THEORIES OF PERSONALITY REVIEWER - Prepared by: Alethea Patricia L. Del Castillo, MA, RPm Reference: Feist, Feist & Roberts (2013). Theories of Personality (Eight Edition) New York: McGraw-Hill. - CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY THEORY - I. What Is Personality? - Latin word: persona = the mask people wear or the role they play in life. (But its more than just a façade) - a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to human behavior - Traits: it may be unique, common to some group, or shared by the entire species BUT the pattern is different for each individual (consistency & stability of behavior over - time) - Characteristics: unique qualities of an individual that include such attributes as temperament, physique and intelligence II. What is a Theory? A. Theory Defined Set of related assumptions that allows scientists to use logical deductive reasoning to formulate testable hypotheses Set: A single assumption can never fill all the requirements of a good theory Related: Isolated assumptions can neither generate meaningful hypotheses nor possess internal consistency Assumptions: not proven facts but accepted as if they were true Logical Deductive Reasoning: to deduce a clearly stated hypothesis Testable: must suggest the possibility that scientists B. - Why Different Theories? Theories are built not on proven facts but on assumptions (assumed to be true) that are subject to individual interpretations Reflection of their personal background, their philosophical orientation, and the data they chose to observe Its usefulness depends on its ability to generate research and to explain research data and other observations C. What Makes a Theory Useful? - - - It generates a number of hypotheses that can be investigated through research, thus yielding research data Organizes research data into a meaningful structure and provides explanation for the results Generates Research: o A useful theory will stimulate both descriptive research and hypothesis testing. o Descriptive research provides a framewor k for an evolving theory whereas hypothesis testing expands our knowledge of a scientific discipline. Is Falsifiable: o It must generate research that can either confirm or disconfirm its major tenets. o A negative result will contradict the theory and force the theorist to either discard it or modify it o A theory that can explain everything explains nothing Organizes Data: o It should be able to fit current research data into an intelligible framework and to integrate new information into its structure. Guides Action: o practical tools that guide a road map for making day-to-day decisions. o Example: what kind of psychotherapy technique is going to be used to the client? Is Internally consistent: o includes operational definitions that define concepts in terms of specific operations to be carried out by the observer. (logically compatible) - Is Parsimonious: o When two theories are equal on the first five criteria, the simpler one is preferred. (straightforward theories) III. Dimensions for a Concept of Humanity Determinism versus Free choice o Are people’s behaviors determined by forces over which they have no control or can people choose to be what they wish to be? Pessimism versus Optimism o Are people doomed to live miserable or can they change and grow into psychologically healthy and fully functioning individual? - - - Causality versus Teleology o Causality holds that behavior is a function of the past experiences o Teleology is the explanation of behavior in terms of future goals or purposes Conscious versus Unconscious determinants of behavior o Are they aware of what and why they are doing it? Or do unconscious forces impinge on them? Biological versus Social Influences on personality o Are people creatures of biology? Or are they shaped largely by their social relationships? Uniqueness versus similarities among people o Is the salient feature of people their individuality or is it their common characteristics? >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> CHAPTER 2: PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (PSYCHOANALYSIS) I. Biography of Sigmund Freud Sisigmund (Sigmund) Freud Born in the Czech Republic in 1856 and died (of cancer) in London in 1939, Freud spent nearly 80 years of his life in Vienna. Freud was the first born of his father and mother , although his father already had 2 grown sons He was the favorite of his mother over the 7 other siblings (he was not close to any of them) His relationship with his father appears to be cold if not occasionally hostile When he was 1 ½ year old, his mother gave birth to Julius (who died at 6 months) Freud developed hostility to his brother and unconsciously wished him dead. He had carried into adulthood the guilt, he thought he was the cause of his death - - A physician who never intended to practice general medicine, Freud was intensely curious about human nature. Early in his professional career, Freud believed that hysteria was a result of being seduced during childhood by a sexually mature person, often a parent or other relative. But in 1897, he abandoned his seduction theory and replaced it with his notion of the Oedipus complex. Some scholars have contended that Freud's decision to abandon the seduction theory in favor of the Oedipus II. complex was a major error and influenced a generation of psychotherapists to interpret patients' reports of early sexual abuse as merely childhood fantasies. He fell in love with Martha Bernays and marry her in 1886. They had 6 children. The youngest is Anna Freud who held a special place in his heart He was mentored by Jean-Martin Charcot (hypnotic technique for treating hysteria) and Josef Breuer (catharsis) He then gradually discovered free association technique Studies of Hysteria: after its publication, Freud and Breuer had a professional disagreement and became estranged Interpretation of Dreams: contains many of Freud’s own dreams. Soon after his publication his friendship with Fliess began to cool Freud and Jung interpreted each other’s dreams that eventually led to the end of their relationship Levels of Mental Life (Topographic Model) A. Unconscious The unconscious consists of drives and instincts that are beyond awareness, yet they motivate many of our behaviors. Unconscious drives can become conscious only in disguised or distorted form, such as dream images, slips of the tongue, or neurotic symptoms. Unconscious processes originate from two sources: (1) repression, or the blocking out of anxiety -filled experiences and (2) phylogenetic endowment, or inherited experiences that lie beyond an individual's personal experience. (only as last resort in explaining behavior) B. - The unconscious mind of one person can communicate with the unconscious of another without either person being aware of the process Unconscious forces constantly strive to become conscious Preconscious Contains images that are not in awareness but that can become conscious either quite easily or with some level of difficulty. Experiences that are forgotten are in the preconscious. 2 sources: o Conscious perception: when the focus of attention shifts to another idea (usually free from anxiety) o C. - Unconscious: ideas can slip past the vigilant censor and enter into the preconscious in a disguised form Conscious Only level of mental life directly available to us, but it plays a relatively minor role in Freudian theory. Conscious ideas stem from either the perception of external stimuli; that is, our perceptual conscious system, or from unconscious and preconscious images after they have evaded censorship. III. Provinces of the Mind (Structural Model) A. The Id (das Es) completely unconscious serves the pleasure principle and seeks constant and immediate satisfaction of instinctual needs not altered by the passage of time or by experiences of the person. It is illogical and entertain incompatible ideas Primary process (basic drives) B. The Ego (das Ich) secondary process, is governed by the reality principle; partly conscious, preconscious and unconscious responsible for reconciling the unrealistic demands of both the id and the superego with the demands of the real world. (decision-making branch) It becomes anxious and would use defense mechanisms as protect itself It has no energy of its own but borrows from id Psychologically healthy people have a well-developed ego. C. The Superego (Uber Ich) serves the idealistic principle, has two subsystems— the conscience and the ego-ideal The conscience results from punishment for improper behavior (guilt), whereas the ego-ideal stems from rewards for socially acceptable behavior (inferiority feelings – when the ego fails to - - - meet the standards of perfection) - Neither the id nor the superego is in contact with reality Development: Age 5 to 6 IV. Dynamics of Personality The term dynamics of personality refers to those forces that motivate people. The concept includes both instincts and anxiety. A. Drives (instinct or impulse) – a stimulus within an individual B. - They cannot be avoided through flight response Every basic drive is characterized by: o Impetus – amt. of force it exerts o Source – region of the body in tension o Aim – seek pleasure by removing tension o Object – person or thing where the aim is satisfied 2 primary instincts—sex (Eros) and aggression (Thanatos, or the destructive instinct). Sex (libido) o Aim: to seek pleasure, through the erogenous zones = mouth, anus, and genitals. o Object: any person or thing that brings sexual pleasure. o For example, narcissism, love, sadism, and masochism all possess large components of the sexual drive even though they may appear to be nonsexual. o All infants possess primary narcissism, or self-centeredness, but the secondary narcissism (moderate degree of self-love) of adolescence and adulthood is not universal. o Sadism, which is the reception of sexual pleasure from inflicting pain on another, and o Masochism, which is the reception of sexual pleasure from painful experiences, satisfies both sexual and aggressive drives. o If carried to an extreme, sadism and masochism is considered a sexual perversion but in moderation is a common need Aggression o The destructive instinct aims to return the person to an inorganic state, but it is ordinarily directed against other people and is called aggression. o It can take a number of form like teasing, gossip, sarcasm, humiliation, humor & enjoyment of other people’s suffering o Commandments such as “Love thy neighbor as thyself” is a way of inhibiting the strong drive to inflict pain to others. These are reaction formations Anxiety Only the ego feels anxiety, but the id, superego, and outside world can each be a source of anxiety. Neurotic anxiety is apprehension about an unknown danger and stems from the ego's relation with the id; Moral anxiety is similar to guilt and results from the ego's relation with the superego; and V. Realistic anxiety is similar to fear and is produced by the ego's relation with the real world. Defense Mechanisms A. Repression Forcing unwanted, anxiety-loaded experiences into the unconscious. It is the most basic of all defense mechanisms because it is an active process in each of the others. Many repressed experiences remain unconscious for a lifetime but others become conscious in a disguised form or in an unaltered form B. Reaction Formation Repression of one impulse and the pretentious expression of its exact opposite. C. Displacement Redirecting of unacceptable urges and feelings onto people and objects in order to disguise or conceal their true nature. Unlike, reaction formation, it does not exaggerate or overdo the disguised behavior D. Fixation When psychic energy is blocked at one stage of development, making psychological change difficult. Permanent attachment of the libido to an earlier stage of development They are universal E. Regression When a person reverts to earlier, more infantile modes of behavior Usually, temporary F. Projection Seeing in others those unacceptable feelings or behaviors that actually reside in one's own unconscious. When carried to extreme, projection can become paranoia, which is characterized by delusions of persecution. G. Introjection Incorporation of positive qualities of another person in order to reduce feelings of inadequacy. Hero worship might be a good example. H. Sublimation Contribute to the welfare of society They involve elevating the aim of the sexual instinct to a higher level and are manifested in cultural accomplishments, such as art, music, and other socially beneficial activities. VI. Stages of Development Freud saw psychosexual development as proceeding from birth to maturity through four overlapping stages—the infantile stage, the latency stage, the genital stage and the psychologically mature stage. A. Infantile period - Encompasses the first 4 to 5 years of life and is divided into three subphases: o oral phase: pleasure through sucking Weaning is the principal source of frustration during this stage. o Emergence of teeth as a defense against environment is called oral sadistic o anal phase: satisfaction gained through aggressive behavior and excretory function (sadistic-anal) o occurs at about the second year of life, when toilet training is the child's chief source of frustration. o If parents use disciplinary training methods, a child may develop the anal triad of orderliness, stinginess, and obstinacy, all of which mark the anal character. o Phallic phase: boys and girls begin to have differing psychosexual development, which occurs around ages 3 or 4 years. o For both genders, suppression of masturbation is the principle source of frustration. o young children experience the Oedipus complex = having sexual feelings for one parent and hostile feelings for the other. o The male castration complex breaks up the male Oedipus complex and results in a well-formed male superego. o For girls, the castration complex, in the form of penis envy, precedes the female Oedipus complex, a situation that leads to only a gradual and incomplete shattering of the female Oedipus complex and a weaker, more flexible female superego. B. Latency Period From about age 5 years until puberty—in which the sexual instinct is partially suppressed. It is believed that this may have roots in our phylogenetic endowment C. Genital Period Begins with puberty when adolescents experience a reawakening of the genital aim of Eros, and it continues throughout adulthood. D. Maturity Freud hinted at a stage of psychological maturity in which the ego would be in control of the id and superego and in which consciousness would play a more important role in behavior. VII. Applications of Psychoanalytic Theory A. Freud's Early Therapeutic Technique - Freud used a very aggressive technique whereby he strongly suggested to patients that they had been sexually seduced as children. - He later abandoned this technique, with a belief that he may have elicited memories of seduction from his patients and that he lacked clear evidence that these memories were real B. Freud's Later Therapeutic Technique - Goal: uncover repressed memories through the free association and dream analysis = to strengthen the ego - Transference: strong sexual or aggressive feelings, positive or negative, that patients develop towards the analyst during the course of treatment - Negative transference: form of hostility must be explained to the client to overcome resistance to treatment C. Dream Analysis - manifest content (conscious description) from the - latent content (unconscious meaning of the dream that lies hidden from the dreamer). - Nearly all dreams are wish-fulfillments, although the wish is usually unconscious and can be known only through dream interpretation. - Dreams that are not wish-fulfillments follow the principle of repetition compulsion and often occur after people have had a traumatic experience, now called a post-traumatic stress disorder. - To interpret dreams Freud used both dream symbols and the dreamer's associations to the dream content. D. Freudian Slips - slips of the tongue or pen, misreadings, incorrect hearings, misplacing of objects, and temporary forgetting of names or intentions are not chance accidents but reveal a person's unconscious intentions. VIII. Critique of Freud Freud regarded himself as a scientist, but many critics consider his methods to be outdated, unscientific, and permeated with gender bias. On the six criteria of a useful theory, psychoanalysis, we rate its ability to generate research as high, its openness to falsification as very low, and its ability to organize data as average. We also rate psychoanalysis as average on its ability to guide action and to be parsimonious. Because it lacks operational definitions, we rate it low on internal consistency. IX. Concept of Humanity Freud's view of humanity was deterministic and pessimistic. He also emphasized causality over teleology , unconscious determinants over conscious processes, and biology over culture, but he took a middle position on the dimension of uniqueness versus similarities of people. - He was interested in social relationships – siblings and peers Adler developed a strong rivalry with Sigmund—a rivalry that was similar to his later relationship with Freud. Like Freud, Adler was a physician, and in 1902, he became a charter member of the Wednesday Psychological Society However, personal and professional differences between Freud and Adler led to Adler's departure from the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society in 1911. Adler soon founded his own group, the Society for Individual Psychology. His strengths were his energetic oral presentations and his insightful ability to understand family dynamics. Adler married Raissa Epstein who was a feminist. They had 4 children During the last few years of his life, Adler lived in the United States and earned a reputation as a gifted public speaker. He died in 1937 in Scotland while on a lecture tour. - >>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> - II. Introduction to Adlerian Theory People are born with weak and inferior bodies feelings of inferiority and dependence to other people feelings of unity with others (social interest) A. Striving for Success or Superiority: The sole dynamic - - - B. - force behind all our actions - CHAPTER 3: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY I. Biography of Alfred Adler Born in 1870 in a Viennese suburb, a second son of middle class Jewish parents. - As a young child he was weak and sickly (he nearly died of pneumonia at the age of 5), a condition that contrasted sharply with his strong, healthy older brother, Sigmund. - The death of his younger brother (infant) motivated him to become a physician - Transformation of drive: aggression masculine protest Striving for Superiority Striving for success (personal superiority/success) The Final Goal o The final goal of success