender biases and stereotyping that
have been culturally perpetuated.
Environmental Education
 seeks to empower people with the knowledge, skills and values that will enable
them to live in peace with mother earth. Everyone should be a good steward or
kin of the natural environment.
IV. Spiritual and Faith Traditions as Resources for Peace
1) Rejection of violence
2) Love and reconciliation rather than retaliation
3) Use of transforming initiatives
Islam - meaning “ peace with God and other human beings”
1) A decleration and acceptance of the oneness of God and prophethood of
2) Prayer five times a day
3) Payment of zakah or obligatory charity
4) 4 fasting in the month of Ramadhan
Buddhism - teaches compassion and loving kindness
Hinduism - the ultimate goal is to gain a vision of unity which is non-discriminatory,
where every kind of life form is important.
Indigenoustraditions - they have this profound reverence for nature. They also
developed mechanisms for peacefully resolving their conflicts and disputes by drawing
from their own forms of indigenous spirituality.
V. Upholding Human Dignity
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
 Civil Rights
o Article 3 - Right to life, liberty and personal security
o Article 4 - Freedom from slavery
o Article 5 - Freedom from torture and degrading treatment
o Article 9 - Freedom from arbitrary arrest and exile
o Article 10 - Right to a fair public hearing
o Article 11 - Right to be considered innocent until proven guilty
o Article 12 - Freedom from interference with privacy, family, home and
o Article 13 - Right to free movement in and out of the country
o Article 16 - Right to marriage and family
o Article 19 - Freedom of opinion and information
 PoliticalRights
o Article 14 - Right to asylum in othercountries from persecution
o Article 20 - Right of peaceful assembly andassociation
o Article 21- Right to participate ingovernment and in free
 Economic Rights
o Article 17 - Right to own property
o Article 23 - Right to desirable work and to join trade uniond
 SocialRights
o Article 22 - Right to social security
o Article 24 - Right to rest and leisure
o Article 25 - Right to adequate living standard (health, food, housing, etc.)
o Article 26 - Right to education
 CulturalRights
o Article 18- Freedom of belief and religion
o Article 27- Right to participate in the cultural life of community
VI. Challenging Prejudice and Building Tolerance
Prejudice - Is a negative feeling or attitude towards a person or a group even if it lacks
Types of Prejudice
 Racism - the belief that one’s own cultural or racial heritage is innately superior
to that of others, hence the lack of respect or appreciation for those who belong a
“difference race”
 Sexism - a system of attitudes, actions and institutional structures that
subordinates women on the basis of their sex
 Heterosexism - negative attitudes toward lesbians and gay men.
 Classism - distancing from and perceiving the poor as “the other”
 Linguicism - negative attitudes members of dominant language groups hold
against non- dominant language groups
 Ageism - negative attitudes held against the young or the elderly
 Looksism - prejudice against those who do not measure
up to set standards of beauty. The usual victims are the
overweight, the undersized, and the dark skinned.
 Religious intolerance - prejudice against those who
are followers of religions other than one’s own.
Stereotype - refers to the negative opinion about a person or group based on incomplete
Discrimination - refers to negative actions towards members of a specific social group
that may be manifested in avoidance, aversion or even violence.
VII. Challenging the War System
“werra” which means confusion, discord, or strife.
an actual intentional and widespread armed conflict between political communities.
territorial disputes as the more causes of war.
The most horrible effect of war is death. Massacres, tortures, disappearances, sexual
violence including rape, executions, assassinations, bombing, burning and kidnapping
are examples of atrocious acts.
The UNESCO Preamble states that “if warsbegin in minds of men, then it is in minds of
men that the defenses of peace must be constructed. “Peace education is one concrete
pathway to challenge war. Peace education seeks to develop a global perspective on the
problems and understanding that humans are single species”
“We must bring love and compassion to the world today. We don’t need guns and
bombs to do this” ~Mother Teresa
“Peace and love, that’s what we need.”
UNIT IX. Introduction to Community-Based Management
 people living a specific area
 a social group of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share a
government, and have common cultural and historical heritage
 a social system
Characteristics of a Community
1) Physical
2) Community self – image
3) Community guiding values
4) Community style
5) Structural characteristics
6) Communication network
Types of Community
1) Rural
2) Urban
3) Sub-urban
Components of Community
 Core - represents the people that make up the community; demographics of the
population as well as the values, beliefs and history of the people.
 Eight subsystems of the community
o Housing, education, fire and safety, politics and government,
health, communication, economics, recreation
Community Organization
 Process forged along people’s empowerment and the essential formation of a
self-reliant organization that will facilitate development in a sustainable manner.
 Involves a series of interrelated activities aimed to unify the people into an
 Involves people’s participation in all stages of the organizing process.
 Manifests the people’s collective will to participate, voice out and be heard and to
decide as to unified group.
