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21st Century - reviewer

- litera (letters)
- deals with ideas, thoughts and emotions of a man- thus, it
can be said that the literature is story of man (Kahayon,
- belles letters or beautiful writing (Baritugo et. al, 2004)
- in its broadest term: everything that has been written
- The best way to understand human nature fully and to
know a nation completely is to study literature (Garcia et.
al, 1993).
- Through literature, we learn the innermost feelings and
thoughts of people – the most real part of themselves;
thus, we gain an understanding not only of others, but
more importantly, of ourselves and of itself (Garcia et. al,
- Literature offers us an experience in which we should
participate as we read and test what we read by our own
- Literature does not yield much unless we bring something
of ourselves to it.
- Literature is a faithful production of life; in a sense it is a
product and commentary on life processes.
- Literature illuminates life.
- Literature is our life’s story including its struggles, ideas,
failures, sacrifices and happiness (Ang, 2006).
- Literature appeals to the man’s higher nature and its
needs – emotional, spiritual, intellectual and creative. Like
all other forms of art, literature entertains and gives
pleasure; it fires the imagination and arouses noble
emotions and it enriches man by enabling him to reflect
on life and by filling him with new ideas (Garcia et. al,
Literature according to Nuggets, 2004
- Literature is one of the seven arts:
 music
 dance
 painting
 sculpture
 theatre
 architecture
- Literature is a creative product of a creative work, the
result of which is form and beauty.
- Why people read literature?
 For information
 For amusement
 For higher and keener pleasure
 For cultural upliftment and
 For discovery of broader dimensions of life
- The ability to judge literature is based on the application
of certain recognizable standards of good literature. Great
literature is distinguishable of the following qualities
 Artistry- quality which appeals to our sense of beauty.
 Intellectual Value- A literary work stimulates through
enriches our mental life by making us fundamentals
truth about the life and the human nature.
 Suggestiveness- quality associated with the emotional
power of literature, such that it should move us deeply
and stir our creative imagination, giving and evoking
vision above and beyond the plane of ordinary life and
Spiritual value- elevates the spirit by bringing out
moral values which makes us better persons- this
capacity to inspire is part of the spiritual value of
Permanence- A great work of literature endures- it can
be read again and again as each reading gives fresh
delight, new insights and open new worlds of meaning
and experience.
Universality- Great literature is timely and timelessforever relevant in terms of its theme and conditions.
A literary text can be studied in several ways (Garcia, 1993).
 for its thematic value
 for its entertainment value
 for the richness of this plot
 for comparison of other works
 for the ideas it contains
 for its emotional power
 for character analysis as an appeal to move readers
to action
 for social reforms
 for its representation of literary movements and
 for the author’s unique style of language (style)
 for its reflection of life itself
All literature falls under two main divisions (Nuggets, 2004)
paragraph form
written in stanza or
verse form
Language expressed
in expressed in metrical,
ordinary language
figurative language
to the intellect
to the emotion
convince, inform, stir the imagination and
instruct, imitate & set an idea of how life
should be
a. Prose Drama- a drama in prose form. It consists entirely of
dialogues in prose, and is meant to be acted in stage.
b. Essay- a short literary composition which is expository in
nature. The author shares some of his thoughts, feelings,
experiences or observations on some aspects of life that have
interested him.
c. Prose Fiction- something invented, imagined or feigned to
be true
 Novel- a long fictitious narrative with a complicated
plot. It may have a main plot and one or more sub- plot
that develop with the main plot. Characters and actions
representative of the real life of the past or present
times are portrayed in a plot. It is made up of chapters.
Example: Without Seeing the Dawn by Stevan
 Parody- an imitation of another author’s work, where
ridicule is the main objective
 Anecdote- a brief narrative concerning a particular
individual or incident
Example: The Moth and The Lamp
 Character Sketch- a short description of the qualities
and traits of a person.
 Parable- a short tale that illustrates principle usually by
setting forth the application of the principle to
something familiar to the hearer or reader.
 Pamphlet- a small book of topic of current interest.
 Eulogy- a written praise of a dead person, event or
d. Biography and Autobiography
 Biography- a story of a certain person’s life written by
another who knows him (the former) well.
Example: Cayetano Arellano by Soccoro O. Alberto
 Autobiography- a written account of man’s life written
by himself.
Example: A Woman with No Face by Ms. Pilar Pilapil
e. Letter- written message which displays aspects of an
author’s psychological make-up not immediately apparent in
his more public writings. It is a prose form which by the force
of its style and the importance of its statement becomes an
object of interest in its own right.
f. Diary- a daily written record or account of the writer own
experience or observation.
g. Journal- magazine or periodical especially of a serious or
learned nature.
h. Other Prose Forms
 Historical Prose- a prose form that deals with historical
 Scientific Prose- a prose form that deals with the
subject science.
 Satirical Prose- a prose form that ridicules the vices
and follies of man.
 Current Publications- books, magazines or newspapers
that are commonly known or accepted or in general
usage at the time specified or in general usage or, if
unspecified, at the present time.