or superiority toward which all people strive unifies personality and makes all behavior meaningful. o Its fictional and has no objective existence o Product of creative power (age 4 or 5): people’s ability to free shape their behavior and create their own personality o Reduces the pain of inferiority feelings and leads the person to either superiority or success o If children felt neglected or pampered their goals will remain unconscious o If children experience love and security, they set goals that are largely conscious and clearly understood o People are not always conscious of their final goal, even though they may be aware of their immediate subgoals. o When an individual’s final goal is known, all actions make sense and subgoals takes on new significance - C. The Striving Force as Compensation o the striving force is innate = feelings of inferiority goal of superiority o The goal is to overcome these feelings through their natural tendency to move toward completion. o The goal may take many forms. It is not necessarily a mirror image of the deficiency even if it is a compensation for it o The striving force can take one of two courses— personal gain or community benefit. Striving for Personal Superiority o Goals are personal ones (sometimes with little or no concern for others) o Largely motivated by exaggerated feelings of inferiority (inferiority complex) o Others, although they may appear to be interested in others, their basic motivation is personal benefit. Striving for Success o Psychologically healthy people strive for the success of all humanity, but they do so without losing their personal identity. Subjective Perceptions: People's subjective view of the world—not reality—shapes their behavior. Fictionalism o People's beliefs and expectations of the future. o Adler held that fictions guide behavior, because people act as if these fictions are true. o Example: a belief in an omnipotent God who rewards good and punishes evil Physical Inferiorities o All humans are "blessed" with organ inferiorities that stimulate subjective feelings of inferiority and move people toward perfection or completion o Deficiencies do not cause a particular style of life; they are motivation for reaching goals Unity of Personality: all behaviors are directed toward a single purpose and that the entire personality functions in a self-consistent manner. - - Organ Dialect o People sometimes use a physical disorder to express style of life o A boy wetting his bed sends a message that he does not wish to obey his parents Conscious and Unconscious o Conscious and unconscious processes are unified and operate to achieve a single goal. o The part of our goal that is not clearly understood is unconscious (thoughts that are not helpful) o to the extent that we comprehend our goal it is conscious (helpful in striving for success) D. Social Interest: Gemeinschaftsgefϋhl = a feeling of oneness with all of humanity - - E. F. - Origins of Social Interest o both mothers and fathers have crucial roles in furthering the social interest of their children and that the parent/child relationship is so strong that it negates the effects of heredity. (until age 5) Importance of Social Interest o Without social interest, societies could not exist, because individuals could not protect themselv es from danger. o Thus, an infant's helplessness predisposes it toward a nurturing person. o social interest is "the sole criterion of human values," and the "barometer of normality." The worthiness of all one's actions must be viewed by these standards. Style of Life: product of interaction of heredity, environment and person’s creative power o healthy individuals are marked by flexible behavior and that they have some limited ability to change their style of life. Creative Power: freedom of choice Ultimately style of life is shaped by our creative power; that is, by our ability to freely choose which building materials to use and how to use them. People have considerable ability to freely choose their actions and their personality. III. Abnormal Development Creative power is not limited to healthy people; unhealthy individuals also create their own personalities. The most important factor in abnormal development is underdeveloped social interest. In addition, people with a useless style of life tend to (1) set their goals too high, (2) live in their own private world, and (3) have a rigid and inflexible style of life. A. External Factors in Maladjustment Exaggerated Physical Deficiencies o Severe physical defects do not by themselv es cause abnormal development, but they may - - B. - - contribute to it by generating subjective and exaggerated feelings of inferiority. Pampered Style of Life o develop low levels of social interest o continue to have an overriding drive to establish a permanent parasitic relationship with their mother or a mother substitute. o They believe they are entitled to be first in everything o They have not received too much love rather they feel unloved (parents doing too much for them) Neglected Style of Life o Children who feel neglected often use these feelings as building material for a useless style of life—one characterized by distrust of other people. Safeguarding Tendencies means of protecting their fragile self-esteem. These safeguarding tendencies maintain a neurotic status quo and protect a person from public disgrace. Excuses o Frequently take the form of "Yes, but" or "If only." By making excuses for their shortcomings, people can preserve their inflated sense of personal worth. Aggression o Behaving aggressively toward themselves or others. o May take the form of depreciating others' accomplishments, accusing others of being responsible for one's own failures, and accusing self as a means of inflicting suffering on others. Withdrawal o Try to escape from life's problems by running away from them; maintaining distance. o People can withdraw psychologically by moving backward, standing still, hesitating, or constructing obstacles. C. Masculine Protest Both men and women sometimes overemphasize the desirability of being manly IV. Applications of Individual Psychology A. Family Constellation First borns are likely to have strong feelings of power and superiority, to be overprotective, and to have more than their share of anxiety. - Second borns (like Adler himself) are likely to have strong social interest, provided they do not get trapped trying to overcome their older sibling. Youngest children are likely to be pampered and to lack independence, whereas only children may have even less social interest and tend to expect others to take care of them. B. Early Recollections Adler believed that ERs are not chance memories but templates on which people project their current style of life. ERs need not be accurate accounts of early events; they have psychological importance because they reflect our current view of the world. C. Dreams provide clues to solving future problems. dreams are disguised to deceive the dreamer and usually require interpretation by another person. D. Psychotherapy create a relationship between therapist and patient that fosters social interest. The therapist adopts both a maternal and a paternal role. V. Critique of Adler High in: generate research, organize data, and guide the practitioner. Moderate in: parsimony, Low in: internal consistency & falsification VI. Concept of Humanity Adler saw people as forward moving, social animals who are motivated by goals they set (both consciously and unconsciously) for the future. People are ultimately responsible for their own unique style of life. Thus, Adler's theory rates high on free-choice, social influences, and uniqueness; very high on optimism and teleology; and average on unconscious influences. - CHAPTER 4: ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY I. Biography of Carl Jung born in Switzerland in 1875, the oldest by about 9 years of two surviving children. A son before Carl only lived for 3 days Jung's father was an idealistic Protestant minister and his mother was a strict believer in mysticism and the occult. Jung's early experience with parents—who were quite opposite of each other—probably influenced his own theory of personality, including his fanciful No. 1 and Number 2 personalities. He saw his mother as having 2 separate dispositions - II. His no.2 personality = an old man long since dead He married Emma Rauschenbach and had 5 children Soon after receiving his medical degree Jung became acquainted with Freud's writings and eventually with Freud himself. During their first meeting, they talked for 13 straight hours Not long after he traveled with Freud to the United States, Jung became disenchanted with Freud's pansexual theories, broke with Freud, and began his own approach to theory and therapy, which he called analytical psychology. (when they began interpreting each other’s dreams) He had affairs with Sabina (former patient) and Antonia (another former patient – but had longer relationship with her) He said he was sexually abused when he was 18 yo by an older man whom he saw as a fatherly friend From a critical midlife crisis during which he nearly lost contact with reality, Jung emerged to become one of the leading thinkers of the 20th century. He died in 1961 at age 85. Levels of the Psyche A. Conscious Ego as the center of consciousness but not the core of personality In the psychologically mature individual, the ego is secondary to the self. B. Personal