Community Organization (Goals)
1) People empowerment
2) Building organization
3) Building alliances/coalitions/linkages
4) Popular democracy
5) Social transformation
6) Leaders in development
Community Organization (Steps)
1) Entry in community
 Gather basic information about the place such as culture, practices and the
lifestyle of the people
 Do not regard yourself as superior or different from the people in the
 Dress simply as possible and act as naturally as you can as you enter the
 Do not appear as a savior or someone who will solve people’s problems
 Remember that development must be for the people and from the people
Integration with the people
 Integrate yourself with the people
 Gradually join their small groups
 Slowly start working in the community
 Participate actively in production processes
 Seek out congregation places
 Participate in social activities
 Appearance, speech and behavior should keep with the community
 Choose a modest and respected dwelling family
 Adopt a low key approach and profile, never gamble or drink alcohol
 Avoid courting and flirting with the men and women in the community
 Be sensitive to the needs of the people
 Go where the people are
 Trust and believe in the people
Community Study or Situational Analysis
 Facilitating people’s participation in analyzing their situation and problems
 Raise the awareness and consciousness of the people in handling national
Identifying and Developing Potential Community Leaders
 Equip them with useful knowledge and experiences to develop them into
 Educate and convince them that they can be potential leaders to represent
the group
 Belongs to the poor sector
 Well respected
 Willing to work for a change
 Can find time, conscientious and resourceful
 Communicate effectively
Core Group Formation
 Consist of the identified potential leaders
 Leaders are expected to meet and accept the challenge to organize the rest
of the community projects
Setting up and Developing the Organizational Structure
 People are now ready to set up their organization
 Election of their own leaders through the democratic or participatory process
of selection
Strengthening the Organization
 Give leaders a chance to move and work together on their own
 Let people learn how to identify the issues and problems confronting them
 Let them plan the various activities they can perform together for the common
 Let them see their financial problems and how to solve them by coming up
with income-generating projects
Community Development
 Planned and organized effort to assist individuals to acquire the attitudes,
skills, knowledge, and general capabilities required in their democratic
participation in the effective solution of community problems in an order of
priority determined by increasing level of competence
Community Development (Aims and Objective)
1) Promote
2) Sustain community action
3) Support
Community Development (Major Purposes/Objectives)
1) To help people employ the right methods to organize self-help activities
2) To develop techniques relevant to the situation for socio-economic and cultural
Community Development (Principles)
1) Focus on people’s participation
2) Be attuned to the demands of the people
3) Based on a theory that is tested, validated and relevant
4) Integrated in approach
5) Lead to empowerment of the people
6) Sustain the natural environment as a socio-economic base
Community Development (Five Elements)
1) A focus on the goals and needs of the community
2) The encouragement of self-help
3) Technical assistance from governmental and voluntary organizations which may
include personnel, equipment, supplies and money
4) Integration of various specialties
5) Felt needs of the people in the community
Community Development (Four General Phases)
1) Issue/problem identification and information dissemination:
 Real needs are distinguished from felt needs
 Problems are defined and analyzed
 Relationships developed
 Rapport is established
 Face-to-face interaction with people is made
 Opinions are elicited and information is disseminated
2) Mobilization of people/community
 People are stimulated to come together to discuss problems
 Meetings are called to identify community problems
 People analyze problems together, set objectives and plan and implement
 Potential leaders are identified and committee work is stimulated
3) Organization
 Combination of constructive forces of men and materials, machinery and
money working together in an orderly way
4) Education
 Members of the community are educated to assume responsibility for their
organization and to acquire the organizational skills and techniques
essential to organization maintenance
Guidelines for Community Workers
 Work with the poor and oppressed, not for them
 Development is an awakening process
 Let the people grow
 Build up the people’s solidarity
Build up the people’s organization
Strategic Planning
1) Represents analytical strategy creation and can lead to an intent
2) Useful framework for managing the organization’s strategic resource
3) Provide means of controlling resource allocation and fostering internal linkages
4) Translating goals/objectives into specific activities to meet community needs or
solve community problems
 How much? (quality of resources)
 Of what? (programs, services, projects) For whom? (target
beneficiaries/clients) Why? (to achieve what goals)
 For how much? (social and economic costs) What conditions? (with what
other consequences)
Planning (Steps)
 Diagnosis
 What do we want to achieve in a particular period?
 What are the possible ways of achieving this objective?
 What are the advantages and disadvantages of each proposal?
 Which proposal do we accept?
 Who will do what, when, where, and how?
 At what point do we need to evaluate?
Monitoring and Evaluation Monitoring
 monere
 Process of periodically gathering data pertaining to the status and formation of
the extent of project/program implementation
Purposes of Monitoring
 Provide a systematic method of collecting data on the implementation of the plan
as implementation is taking place
 Generate information that can be used for evaluation of the plan
 Detect problems in implementation as they occur for proper corrective measures
 Process through which the effectiveness of services is gauged against the goals
which the agency sets out to achieve
 Heart of any program development process
Evaluation (classification)
 Participatory
Evaluation (kinds)
 Ongoing
Evaluation (methods)
 Written
 Informal-oral
 Structured interview
 Group discussion method
Case study
Slides, photos, drawings