 Literary Criticism- analysis, interpretation and
evaluation of literary works; it does not mean “finding
fault with”
 Book Review- an article dealing with the contents,
literary worth, etc. of a book especially a recently
published book.
 Philosophy- a prose form that deals with the processes
governing thought and conduct. It also deals with the
theory of investigation of the principles or the laws that
regulate the universe and underlie all knowledge and
 Travel- a written account of trips, journeys, tours, etc.
taken by the writer
 Speech- the general words for a discourse delivered to
an audience whether prepared or impromptu.
- Address- implies a formal, carefully prepared speech
and usually attributes importance to the speaker or
to the speech.
- Oration- suggests an eloquent, rhetorical sometimes
merely bombastic speech, specially delivered on
some special occasions.
- Lecture- carefully prepared speech intended to
inform or instruct the audience.
- Talk- suggests informality and is applied either to an
impromptu speech or to an address or lecture in
which speaker deliberately uses a simple
conversational approach.
- Sermon- a speech by clergy man intended to give
religious or moral instruction and usually based on
scriptural text.
Literary Genres (Fiction, Poetry, Essay, Drama)
- Fiction is an imaginative recreation and re-creation of life.
It includes short stories and novels.
- Short Story, often to as a slice of life, is a fictitious
narrative compressed into one unit of time, place and
action; it deals with a single character interest, single
emotion called forth by a single situation.
Example: Dead Stars by Paz Marquez- Benitez
- The novel and short story differ from each other only in
length and complexity; the novel is only longer because of
several complications and twists to its plot.
- Even though fiction is a make-believe world, the literary
characters seem almost real and the situations are
likewise similar to real life conditions and surroundings
(PNU Teacher’s Guide, 2002).
- More often than not, people see themselves in the
character or relate them to all real- life people they know
(PNU Teacher’s Guide, 2002).
Elements of a Short Story
1. Character
 Five Ways of Revealing Literary Characters
- What the characters do along with the
circumstances in which they do it?
- How the characters are described?
- What the characters say and think?
- What the other characters say about them?
- What the author says about them?
 Types of Characters
- Round Character is a dynamic character who
recognize changes in the circumstances. It is also a
fully developed character, with many traits- bad and
good, shown in the story.
- Flat Character is also known as the stock or
stereotype character who does not grow and
 Other Types
- Protagonist- hero/ heroine
- Antagonist- a foil to the protagonist
- Deuterogonist- second in importance
- Fringe- one who is destroyed by his inner conflict.
- Typical or Minor Characters
2. Setting- the locale or place or period of time in which the
action of the story, play, novel or motion picture takes
place (also known as the background of the story); local
color described as a local scenery, the writer uses word,
mentions things in the native language, gives names to
character lines to create a vivid picture of a native place.
3. Conflict- the struggle or complication involving the
characters, the opposition of persons or forces upon which
the action depends in drama or fiction. There is a conflict
if there is a struggle which grows out of the interplay of
opposing forces (idea/interest).
 Types of Conflict
- Internal Conflict- occurs when the protagonist
struggles within himself or herself. The protagonist
is pulled by two courses of action or by differing
- Interpersonal Conflict- pits the protagonist to
someone else. It is personal against person
- External Conflict- happens when the protagonist is
in conflict with the values of his or her society.
4. Plot- a casually related sequence of events; what happens
as a result of a main conflict is presented in a structure
format, the sequence of events which involves the
character or the conflict (beginning, middle, ending).
 Narrative Order- is the sequence of events.
- Chronological- most common type of narrative
order in children’s book.
- Flashback- occurs when the story skips a period of
time that seems unusual compared to the rest of
the plot.
 Pyramidal Structure of Plot
- Exposition (beginning)- introduces the time, place,
setting and the main characters.
- Complication (rising action)- unfolds the problem
and the struggles that would be encountered by the
main characters leading to the crisis.
- Climax (result of crisis)- it is the highest peak of
interest and has greatest emotion; it is also known
as the crisis or point of no return.
- Denouement (falling action)- is the untying of the
tangled knots, or the part which shows the solving
of a problem, leading to its downward movement or
- Resolution (ending)- contains the statements about
the story.
 Qualities of a Plot
- Exciting- It should be more exciting than the
everyday reality that surrounds us.
- Good Structure- The episodes must be arranged
effectively; the most important element of the plot
is tying all the incidents together, so that one leads
naturally to another.
 Plot Devices
- Flashback- something out of chronology order; to
reveal information, to understand characters
- Foreshadowing- a device to give a sign of something
to come its purpose is to create suspense, to keep
the readers guessing what will happen when.
- Suspense- this is the feeling of excitement or
tension in the reader’s experiences as the action of
the plot unfolds.
- Surprise Ending- the ending that catches the
readers off- guard with an unexpected turn of
- In Media Res- a technique of beginning a story in
the middle of the action, with background
information given later flashbacks.