Unconscious psychic images not sensed by the ego. Some unconscious processes flow from our personal experiences contains the complexes (emotionally toned groups of related ideas) and the collective unconscious, which includes various archetypes. C. Collective Unconscious beyond our personal experiences and that originate from the repeated experiences of our ancestors. not inherited ideas, but rather they refer to our innate tendency to react in a particular way whenever our personal experiences stimulate an inherited predisposition toward action. Love at first sight? D. Archetypes - Contents of the collective unconscious originate through the repeated experiences of our ancestors and that they are expressed in certain types of dreams, fantasies, delusions, and hallucinations. Persona—the side of our personality that we show to others. - Shadow—the dark side of personality. In order for people to reach full psychological maturity, they must first realize or accept their shadow. Anima - A second hurdle in achieving maturity is for men to accept their anima—their feminine side— irrational moods & feelings Animus - and for women to embrace their animus— their masculine side. – irrational thinking & opinions the great mother - the archetype of nourishment and destruction the wise old man - the archetype of wisdom and meaning the hero - image we have of a conqueror who vanquishes evil but who has a single fatal flaw Self - The most comprehensive archetype is the self; that is, the image we have of fulfillment, completion, or perfection. The ultimate in psychological maturity is self-realization, which is symbolized by the mandala, or perfect geometric figure. III. Development of Personality Jung's emphasis on the second half of life. Jung saw middle and old age as times when people may acquire the ability to attain self-realization. A. Stages of Development childhood, which lasts from birth until adolescence youth, the period from puberty until middle life: a time for extraverted development & for being grounded to the real world of schooling, occupation, courtship, marriage, and family; middle life, from about 35 or 40 until old age and a time when people should be adopting an introverted, or subjective attitude; and old age, which is a time for psychological rebirth, selfrealization, and preparation for death. B. Self-Realization/Individuation a psychological rebirth and an integration of various parts of the psyche into a unified or whole individual. Self-realization represents the highest level of human development. IV. Jung's Methods of Investigation A. Word Association Test to uncover complexes embedded in the personal unconscious. The technique requires a patient to utter the first word that comes to mind after the examiner reads a stimulus word. B. Dream Analysis - dreams may have both a cause and a purpose and thus can be useful in explaining past events and in making decisions about the future. "Big dreams" and "typical dreams," both of which come from the collectiv e unconscious C. Active Imagination used active imagination to arrive at collective images. This technique requires the patient to concentrate on a single image until that image begins to appear in a different form. (archetypes) D. Psychotherapy help neurotic patients become healthy and to move healthy people in the direction of self-realization. Jung was eclectic in his choice of therapeutic techniques and treated old people differently than the young. V. Critique of Jung many of his writings have more of a philosophical than a psychological flavor. As a scientific theory, it rates below average on its ability to generate research, but very low on its ability to withstand falsification. It is about average on its ability to organize knowledge but low on each of the other criteria of a useful theory. VI. Concept of Humanity Jung saw people as extremely complex beings who are a product of both conscious and unconscious personal experiences. However, people are also motivated by inherited remnants that spring from the collective experiences of their early ancestors. Because Jungian theory is a psychology of opposites, it receives a moderate rating on the issues of free will versus determinism, optimism versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology. It rates very high on unconscious influences, low on uniqueness, and low on social influences. CHAPTER 5: OBJECT RELATIONS THEORY I. Biography of Melanie Klein born in Vienna in 1892, the youngest of four children. She felt rejected by her parents, especially her father She developed fondness to her older siblings, Sidonie and Emmanuel who both died She married Arthur Klein, Emmanuel’s close friend, at age 21 They had 3 children; she has an estranged relationship with her eldest child, Melitta Klein separated from her husband II. She had neither a PhD nor an MD degree but became an analyst As an analyst, she specialized in working with young children. She believed that children develop superego much earlier than Freud believed (4-6 months after birth) She died in 1960. Introduction to Object Relations Theory differs from Freudian theory in three important ways: o it places more emphasis on interpersonal relationships, o it stresses the infant's relationship with the mother rather than the father, and o it suggests that people are motivated primarily for human contact rather than for sexual pleasure. The term “object” refers to any person or part of a person that infants introject, or take into their psychic structure and then later project onto other people III. Psychic Life of the Infant infants begin life with an inherited predisposition to reduce the anxiety that they experience as a consequence of the clash between the life instinct and the death instinct A. Phantasies very young infants possess an active, unconscious phantasy life. Their most basic fantasies are images of the "good" breast and the "bad" breast. B. Objects drives have an object (hunger: good breast; sex: sexual organ) child's relationship with these objects (parents' face, hands, breast, penis, etc.), which she saw as having a life of their own within the child's phantasy world. IV. Positions In their attempts to reduce the conflict produced by good and bad images, infants organize their experience into positions A. Paranoid-Schizoid Position: the first 3-4 months of life The struggles that infants experience with the good breast and the bad breast lead to two separate and opposing feelings—a desire to harbor the breast and a desire to bite or destroy it. To tolerate these two feelings, the ego splits itself by retaining parts of its life and death instincts while projecting other parts onto the breast. - B. - V. It then has a relationship with the ideal breast and the persecutory breast. To control this situation, infants adopt the paranoidschizoid position, which is a tendency to see the world as having both destructive and omnipotent qualities. Depressive Position: the first 5-6 months of life the anxiety that infants experience around 6 months of age over losing their mother and yet, at the same time, wanting to destroy her. resolved when infants phantasize that they have made up for their previous offenses against their mother and also realize that their mother will not abandon them. Psychic Defense Mechanisms children adopt various psychic defense mechanisms to protect their ego against anxiety aroused by their own destructive fantasies. A. Introjection phantasy of taking into one's own body the images that one has of an external object, especially the mother's breast. Infants usually introject good objects as a protection against anxiety, but they also introject bad objects in order to gain control of them. B. Projection phantasy that one's own feelings and impulses reside within another person Children project both good and bad images so that they ease the unbearable anxiety of being destroyed by the dangerous internal forces C. D. - Splitting mentally keeping apart, incompatible images to tolerate good and bad aspects of themselves and of external objects. Splitting can be beneficial to both children and adults, because it allows them to like themselves while still recognizing some unlikable qualities. Projective Identification split off unacceptable parts of themselves, project them onto another object, and finally introject them in an altered form. VI. Internalizations After introjecting external objects, infants organize them into a psychologically meaningful framework A. Ego Internalizations are supported by the early ego's ability to feel anxiety, to use defense mechanisms, and to for m object relations in both phantasy and reality. a unified ego emerges only after first splitting itself into the two parts—the life instinct and the death instinct. B. Superego the superego preceded rather than followed the Oedipus complex. Klein also saw the superego as being quite harsh and cruel. C. Oedipus Complex begins during the first few months of life, then reaches its peak during the genital stage, at about 3 or 4 years of age based on children's fear that their parents will seek revenge against them for their phantasy of emptying the parent's body. For healthy development, children should retain positiv e feelings for each parent. the little boy adopts a "feminine" position very early in life and has no fear of being castrated as punishment for his sexual feelings toward his mother. Later, he projects his destructive drive onto his