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INTRO: The article about Geology of the InSight landing site on
Mars by M. Golobek, et. Al. has a vast explanation regarding on
the Surface observations prior to the landing of the spacecreaft
called InSIght or also known as Interior Exploration using Seismic
Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.
the study highlighted the The InSight spacecraft which landed
successfully in western Elysium Planitia on Mars on November
26, 2018.
InSight's goal is to study the interior of Mars and take the planet's
vital signs, its pulse, and temperature. To look deep into Mars, the
lander must be at a place where it can stay still and quiet for its
entire mission. That's why scientists chose Elysium Planitia as
InSight's home.
IMPORTANCE OF THIS STUDY: This study provides important
context for interpreting the scientific results of the mission
because the lander carries a payload focused primarily on
exploring the interior of the planet, the regional setting and
subsurface structure of the landing site. Indeed, science
explorations are vast and required great skills. Researchers
continue to study the geology on Mars becauser rocks on Mars
Can Tell Us About the Planet's History and Its Potential for
Harboring Life. Of fundamental importance are the age and
composition of different types of rocks on the Martian surface.
Geologists use the age of rocks to determine the sequence of
events in a planet's history.
DISCUSSION: The study tackled the different aspects to be
considered regarding on the landing of the InSight. This involves:
1. Topographic map of the region around the InSight landing
2. InSight landing ellipses and spacecraft location
The terrains and surface materials observed by the lander are
generally as predicted from remote sensing data prior to land-ing.
Orbital investigations indicated a surface composed of>3 m thick
impact-fragmented regolith18 overlying Hesperian toEarly
Amazonian basaltic lava flows that would be similar to theSpirit
landing site 2, 3, 18. The terrains observed and the materials
present at the site formed dominantly by impact, mass wasting,
and eolian processes that highlights the importance of nonaqueous processes shaping the martian surface today.
These processes created an impact-generated regolith composed
mostlyof sand-sized particles with variable pebbles, cobbles and
boulder sassociated with a sequence of degraded impact craters
that overlie basalt flows (Fig. 9). This subsurface stratigraphy is
consistent with initial seismic investigation of Mars’interior13 and
will be further tested and refined by future InSight observations
and measurements.
RESULTS: Here, the authors characterize the surficial geology of
the landing site and compare with observations and models
derived from remote sensing data prior to landing and from
ongoing in situ geophysical investigations of the subsurface.
 Landing Location and Setting: InSight landed near the center
ofthe landing ellipse (130 km by 27 km)2at 4.502°N,
135.623°E atan elevation of −2613.43 m in the Mars
OrbiterLaser Altimeter, MOLA cartographic grid as imaged
by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment
(HiRISE)25 (see MethodsHiRISE and Doppler locations,
Supplementary Figs. 4–7, Sup-plementary Tables 3 and 4).
 The distance to the RISE inertiallocation determined from Xband radio tracking from the first34 sols of the mission is
~220 m to the west (SupplementaryFigs. 4 and 7), which is a
measure of the cartographic map tieuncertainty with inertial
 This offset is similar to previous measurements on Mars
26,27 and is important for landing spacecraft (which are
tracked in inertial space) and improving the map tie
Conclusion: InSight, which stands for Interior Exploration
using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport, is
NASA's next Mars lander and is designed to explore the Martian
interior. The InSight mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory (JPL), which has been a pioneer in Mars exploration
for decades.
Recent and continuing missions to Mars are showing that the Red
Planet may be more geologically active than previously thought.
Volcanoes and erosion by running water have shaped the
surface. And evidence is growing that fluvial and possibly volcanic
processes have been active in the very recent past.