5. Point of View- the writer’s feeling and attitude toward his
subject; determined who tells the story; it identifies the
narrator of the story (form of narration also affects the
story itself)
 Classification of Point of View
- First Person- the writer uses the pronoun “I”. He/
She could be a participant or a character in his own
work; the narrator may be the protagonist, an
observer, a minor character, or the writer himself/
- Third Person- the writer narrator is a character in
the story. He/she narrates based on what he
observed or his opinion.
- Limited Third Person- an outsider or observer who
is not part of a story.
- Omniscient- the writer-narrator sees all; he can see
into the minds of characters and even reports
everyone inner thoughts.
6. Mood- is the atmosphere or emotional effect generated by
the words, images, situations in literary work (the
emotional ambience of the work), e.g. melancholy, joyous,
tense, oppressive, etc.
7. Tone- a term used, sometimes broadly, to denote an
attitude of feeling of the speaker or the author as
conveyed by the language in its artful arrangement (for
example, ironic, pensive, sly, acerbic, humorous); it
describes the attitude of the narrator or persona or
persona of the work whereas MOOD refers to the
emotional impact felt by the reader of the work. Although
often similar, these feelings are necessary the same.
8. Symbolism- stand for something other than themselves;
they bring to mind not their own concrete qualities, but the
idea or obstruction that is associated with them.
9. Images- are usually characterized by concrete qualities
rather than abstract meaning; these appeal to the senses
of the taste, smell, feel, sound, or sight.
10. Theme- the central or dominating idea in a literary work;
it is the topic or subject of the selection, which is
sometimes stated by a character or by the writer himself
but oftentimes, it is merely implied or suggested. Theme
is not familiar saying or moral lesson.
- Greek poesis- meaning or creating
- It is a kind of language that says it more intensely than
ordinary language does.
- Five things to remember about poetry (Baritugo, 2004)
1. Poetry is a concentrated thought.
2. Poetry is a kind of word-music.
3. Poetry expresses all the senses.
4. Poetry answers our demand for all rhythm.
5. Poetry is observation plus imagination.
Elements of Poetry
1. Sense is revealed through the meaning of words, images
and symbols.
a. Diction- denotative/ connotative meaning/ symbols.
b. Images and Sense Impression- sight, sound, smell,
taste, touch, motion and emotion.
c. Figures of Speech- simile, metaphor, personification,
hyperbole, apostrophe, metonymy, synecdoche, irony,
allusion, antithesis, litotes, oxymoron, paradox,
2. Sound is the result of combination of elements.
a. Tone Color- alliteration, assonance, rhyme,
repetition, anaphora.
Rhythm- ordered recurrent alteration of strong and
weak elements in the flow of the sound and the
silence: duple, triple, running or common rhyme.
c. Meter- stress, duration, or number of syllables per
line, fixed metrical pattern, or a verse form;
quantitative, syllabic, accentual syllabic.
d. Rhyme Scheme- formal arrangement of rhyme s in
stanza or whole poem.
Types of Poetry
1. Narrative Poetry
a. Epic- a long narrative poem of the largest proportions.
A tale centering about a hero concerning the beginning,
continuance and the end of events of great
significance- war, conquest, strife among men who are
in such a position that their struggles take on tribal or
national significance.
b. Metrical Romance- a narrative poem that tells us a
story of adventure, love and chivalry. The typical hero
is a knight on a quest.
c. Metrical Tale- a narrative poem consisting usually of a
single series of connective events that are simple idylls
or home tales, love tales, tales of the supernatural or
tales written for strong moral purpose in verse form.
d. Ballad- the simplest type of narrative poetry. It is a
short narrative poem telling a single incident in a
simple meter and stanzas. It is intended to be sung.
e. Popular Ballad- a ballad of wide workmanship telling
some simple incidents of adventure, cruelty, passion or
superstition, an incident that shows the primary
instincts of man influenced by the restraint of the
modern civilization.
f. Modern or Artistic Ballad- created by poet’s imitation of
folk ballad, make use (sometimes with considerable
freedom) of many of its devices and conventions.
g. Metrical Allegory- an extend narrative that carries a
second meaning along with the surface story. Things
and actions are symbolic.
2. Lyric Poetry
a. Ode- a lyric poem of some length serious in subject and
dignified in style. It is the most majestic of the lyric
poems. It is also written in spirit of praise of some
persons or things.
Example: Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind”
b. Elegy- a poem written on the death of a friend of the
poet. The ostensible purpose is to praise the friend, but
the death prompts the writer to ask, “If death can
intervene, so, so cruelly in life, what is the point of
living?” By the end of the poem, however, we can
expect that poet will have come to terms of grief.
Example: The Lover’s Death by Ricardo Demetillo
c. Song- a lyric poem in a regular metrical pattern set to
music. These have twelve syllables (dodecasyllabic)
and slowly sung to the accompaniment of guitar or
Example: Florante at Laura by Francisco Balagtas
d. Corridos (kuridos)- these have measures of eight
syllables (octosyllabic) and recited to a material beat.