father, whom he fears will bite or castrate him. It is resolved when the boy establishes good relations with both parents. The little girl also adopts a "feminine" position toward both parents quite early in life. She has a positiv e feeling for both her mother's breast and her father's penis, which she believes will feed her with babies. Sometimes the girl develops hostility toward her mother, whom she fears will retaliate against her and rob her of her babies, but in most cases, the female Oedipus complex is resolved without any jealousy toward the mother. VII. Later Views of Object Relations A. Margaret Mahler's View From careful observations of infants as they bonded with their mothers during their first 3 years of life. three major developmental stages. o normal autism (first 3 to 4 weeks of life) a time when infants satisfy their needs within the all-powerful protective orbit of their mother's care. o normal symbiosis, when infants behave as if they and their mother were an all-powerful, interdependent unit. o separation-individuation (4 months until about 3 years) a time when children are becoming psychologically separated from their mothers and achieving individuation, or a sense of personal identity. B. Heinz Kohut's View emphasized the development of the self. In caring for their physical and psychological needs, adults treat infants as if they had a sense of self. The parents' behaviors and attitudes eventually help children form a sense of self that gives unity and consistency to their experiences. Object relations theorists see personality as being a product of the early mother-child relationship, and thus they stress determinism over free choice. The powerful influence of early childhood also gives these theories a low rating on uniqueness, a very high rating on social influences, and high ratings on causality and unconscious forces. Klein and other object relations theorists rate average on optimism versus pessimism. C. John Bowlby's Attachment Theory three stages of separation anxiety: o protest o apathy and despair o emotional detachment from people, including the primary caregiver. Children who reach the third stage lack warmth and emotion in their later relationships. D. Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation developed a technique called the Strange Situation for measuring one of three the types of attachment styles — secure attachment, anxious-resistant attachment, and anxious-avoidant attachment. VIII. Psychotherapy The goal of Klein's therapy was to reduce depressive anxieties and persecutory fears and to lessen the harshness of internalized objects. To do this, Klein encouraged patients to reexperience early fantasies and pointed out the differences between conscious and unconscious wishes. CHAPTER 6: PSYCHOANALYTIC SOCIAL THEORY IX. Critique of Object Relations Theory Object relations theory shares with Freudian theory an inability to be either falsified or verified through empirical research. Nevertheless, some clinicians regard the theory as being a useful guide to action and as possessing substantial internal consistency. However, the theory must be rated low on parsimony and also low on its ability to organize knowledge and to generate research. X. Concept of Humanity I. Biography of Karen Horney born in Germany in 1885, only daughter of her parents and she has an older brother Her mother is 18 years younger than her father (he had other children from his previous marriage) She is mad at her father and idolized her mother She was not a happy child = superficially independent but dependent to men inside She married Oskar Horney and had 3 daughters She had several love affairs (Erich Fromm) - Horney was one of the first women in Germany admitted to medical school, where she specialized in psychiatry. Horney died in 1952 at age 65. II. Introduction to Psychoanalytic Social Theory Her theories are also appropriate to normal development. She agreed with Freud that early childhood traumas are important, but she placed far more emphasis on social factors. A. Horney and Freud Compared Neuroses are not instincts but a person’s attempt to find its paths in the society Criticisms to Freudian theory: o its rigidity toward new ideas o its skewed view of feminine psychology o its overemphasis on biology and the pleasure principle. Neurotics frequently are trapped in a vicious circle in which their compulsive need to reduce basic anxiety leads to a variety of self-defeating behaviors; these behaviors then produce more basic anxiety, and the circle continues. A. Neurotic Needs: a single person may use more than one for affection and approval for a powerful partner to restrict one's life within narrow borders for power to exploit others for social recognition or prestige for personal admiration for ambition and personal achievement for self-sufficiency and independence for perfection and unassailability. B. Neurotic Trends: applies to normal individual; neurotics are limited to a single trend B. - The Impact of Culture Feelings of isolation needs for affection overvalue love neuroses See love and affection as the solution to problems Both normal and neurotic personalities experience intrapsychic conflicts through their desperate attempts to find love C. The Importance of Childhood Experiences Lack of genuine love neurotic needs(rigid behavioral patterns gain feeling of safety/love - - III. Basic Hostility and Basic Anxiety - - Protection from basic anxiety (does not necessarily indicate neurosis): o Affection: not real love o Submissiveness: in order to gain affection o Power/prestige/possesion: dominate, humiliate, deprive others o Withdrawal: emotionally detached from people - Moving Toward People o undue compliance to others' wishes to protect against the feeling of helplessness o strives for affection, seek a powerful partner o they see themselves as loving, generous, humble, unselfish and sensitive to feelings Moving Against People o assume that everyone is hostile, and, therefore, should be aggressive people who exploits other for their own benefit o they seldom admit their mistakes and need to appear perfect, powerful and superior o They play to win than to enjoy Moving Away From People o People who feel isolated from others insist on privacy, independence, and self-sufficiency. o Their greatest need is to need other people Normal people have the flexibility to use any or all of these approaches, but neurotics are compelled to rely rigidly on only one. IV. Compulsive Drives V. Intrapsychic Conflicts people experience inner tensions become part of people's belief system and take on a life of their own, separate from the interpersonal conflicts that created them. A. The Idealized Self-Image No love and affection during childhood blocked selfrealization and stable sense of identity extravagantly positive picture of themselves that exists only in their mind. Horney recognized three aspects of the idealized self-image. 1. The Neurotic Search for Glory Comprehensive drive to actualize the idealized self-image o tyranny of the should, neurotic ambition, and the drive toward a vindictive triumph 2. Neurotic Claims o They believe that they are entitled to special privileges and make neurotic claims on other people that are consistent with their idealized view of themselves. 3. Neurotic Pride o a false pride based not on reality but on a distorted and idealized view of self. Self-Hatred: because reality always falls short of their o - B. idealized view of self. relentless demands on self merciless self-accusation self-contempt self-frustration self-torment or self-torture self-destructive actions and impulses VI. Critique of Horney Although Horney's theory has not generated much research, it has provided an interesting way of looking at humanity. The strength of her theory was her vivid portrayal of the neurotic personality. As scientific theory, however, it rates very low in generating research, low on its ability to be falsified, to organize knowledge, and to serve as a guide to action. The theory receives a moderate rating on internal consistency and parsimony. VII. Concept of Humanity Horney's concept of humanity was based mostly on her clinical experiences with neurotic patients, but it can easily be extended to normal people. In summary, Horney's view of humanity is rated high on free choice, optimism, unconscious influences, and social factors; average on causality vs. teleology ; and low on uniqueness. CHAPTER 7: HUMANISTIC PSYCHOANALYSIS I. Biography of Erich Fromm born in Frankfurt, Germany, in 1900, the only child of orthodox Jewish parents. His humanistic philosophy grew out of an early reading of the biblical prophets and an association with several Talmudic scholars. Fromm's first wife was Frieda Fromm-Reichmann but divorced Fromm moved to the United States and began a psychoanalytic practice in New York, where he - resumed his friendship with Karen Horney and became lovers and then separated He then married Henny Gurland, two years younger than him but died He met Annis Freeman and got married again He died in Switzerland in 1980. D. II. Fromm's Basic Assumptions human personality can only be understood in the light of history. humans have been torn away from their prehistoric union with nature and left with no powerful instincts to adapt to a changing world. they have acquired the ability to reason, which means they can think about their isolated condition. Fromm called this situation the human dilemma