Example: Ibong Adarna by Jose dela Cruz (Huseng
e. Sonnet- a lyric poem containing fourteen iambic lines,
and a complicated rhyme.
Example: Santang by Alfonso P. Santos
3. Dramatic Poetry
Literary Devices in Poetry
1. Figures of Speech
a. Simile- consists of comparing two things using the
words like or as.
Example: Your face is as big as a seed, but you do not
bear fruit
-A Secret by Carlos Bulosan
b. Metaphor- uses direct comparison of two unlike things
or ideas.
Example: Dear Lord: Let thou be the street-cleaner,
whilst I be the road.
Prayer by NVM Gonzales
c. Personification- gives personal qualities to abstract
ideas, to inanimate objects and sometimes to animals
as if they were persons equipped with human
intelligence or feelings.
Example: Roll on, thou deep and dark blue ocean, roll!
d. Apostrophe- is a direct address of the poet to the one
that is absent, a dead person, or inanimate object or
an abstract idea.
Example: O Liberty! O Liberty! What crimes are
committed in thy name!
- Jeanne Manon Roland
e. Metonymy- is a substitute that closely relates to a
person or a thing.
The pen is mightier than a sword
He lives through the bottle
I have read of all Shakespeare
By the sweat of your brow, you will earn your food
f. Synecdoche- uses a part to represent the whole.
Example: No busy hand to provoke a tear. By the sweat
of our brow shall crush three here.
g. Hyperbole- makes use of exaggeration.
I know what to name thy charms,
Thou art half human, half divine;
And if I could hold thee in my arms,
I know both heaven and earth were mine
- The Rural Maid by Fernando M. Maramang
h. Irony- says the opposite of what is meant.
If all these men whose heads are with the stars,
Who dream unceasingly of blazing royalty,
Will only strive to be like you.
A dweller of sod with the heart of loyalty!
-To A Dog by Florizel Diaz
i. Allusion- refers to any literary, biblical, historical,
mythological, scientific event, character or place.
The pendulum
Is a thing of Thread
To nervous person like me
It reminds one of swaying Iscariot
Suspends from a tree
-After Palaman by Rene A. Iturralde
j. Antithesis- involves a contrast of words and ideas
Love is so short; forgetting is so long.
You may be through with the past but the past isn’t
through with you.
Man proposes, God disposes. They promised freedom
and provided slavery.
k. Paradox- uses a phrase or statement that on surface
seems contradictor, but makes some kind of emotional
My thee canst thou resolve for me
This paradox of love concerning thee
Mine eyes, when opened, with thy beauty fill
But when they’re closed they see thee better still
-Paradox by AE Litiatco
l. Litotes- makes a deliberate understatement used to
affirm by negating its opposite
Example: War is not healthy for children and other living
m. Oxymoron- two contradictory terms put together in one
Example: resident-alien, silent scream, living dead,
clearly misunderstood, butt head
2. Tone Color
1. Biographical Context (Authorial context)- places a
particular literary work within the context of the author’s
2. Blog - a web log: a website containing short articles called
posts that are changed regularly.
3. Chick Lit - genre fiction which addresses issues of modern
womanhood, often humorously and light-heartedly. The
genre became popular in the late 1990s, with chick lit
titles topping best seller lists and the creation of imprints
devoted entirely to chick lit. Although it sometimes
includes romantic elements, chick lit is generally not
considered a direct subcategory of the romance novel
genre, because the heroine's relationship with her family
or friends is often just as important as her romantic
4. Close Analysis - synonymous to close reading. It fosters an
advanced understanding and interpretation of a literary
passage that is focused primarily on the words
themselves. It looks at details within the text in order to
identify larger, overarching themes.
5. Context - anything beyond the specific words of a literary
work that may be relevant to understanding the meaning.
Contexts may be economic, social, cultural, historical,
literary, biographical, etc.
6. Creative Nonfiction - also known as literary nonfiction or
narrative nonfiction, is a genre of writing that uses literary
styles and techniques to create factually accurate
narratives. Creative nonfiction contrasts with other
nonfiction, such as technical writing or journalism, which
is also rooted in accurate fact, but is not primarily written
in service to its craft.
7. Critical Interpretation - a critical explanation of the
meaning of a literary work. It involves analysis of its
elements, especially the theme. When applied to poetry,
interpretation may also be called explication. The most
familiar example of interpretation is literary criticism.
8. Critical Paper - a composition that offers an analysis,
interpretation, and/or evaluation of a text. Usually
intended for an academic audience, a critical paper often
takes the form of an argument. According to Robert
DiYanni, when you write about a literary work, you will
often attempt to convince others that what you see and
say about it makes sense.
9. Flash Fiction - a style of fictional literature or fiction of
extreme brevity. There is no widely accepted definition of
the length of the category. Some self-described markets
for flash fiction impose caps as low as three hundred
words, while others consider stories as long as a thousand
words to be flash fiction.
10. Hyperpoetry - a form of digital poetry that uses links
using hypertext mark-up. It is a very visual form, and is
related to hypertext fiction and visual arts.
11. Linguistic Context - discourse that surrounds a language
unit and helps to determine its interpretation.
12. Literary Elements - refers to particular identifiable
characteristics of a whole text. They are not “used,” per
se, by authors; they represent the elements of
storytelling which are common to all literary and
narrative forms.
13. Literary Genre - a category of literary composition.
Genres may be determined by literary technique, tone,
content, or even (as in the case of fiction) length. The
distinctions between genres and categories are flexible
and loosely defined, often with subgroups.
14. Literary History - the historical development of writings in
prose or poetry which attempts to provide
entertainment, enlightenment, or instruction to the
reader/hearer/observer, as well as the development of
the literary techniques used in the communication of
these pieces.
15. Literary Techniques - refers to any specific, deliberate
constructions or choices of language which an author
uses to convey meaning in a particular way.
16. Literary Traditions - it is a collection of works that have
an underlying interconnectedness and coherence that
makes them more than simply a group of works sharing
geography or group.
17. Mobile Phone Text tula - a particular example of this
poem is a tanaga, a type of Filipino poem, consisting of
four lines with seven syllables each with the same rhyme
at the end of each line - that is to say a 7-7-7-7 syllabic
verse, with an AABB rhyme scheme. It was founded by
Frank Rivera.
18. National Literature - a literature that reflects the history
and culture of a country, usually created by its local
writers. According to Rev. Harley Dewart, a national
literature is an essential element in the formation of
national character. It is not merely the record of a
country’s mental progress; it is the expression of its
intellectual life, the bond of national unity, and the guide
of national energy.
19. Oral History Research - a method of research where the
memories of living people about events or social
conditions which they experienced in their earlier lives
are taped and preserved as historical evidence; oral
history -historical information, usually tape-recorded or
videotaped, obtained in interviews with persons having
first-hand knowledge; An audiotape, videotape, or
written account of such an interview or interviews.
20. Sociocultural Context - it is evident when literary works
respond in some way to the society in which they were
written, and most often (though not always) that
response takes the form of criticism. Sociocultural
context is about how a particular literary work depicts
Speculative Fiction - an umbrella term encompassing the
more fantastical fiction genres, specifically science
fiction, fantasy, horror, weird fiction, supernatural fiction,
superhero fiction, utopian and dystopian fiction,
apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction, and alternate
history in literature as well as related static, motion, and
virtual arts.
21st century literature – all literary works written and
published at the latter part of the 21st century (from
2001 onwards). These works are often characterized as
gender sensitive, technologically alluding, culturally
pluralistic, operates on the extreme reality or extreme
fiction, and questions conventions and supposedly
absolute norms.
Poetic License- It involves the departure of facts or even
rules for language in order to create a different effect,
usually dramatic, for a piece of work or speech.
Example: Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your
Poetic Justice- It occurs at the conclusion of a novel or
play if and when good characters are rewarded and bad
characters are punished. There are also countless
examples of poetic justice in movies and television
Interpretation of Literary Lines
1. There is gold in gutter.
- There is joy in simple things.
2. Beauty is truth; truth beauty.
- from John Keats’ Ode on a Grecian Urn
- The poet is not talking about its visual value – of its form
or its colors – but the fact that it transcends time and is
capable of seeing, through language, what an object
does not show at first sight and what only a poet can see
in a funerary urn.
3. The child is the father of the man.
- from William Wordsworth’s My Heart Leaps Up
- The meaning of this proverb has been variously
interpreted as follows:
 the true nature of a person doesn’t change with time
or age.
 the conduct of a child indicates what he will become
when he grows up.
 an adult is the product of the habits, manners and
behavior that he inculcated during his childhood.
1. This story is passed down from generation to generation,
and it becomes part of a tradition of a community. What do
you call this narrative?
a. epic
b. folktale
c. legend
d. myth
2. This story is told to explain a belief, a practice, or a natural
phenomenon. What do you call narrative?
a. epic
b. fable
c. legend
d. myth
3. This story is presented as history but is unlikely to be true.
What do you call this narrative? (Historical Fiction)
a. epic
b. fable
c. legend
d. myth
4. It is a Filipino love song traditionally sung by a man wooing
the woman of his dreams.
a. harana
b. sonata
c. kundiman
d. sarumbanggi
5. Which of the following statements is not true about the
precolonial literature of the Philippines?
a. Precolonial literature includes chants, proverbs, and songs.
b. Precolonial literature includes folk narratives like folktales,
epics, and myths.
C. Precolonial literature includes literature that were passed
on from generation to generation through the word of mouth.
d. Precolonial literature depicts the livelihood, customs, and
traditions of the Filipinos during the Spanish occupation.