Existential Dichotomies o Life & Death o Goal of complete self-realization & shortness of life to reach the goal o Alone & cannot tolerate isolation III. Human Needs (existential needs) Our human dilemma cannot be solved by satisfying our animal needs, but it can only be addressed by fulfilling our human needs, which would move us toward a reunification with the natural world. A. Relatedness: desire for union with another person/s Submission: transcends separateness of his existence by becoming part of something bigger than oneself Power: welcome submissive partners: symbiotic relationship Love: solve our basic human dilemma. It is the ability to unite with another while retaining one's own individuality and integrity. E. - Like the other existential needs, rootedness can take either a productive or a nonproductive mode. - - - - of isolation and aloneness - - - the world - through the world IV. The Burden of Freedom humans are the freaks of the universe High freedom = High isolation from others Freedom basic anxiety (a burden of being alone) A. Mechanisms of Escape: To reduce the frightening sense (killing for reasons other than survival; not common to all humans) but they can also create and care about their creations C. Rootedness: establish roots and to feel at home again in V. B. - Authoritarianism o The tendency to give up one's independence and to unite with a powerful partner o Take the form of either masochism or sadism. o Masochism stems from feelings of powerlessness and can be disguised as love or loyalty. o Sadism involves attempts to achieve unity through dominating, exploiting, or hurting others. Destructiveness o Feelings of isolation; an escape mechanism that is aimed at doing away with other people or things. o To restore feeling of power Conformity o surrendering of one's individuality in order to meet the wishes of others. Positive Freedom It is the successful solution to the human dilemma of being part of the natural world and yet separate from it. Character Orientations People relate to the world by acquiring and using things (assimilation) and by relating to self and others (socialization), and they can do so either nonproductively or productively. A. Nonproductive Orientations: those that fail to move people closer to positive freedom and self-realization. The drive for a sense of identity is expressed nonproductively as conformity to a group and productively as individuality. Frame of Orientation: a road map which we find our way Expressed nonproductively as a striving for irrational goals Express productively as movement toward rational goals. F. Summary of Human Needs People are highly motivated to satisfy the five existential, or human, needs because if they are unsatisfied in these needs, they are driven to insanity. Each of the needs has both a positive and a negative component, but only the satisfaction of positive needs leads to psychological health. accidental existence to transcend their nature by destroying or creating people or things. Humans can destroy through malignant aggression person. - B. Transcendence: urge to rise above a passive and - With the productive strategy, we grow beyond the security of our mother and establish ties with the outside world. With the nonproductive strategy, we become fixated and afraid to move beyond the security and safety of our mother or a mother substitute. Sense of Identity: awareness of ourselves as a separate B. - Receptive o only way they can relate to the world is to receive things, including love, knowledge, and material objects. o Positive qualities include loyalty and trust; o negative ones are passivity and submissiveness. Exploitative o aggressively take what they want rather than passively receiving it. o Positive qualities of exploitative people include pride and self-confidence; o negative ones are arrogance and conceit. Hoarding o try to save what they have already obtained, including their opinions, feelings, and material possessions. o Positive qualities include loyalty, o negative ones are obsessiveness and possessiveness. Marketing o see themselves as commodities and value themselves against the criterion of their ability to sell themselves. o They have fewer positive qualities than the other orientations, because they are essentially empty. o They can be open-minded and adaptable, as well as opportunistic and wasteful. The Productive Orientation: work toward positive freedom through productive work, love, and thoughts. Productive love necessitates a passionate love of all life and is called biophilia. VI. Personality Disorders: failures to work, think, and especially to love productively. A. Necrophilia the love of death and the hatred of all humanity. their destructiveness is a reflection of a basic character . B. Malignant Narcissism Convinced that everything belonging to them is of great value and anything belonging to others is worthless. - Narcissistic people often suffer from moral hypochondrias, or preoccupation with excessive guilt. C. Incestuous Symbiosis Extreme dependence on one's mother or mother surrogate to the extent that one's personality is blended with that of the host person Hitler, possessed all three of these disorders, a condition he termed the syndrome of decay. **Syndrome of growth: love, biophilia and positive freedom VII. Critique of Fromm Fromm evolved a theory that provide insightful ways of looking at humanity. The strength of his theory is his lucid writings on a broad range of human issues. As a scientific theory, however, Fromm's assumptions rate very low on their ability to generate research and to lend themselves to falsification; Fromm rates low on usefulness to the practitioner, internal consistency , and parsimony. Because it is quite broad in scope, Fromm's theory rates high on organizing existing knowledge. VIII. Concept of Humanity Fromm's concept of humanity came from a rich variety of sources—history, anthropology, economics, and clinical work. Because humans have the ability to reason but few strong instincts, they are the freaks of nature. To achieve selfactualization, they must satisfy their human, or existential, needs through productive love and work. In summary, we rated Fromm's theory as average on free choice, optimism, unconscious influences, and uniqueness; low on causality; and very high on social influences. CHAPTER 8: POST-FREUDIAN THEORY I. Biography of Erik Erikson born in Germany in 1902: Erik Salomonsen. After his mother married Theodor Homberger, Erik eventually took his stepfather's name. At age 18 he left home to pursue the life of a wandering artist and to search for self-identity. Married Joan Serson and they had 4 children; one had a down syndrome whom they sent to a facility In mid-life, Erik Homberger moved to the United States, changed his name to Erikson, and took a position at the Harvard Medical School. Later, he taught at Yale, the University of California at Berkeley, and several other universities. He died in 1994, a month short of his 92nd birthday. II. The Ego in Post-Freudian Psychology emphasis on ego rather than id functions ego is the center of personality and is responsible for a unified sense of self. Ego is the person’s ability to unify experiences and actions in an adoptive manner Childhood: weak and fragile Adult: formation and strengthening It consists of three interrelated facets: - body ego – seeing our physical self as different from other people ego ideal – image of ourselves vs an established ideal ego identity – image of ourselves in the social roles we play - o o o A. - Society's Influence Society (cultural environment) shapes the ego influenced by child-rearing practices and other cultural customs. Pseudospecies = fictional notion that they are superior to other cultures. B. Epigenetic Principle it grows according to a genetically established rate and in a fixed sequence. A step-by-step growth It does not replace the earlier stage B. - C. D. - III. Stages of Psychosocial Development marked by an interaction of opposites -- a syntonic (harmonious) element and a dystonic (disruptive) element, which produces a basic strength or ego quality (must have both experiences) Also, from adolescence on, each stage is characterized by an identity crisis or turning point, which may produce either adaptive or maladaptive adjustment Too little basic strength will result to a core pathology for that stage A. Infancy: Trust versus Mistrust (the 1st year) was similar to Freud's concept of the oral stage include sense organs such as the eyes and ears. psychosexual mode: oral-sensory, which is characterized by both receiving and accepting. Trust: the mother provides food (or relates) regularly E. - Mistrust: if no correspondence between their needs and their environment basic strength: hope core pathology: withdrawal Early Childhood: Autonomy versus Shame & Doubt (2nd to 3rd year) a period that compares to Freud's anal stage includes mastery of other body functions such as walking, urinating, and holding. psychosexual mode: anal-urethral-muscular, children behave both impulsively and compulsively Autonomy: faith in themselves Shame & Doubt: self-consciousness, uncertainty basic strength: will core pathology: compulsion. Play Age: Initiative versus Guilt (3rd to the 5th year) a period that parallels Freud's phallic phase. Oedipus complex as an early model of lifelong playfulness and a drama played out in children's minds as they attempt to understand the basic facts of life psychosexual