6. Published in 1605, this book contains basic Catholic
doctrines. What is the title of this book?
a. Noli Me Tangere
b. Gracias de sin sempiternas
c. Memorial de la vida cristiana en lengua tagala
d. Sampaguitas y poesias varias
a. earth - birth
c. try - fully
b. leaf - grief
d. man - can
13. All pairs of words form "tugmang patinig" except one.
Which pair of words is it?
a. wala – tama
c. napapako mapaso
b. makibaka - binabata d. panalangin - paghiling
14. What literary devices are used on purpose by a writer in
his work to convey its meaning?
a. literary characters
c. literary elements
b. literary meaning
d. literary techniques
15. Which literary device is not inherent in a short story?
a. characters
b. conflict
c. dialogue
d. setting
16. Using of words where the meaning is the opposite of their
usual meaning.
a. paradox
b. oxymoron
c. personification
d. irony
17.It uses extreme exaggeration.
a. personification
b. oxymoron
c. metaphor
d. hyperbole
18. It occurs when a writer gives human traits to non- human
or inanimate objects.
a. personification
b. oxymoron
c. metaphor
d. hyperbole
19. It is a word that sounds like what it is describing.
a. Allusion
b. onomatopoeia
c. synecdoche d. hyperbole
7. Which of the following years are not considered as part of
the postwar and contemporary period?
a. 1900-1930 b. 1947-1960
c. 1960-1975 d. 1975-199
20. Supposed a woman writes about her own life from her
birth up to the present. What do you call her Work?
a. autobiography
b. biography
c. diary
d. memoir
8. Complete the following analogy:
Jose Rizal: Noli Me Tangere: : Pedro Bukaneg:
a. El Filibusterismno
b. Gracias de sin sempiternas
c. Biag ni Lam-ang
d. Sampaguitas y poesías varias
21. Which of these is not a literary genre?
a. fiction
c. graphic novel
b. motif
d. nonfiction
9. What was the medium of instruction in public schools
during the American occupation of the Philippines?
a. English
b. Filipino
c. Nihonggo
d. Tagalog
10. What is considered to be the first modern Filipino short
a. Dead Stars
b. His Native Soil
c. A Child of Sorrow
d. Lupang Tinubuan
11. What poetry is written and read on a mobile phone?
a. rhyme
b. hypertext
c. lyric poetry
d. textula
12. All pairs of words form end rhymes except one. Which pair
of words is it?
22. Brevity is the main characteristic of this genre of fiction.
What genre is it?
a. flash fiction b. magic realism
c. metafiction d. slipstream
23. What is referred to as the background of the text including
biographical, linguistic, and sociocultural factors surrounding
a. atmosphere b. context
c. setting
d. theme
24. Was a Filipino writer, primarily writing poetry and drama
in the Waray language.
a. Eduardo A. Makabenta
b. John Jack Wigley
c. Iluminado Lucente
d. none of the choice
25. It is two contradictory terms used together.
a. Oxymoron
b. metonymy
c. synecdoche d. paradox
26. Words or phrases that express meanings in a nonliteral
way are referred to as figurative language or ___________.
a. figures of speech
c. figures of sound
b. figures of emphasis d. figures of relationship
27. Onomatopoeia and alliteration are classified as _______.
a. figures of sound
c. figures of emphasis
b. figures of relationship
d. figures of reference
28. Which of the following correctly states why literary writers
use figures of speech?
a. Literary writers use figures of speech to puzzle the readers.
b. Literary writers use figures of speech to make their works
c. Literary writers use figures of speech to enhance the artistic
quality of their works.
d. Literary writers use figures of speech to lengthen their
29. Which of the following best completes the given analogy?
metonymy: relationship: : _________: ________
a. emphasis: oxymoron
b. paradox: emphasis
C. sound: alliteration
d. metaphor: sound
30. Which of the following figures of speech is used in the
sentence below?
The bubbly baby babbled busily as Bobby bustled about his
a. alliteration
b. onomatopoeia
c. hyperbole
d. synecdoche
31. These are essential to a story as writers utilize these
components to serve as the structure of and to develop a
a. literary techniques
c. literary elements
b. foreshadowing
d. catharsis
32. Which of the following sets of words refers to literary
a. plot, catharsis, setting
b. setting, theme, characters
c. characters, cliff-hanger, hamartia
d. anaphora, dialogue, setting
33.It is a technique where several phrases or verses begin
with the same word or words.
a. anaphora
b. metonymy
c. synecdoche d. paradox
34. The following are reasons for reading literature except for
a. pleasure
b. relaxation
c. changing history
d. acquiring knowledge
35. Characterized by beauty of expression and form and by
the universality of intellectual and emotional appeal is _____?
a. Literature
b. story
c. poem
d. prose
36. Which among the following deals with the analysis of the
a. analytic
b. thematic
c. historical
d. universal
37. Which quality of literature appeals to our sense of beauty?
a. style
b. artistry
c. universality d. intellectual value
38. Which discourse uses sentences usually forming
paragraph to express ideas, feeling and actions?
a. poetry
b. literature
c. prose
d. novel
39. What do we call the quality of literature associated with
the emotional power of literature?
a. suggestiveness
b. style
c. artistry
d. permanence
40. What rhythmic imaginative language expressing the
invention, thought, imagination, passion and insight of the
human soul?
a. prose
b. poetry
c. literature
d. fiction
41. The drama that has a tragic ending just like the death of
the main character is called _________.
a. monologue b. comedy
c. masque
d. tragedy
42. Which short simple narrative poem is composed to be
a. song
b. ballad
c. ode
d. sonnet
43. Is revealed through the meaning of words; image and
a. song
b. sound
c. sense
d. structure
44. An example of a fable is ________.
a. Juan Pusong and his father's cows
b. The Monkey and the Crocodile
c. The Flood story
d. The Life of Rizal1
45. Is the result of the combination of elements.
a. song
b. sound
c. sense
d. structure
46. Which among the following is a folktale?
a. Juan Pusong and his father's cows
b. The Monkey and the Crocodile
c. The Flood story
d. The Life of Rizal
47. Who authored "Mayon"
a. Kristian Sendon Cordero
b. Cirilo F. Bautista
c. Jose Rizal
d. Narciso G. Reyes
48. Who wrote "Seven Hills Away"?
a. Bienvenido Lumbera
b. Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez
c. Liwayway Arceo
d. Narciso G. Reyes
49. Regarded by many as the most distinguished Filipino
writer in English writing?
a. Edith Tiempo
b. Nestor Vicente Madali Gonzalez
c. Nick Joaquin
d. Bienvenido Lumbecra
50. Olivia is writing a poem, and she wants it to have auditory
imagery so that the reader could imagine hearing every twang
and noise referred to in the poem.
Which of the following should Olivia use in her poem?
a. onomatopoeia
b. alliteration
c. metonymy
d. simile
1. Confucius is a famous ______________ in ancient Chinese
A. writer
B. narrator
C. philosopher D. poet
2. The oldest collection of Chinese poetry is called
A. Book of Poetry
C. Book of Changes
B. Book of Songs
D. Book of Olds
3. Who was the first writer in Chinese to win Nobel Prize for
A. Kung Fu Tzu
C. Lu Xun
B. Mo Yan
D. Lao Tzu
4. Who is commonly considered the greatest Chinese writer
of the 20th century?
A. Lu Xun
C. Confucius
B. Lao Tzu
D. Mo Yan
5. The theme of the Taximan’s Story is
A. how hard worker the taximan is
B. how the passenger appreciates the taximan
C. how the taximan’s daughter is different compared to other
D. how teenagers nowadays are different compared to older
6. The Taximan’s Story is written in ___________ point of view
A. first person point of view
B. third person point of view
C. Second person point of view
D. Omniscient point of view
7. The literature of Singapore comprises a collection of
literary works by Singaporeans in any of the country’s
_______ languages.
A. two
B. three
C. four
D. five
8. It is something that shows how two things are alike, but
with the ultimate goal of making a point about this
A. simile
C. analogy
B. metaphor
D. allegory
9. A figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or
hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated but
which share some common characteristics.
A. analogy
C. allusion
B. allegory
D. metaphor
10. A figure of speech whereby the author refers to a subject
matter such as a place, event, or literary work by way of a
passing reference.
A. allegory
C. allusion
B. analogy
D. metaphor
11. The sequence of series of events in a story
A. setting
C. theme
B. plot
D. conflict
12. The underlying message that the writer would like to get
A. plot
C. conflict
B. theme
D. setting
13. The locale or period in which the action of a story takes
A. conflict
C. plot
B. setting
D. mood
14. ___________ is considered the world’s first novel.
A. Tale of Genji
C. Tale of Yasunari
B. Book of Songs
D.Book of Poetry
15. The country which has much influence on Japanese
literature was ___________.
A. Singaporean
C. Mongolian
B. Chinese
D. Vietnamese
16. It consists of one or two pages of written critique that will
succinctly discuss your idea, realization, or concept regarding
a literary selection.
A. essay
C. narrative
B. short paper
D. analysis
17. In the movie The Hunger Games why does the Capitol hold
the Hunger Games?
A. To keep the districts happy
B. because they are part of a religious festival
C. as a way to control the size of the population
D. To remind the districts that they are powerless against it
18. Under what circumstances did Katniss first meet Peeta in
Hunger Games?
A. They did a project at school together
B. They were both in the woods hunting
C. Peeta was injured and Katniss’ mother helped him.
D. Katniss was looking for food and Peeta gave her bread.
19. How do Katniss and Peeta force the Capitol to declare
them both winners?
A. They threatened to run away
B. They threaten to commit suicide.
C. They threaten to cause a rebellion against the Capitol.
D. They threaten that the winner will tell about everything.
20. The bottle fizzed then popped is an example of
A. onomatopoeia
C. repetition
B. simile
D. metaphor
21. The mouse beneath the stone is still as death is an
example of _____________.