mode: genital-locomotor, children have both an interest in genital activity and an increasing ability to move around. Initiative: to act with purpose and set goals Guilt: too little purpose Basic strength: Purpose Core pathology: inhibition School Age: Industry versus Inferiority (6 to about 13 years) a time of psychosexual latency , but it is also a time of psychosocial growth beyond the family. learn the customs of their culture, including both formal and informal education. Industry: work hard & finish the job Inferiority: work is not sufficient to achieve goals Basic strength: competence Core pathology: inertia Adolescence: Identity versus identity confusion (puberty) a time of psychosexual growth & psychosocial latency. psychosexual mode: genital maturation Identity emerges from a) childhood identifications and b) historical and social context Identity: having a sense of who they are Identity confusion: divided self-image Basic strength: fidelity F. G. - Core pathology: role denial Young Adulthood: Intimacy versus Isolation (18 - 30 years) psychosexual mode: genitality, expressed as mutual trust between partners in a stable sexual relationship. Intimacy: ability to fuse one's identity with that of another person without fear of losing it Isolation: fear of losing one's identity in an intimate relationship. Basic strength: capacity to love Core pathology: exclusivity Adulthood: Generativity versus Stagnation (31 to 60 years) a time when people make significant contributions to society psychosexual mode: procreativity, or the caring for one's children, the children of others, and the material products of one's society. Generativity: guiding the next generation Stagnation: too self-indulgent, too much self-absorption Basic Strength: Care Core pathology: rejectivity (of certain individuals) H. - Old Age: Integrity versus Despair (age 60 until death) psychosexual mode: generalized sensuality; taking pleasure in a variety of sensations and an appreciation of the traditional life style of people of the other gender. Integrity: the maintenance of ego-identity (social roles) Despair: the surrender of hope (originated from infancy) Basic strength: wisdom Core pathology: Disdain = feelings of being finished or helpless As Erikson himself aged, he and his wife began to describe a ninth stage—a period of very old age when physical and mental infirmities rob people of their generative abilities and reduce them to waiting for death. IV. Critique of Erikson Although Erikson's work is a logical extension of Freud's psychoanalysis, it offers a new way of looking at human development. As a useful theory, it rates high on its ability to generate research, about average on its ability to be falsified, to organize knowledge, and to guide the practitioner. It rates high on internal consistency and about average on parsimony. 2. 3. V. Concept of Humanity Erikson saw humans as basically social animals who have limited free choice and who are motivated by past experiences, which may be either conscious or unconscious. In addition, Erikson is rated high on both optimism and uniqueness of individuals. 4. 5. A. - motivation is complex, and unconscious motives often underlie behavior; people are continually motivated by one need or another; people in different cultures are motivated by the same basic needs; and needs can be arranged on a hierarchy Hierarchy of Needs lower level needs have prepotency over higher level needs; that is, lower needs must be satisfied before higher needs become motivators. Called CONATIVE needs: have a striving or motivational character As long as the need is not yet satisfied, the person will continue to strive to satisfy it (almost doing anything to obtain it) physiological needs o oxygen, food, water safety needs o physical security, stability, dependency, protection, and freedom from danger o Children: threats, animals, strangers, punishments C. D. E. - - CHAPTER 9: HOLISTIC-DYNAMIC THEORY I. II. Biography of Abraham H. Maslow born in New York City in 1908, the oldest of seven children of Russian Jewish immigrants. Had the most lonely and miserable childhood (shy, inferior, depressed) Oldest of the seven children He never overcame the intense hatred he had towards his mother. He refused to attend her funeral. After 2 or 3 mediocre years as a college student, Maslow's academic work improved at about the time he was married. He married his first cousin, Bertha Goodman He received both a bachelor's degree and a PhD from the University of Wisconsin, where he worked with Harry Harlow conducting animal studies (monkeys). Poor health forced him to move to California, where he died in 1970 at age 62. Maslow's View of Motivation 1. the whole organism is motivated at any one time; love and belongingness needs o desire for friendship, the wish for a mate and children, and the need to belong o 1st group: need fully satisfied; feels accepted and will not feel devastated if rejected o 2nd group: never experienced love; thus, incapable of giving love o 3rd group: received the need in small doses; strongest motivation to seek love o Children: straightforward and direct o Adults: disguise; self-defeating behaviors esteem needs o satisfaction of love needs and which include selfesteem and the recognition that we have a positiv e reputation self-actualization needs o self-fulfillment, realization of one’s own potential o they become independent of the lower needs o should embrace the B-values as truth, beauty, oneness, justice, etc *Other categories of needs include aesthetic needs, cognitive needs, and neurotic needs. B. Aesthetic Needs - - - - - desire for beauty and order, and some people have much stronger aesthetic needs than do others. Will get sick if not met people with strong aesthetic needs do not automatical ly reach self-actualization Not universal Cognitive Needs desire to know, to understand, and to be curious. Knowledge is a prerequisite for each of the five conativ e needs. (only for those who have this need) people who are denied knowledge and kept in ignorance become sick, paranoid, and depressed. people who have satisfied cognitive needs do not necessarily become self-actualized. Neurotic Needs desire to dominate, to inflict pain, or to subject oneself to the will of another person. lead to pathology whether or not they are satisfied General Discussion of Needs Reversed Order Needs o Maslow insisted that much of our surface behaviors are actually motivated by more basic and often unconscious needs. o For example, a starving mother may be motivated by love needs to give up food in order to feed her starving children. However, if we understand the unconscious motivation behind many apparent reversals, we might see that they are not genuine reversals at all. Unmotivated Behavior o Some behaviors are not motivated even though all behaviors have a cause o Conditioned reflexes, maturation, or drugs Expressive and Coping Behavior o have no aim or goal but are merely a person's mode of expression o deal with a person's attempt to cope with the environment Deprivation of Needs o leads to pathology of some sort Instinctoid Nature of Needs o Innately determined needs that can be modified by learning o Thwarting of instinctoid needs produces pathology whereas the frustration of noninstinctoid needs does not o Specie-specific Comparison of Higher and Lower Needs o o higher level needs (love, esteem, and selfactualization) are later on the evolutionary scale than lower level needs and that they produce more genuine happiness and more peak experiences. Seems like these needs follow a development course III. Self-Actualization an ultimate level of psychological health called selfactualization. (1) absence of psychopathology, (2) satisfaction of each of the four lower level needs, (3) full realization of one's potentials for growth, and (4) acceptance of the B-values. A. Values of Self-Actualizers Self-actualizing people are metamotivated by such Bvalues as truth, goodness, beauty, justice, and simplicity. If people’s metaneeds are not met they experience existential illness B. Characteristics of Self-Actualizing People not all self-actualizers possess each of these characteristics to the same extent. (1) more efficient perception of reality; they often have an almost uncanny ability to detect phoniness in others, and they are not fooled by sham; (2) acceptance of self, others, and nature; (3) spontaneity, simplicity, and naturalness; they have no need to appear complex or sophisticated; (4) problem-centered; they view age-old problems from a solid philosophical position; (5) the need for privacy, or a detachment that allows them to be alone without being lonely; (6) autonomy; they have grown beyond dependency on other people for their self-esteem; (7) continued freshness of appreciation and the ability to view everyday things with a fresh vision and appreciation; (8) frequent reports of peak experiences, or those mystical experiences that give a person a sense of transcendence and feelings of awe, wonder, ecstasy , reverence, and humility; (9) Gemeinschaftsgefühl, that is, social interest or a deep feeling of oneness with all humanity; (10) profound interpersonal relations but with no desperate need to have a multitude of friends; (11) the democratic character structure; or the ability to disregard superficial differences between people; - (12) discrimination between means and ends, meaning that self-actualizing people have a clear sense of right