A. simile
C. onomatopoeia
B. metaphor
D. personification
22. When the word at the end of a line rhymes with another
word at the end of another line, it is called
A. internal rhyme
C. rhythm
B. end rhyme
D. repetition
23. A poem with songlike feel; it focuses on adventure or
romance and tells a story it is called
A. figurative language
C. narrative
B. lyric
D. rhythm
24. The author of a poem is called ___________.
A. narrator
C. author
B. poet
D. writer
25. The movement that opened the avenue for writers to
celebrate what is truly African
A. nationalistic
C. Africanism
B. Negritude
D. patriotism
26. Though African writers wrote in European language, they
nevertheless embodied the spirit of __________.
A. patriotism
C. truth
B. nationalism
D. bayanihan
27. He took credit for developing magical realism
A. Mario Vargas Llosa
B. Gabriel Garcia Marquez
C. Julio Cortazar
D. Jose Garcia Villa
28.Which of the following is TRUE about magical realism?
A. It follows the traditional time structure.
B. It occurs because of the use of devices not similar to poetry.
C. The elements of the magical and the ordinary are
interwoven seamlessly.
D. Magic realism is like science fiction.
29. Who said that immature poets imitate; mature poets
A. Thomas Hardy
C. T.S. Eliot
B. Thomas Babington Macaulay D. William Wordsworth
30. It is imaginative response to an experience reflecting a
keen awareness of language.
A. narrative
C. poetry
B. figurative language
D. words
31. Poetry uses two kinds of language. What are they?
A. long and short
C. lyric and narrative
B. literal and figurative D. emotional and comparative
32. It is the spontaneous overflow of powerful words collected
in moments of tranquility. This refers to what kind of poetry?
A. lyric
B. poetry
C. narrative
D. figurative
33. What kind of poetry gives a verbal representation, in
verse, of a sequence of connected events, it propels
characters through a plot?
A. narrative
C. literal
B. lyric
D. figurative
34. In "Death" by Emily Dickinson, the three things that
Death's carriage holds are...
A. hope, superstition, and truth
B. clarity, despair, and triumph
C. death, the speaker, and immortality
D. a way out, acceptance, and understanding
35. What does ‘setting sun’ indicate in the poem “Death” by
Emily Dickinson?
A. death
C. life
B. sun
D. sunset
36. Which of the following statements about Emily
Dickinson’s poem “Death” is TRUE?
A. It portrays death as something that should be feared.
B. It portrays death as something that should not be feared.
C. It highlights how everyone interprets death in the same
D. It highlights how everyone’s interpretation of death is
37. As a literary device, persona refers to what three things:
A. character, voice, and role
B. drama, poetry and prose
C. music, movies, and audiobooks
D. fiction, non-fiction and historical fiction
38. What is a thing that represents something else?
A. symptom
C. symbol
B. theme
D. thesis
39. What is symbolism?
A. Any story that attempts to explain how the world was
B. A pattern of sound that includes the repetition of consonant
C. An actor’s speech, directed to the audience, that is not
supposed to be heard by other actors.
D. The use of an object, person, situation, or word to represent
something else (an idea) in literature
40. Which of the following is an example of symbolism in
A. Fall representing growing old
B. water symbolizing rebirth
C. The color black to symbolize evil
D. All of these are correct
41. Identify what stage symbolizes.
“All the world’s a stage.
And all the men and women merely players;
they have their exits and their entrances;
And one man in his time plays many parts,”
A. world
C. play
B. participants
D. theatre
42. What is central idea?
A. tone of the passage
B. theme of the passage
C. a summarized sentence
D. central point that ties everything together.
43. Where could you find central idea?
A. first sentence
B. last sentence
C. not stated by implied
D. all of the above
44. Why would you need to know what the central idea of a
paragraph/poem is?
A. I don’t know.
B. So you can find the theme.
C. So you could find the main idea.
D. so you can understand what the article/poem is about
45. In Sonnet XVII by Pablo Neruda, who is the persona talking
A. his mother
B. his sister
C. his other woman
D. a woman that he loves
46. What does rose of salt symbolize in Sonnet XVII?
A. something near the ocean
B. arose made of salt
C. sand in the ocean
D. flower that grows near the ocean
47. What is the meaning of the 3rd stanza of Sonnet XVII?
A. he simply loves her no matter what happens
B. he is telling his lover about a few things that don’t represent
his love
C. he is telling how it is that he does love his partner.
D. he re-emphasizes the fact that his love is not based on
48. To what sense does the second stanza appeal to?
A. smell
C. sight
B. taste
D. touch
49. What is the central idea of the sonnet?
A. one should not fear death
B. growth and decay evident in the battle against time
C. immortality can be reached through the poet's "engrafting
D. to love completely and honestly is the most beautiful thing
of all
50. What is literature?
A. It refers to writing considered to be an art form or any single
writing deemed to have artistic
or intellectual value.
B. It is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal
articles, and theses) related to a
specific topic.
C. It is the comparison, analysis, interpretation, and/or
evaluation of works of literature.
D. It is subjective writing because it expresses the writer's
opinion or evaluation of a text