and wrong, and they experience little conflict about basic values; (13) a philosophical sense of humor; or humor that is spontaneous, unplanned, and intrinsic to the situation; (14) creativeness; they possess a keen perception of truth, beauty, and reality; (15) resistance to enculturation; they have the ability to set personal standards and to resist the mold set by the dominate culture. C. Love, Sex, and Self-Actualization Maslow compared D-love (deficiency love) to B-love (love for the being or essence of another person). Self-actualizing people are capable of B-love; that is, they have the ability to love without expecting something in return. B-love is mutually felt and shared and not based on deficiencies within the lovers. IV. Measuring Self-Actualization The most widely used of these is Everett Shostrom's Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), a 150-forcedchoice inventory that assesses a variety of selfactualization facets. V. The Jonah Complex fear of being or doing one's best, a condition that all of us have to some extent. False humility that stifle creativity and that fall short of self-actualization VI. Critique of Maslow Maslow's theory has been popular in psychology and other disciplines, such as marketing, management, nursing, and education. The hierarchy of needs concept seems both elementary and logical, which gives Maslow's theory the illusion of simplicity. However, the theory is somewhat complex, with four dimensions of needs and the possibility of unconsciously motivated behavior. As a scientific theory, Maslow's model rates high in generating research but low in falsifiability. On its ability to organize knowledge and guide action, the theory rates quite high; on its simplicity and internal consistency, it rates only average. VII. Concept of Humanity Maslow believed that people are structured in such a way that their activated needs are exactly what they want most. Hungry people desire food, frightened people look for safety, and so forth. Although he was generally optimistic and hopeful, Maslow saw that people are capable of great evil and destruction. He believed that, as a species, humans are becoming more and more fully human and motivated by higher level needs. In summary, Maslow's view of humanity rates high on free choice, optimism, teleology, and uniqueness and about average on social influences. CHAPTER 10: PERSON-CENTERED THEORY l. Biography of Carl Rogers born into a devoutly religious family in a Chicago suburb in 1902. Carl became interested in scientific farming and learned to appreciate the scientific method. When he graduated from the University of Wisconsin, Rogers intended to become a minister, but he gave up that notion and completed a PhD in psychology from Columbia University in 1931. In 1940, after nearly a dozen years working as a clinician, he took a position at Ohio State University. Later, he held positions at the University of Chicago and the University of Wisconsin. In 1964, he moved to California where he helped found the Center for Studies of the Person. His personal life was marked by change and openness to experience He was shy and social inept but he got married to Helen Elliott and had 2 children He died in 1987 at age 85. II. Person-Centered Theory A. Basic Assumptions the formative tendency that states that all matter, both organic and inorganic, tends to evolve from simpler to more complex forms and an actualizing tendency, which suggests that all living things, including humans, tend to move toward completion, or fulfillment of potentials. o Maintenance = of needs o Enhancement = willingness to face pain because of the biological tendency to fulfill basic nature wc is actualization relationship with another person who is genuine, or congruent, and who demonstrates complete acceptance and empathy for that person. Lead people to become actualized B. The Self and Self-Actualization A sense of self during infancy, once established, allows a person to strive toward self-actualization The self has two subsystems: o self-concept: aspects of one's identity that are perceived in awareness, and o ideal self: view of our self as we would like it to be or what we would aspire to be. Once formed, the self-concept tends to resist change, and gaps between it and the ideal self result in incongruence and various levels of psychopathology. C. Awareness People are aware of both their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness need not be accurate. Any experience not consistent with the self-concept— even positive experiences—will be distorted or denied. o Person distrusts the giver o Recipient does not feel deserving of them o Compliment carries an implied threat three levels of awareness: o (1) those that are symbolized below the threshold of awareness and are ignored, denied, or not allowed into the self-concept; o (2) those that are distorted or reshaped to fit it into an existing self-concept; and o (3) those that are consistent with the self-concept and thus are accurately symbolized and freely admitted to the self-structure. D. Needs As awareness of self emerges, an infant begins to receive positive regard from another person, that is, to be loved or accepted. E. - - - - Incongruence: experienced when basic organismic needs are denied or distorted in favor of needs to be loved or accepted. Self-regard: people acquire only after they perceive that someone else cares for them and values them Once established, however, self-regard becomes autonomous and no longer dependent on another person's continuous positive evaluation. Contact (with another person) Positive regard (from others) positive self-regard Barriers to Psychological Health Conditions of Worth o not unconditionally accepted o they feel that they are loved and accepted only when and if they meet the conditions set by others. o External evaluations: our perceptions of other people’s view of us that do not foster psychological health Incongruence o Organismic experience versus self-experiences o The greater the incongruence between selfconcept and the organismic experience, the more vulnerable that person becomes. o Anxiety exists whenever the person becomes dimly aware of the discrepancy o threat is experienced whenever the person becomes more clearly aware of this incongruence Defensiveness o To prevent incongruence o With distortion, people misinterpret an experience so that it fits into their self-concept o with denial, people refuse to allow the experience into awareness o When people's defenses fail to operate properly, their behavior becomes disorganized or psychotic Disorganization o people sometimes behave consistently with their organismic experience and sometimes in accordance with their shattered self-concept. III. Psychotherapy For client-centered psychotherapy to be effective, six conditions are necessary: (1) A vulnerable or anxious client must (2) have contact of some duration (3) with a congruent counselor (4) who demonstrates unconditional positive regard (5) and who listens with empathy to a client (6) who perceives the congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy. If these conditions are present, then the process of therapy will take place and certain predictable outcomes will result. A. Conditions counselor congruence, or a therapist whose organismic experiences are matched by awareness and by the ability and willingness to openly express these feelings. Unconditional positive regard exists when the therapist accepts and prizes the client without conditions or qualifications. Empathic listening is the ability of the therapist to sense the feeling of a client and also to communicate these perceptions so that the client knows that another person has entered into his or her world of feelings without prejudice, projection, or evaluation. B. C. - Process Rogers saw the process of therapeutic change as taking place in seven stages: (1) clients are unwilling to communicate anything about themselves; (2) they discuss only external events and other people; (3) they begin to talk about themselves, but still as an object; (4) they discuss strong emotions that they have felt in the past; (5) they begin to express present feelings; (6) they freely allow into awareness those experiences that were previously denied or distorted; and (7) they experience irreversible change and growth. Outcomes (1) become more congruent, less defensive, more open to experience, and more realistic; (2) experience a narrowing of the gap between ideal self and true self; (3) experience less physiological and psychological tension; (4) improve their interpersonal relationships: and (5) become more accepting of self and others. IV. The Person of Tomorrow - - - - - - these people would be more adaptable and more flexible in their thinking. they would be open to their experiences, accurately symbolizing them in awareness rather than denying or distorting them. would listen to themselves and hear their joy, anger, discouragement, fear, and tenderness. a tendency to live fully in the moment, experiencing a constant state of fluidity and change. They would see each experience with a new freshness and appreciate it fully in the present moment; tendency to live in the moment as existential living. remain confident of their own ability to experience harmonious relations with others. They would feel no need to be liked or loved by everyone, because they would know that they are unconditionally prized and accepted by someone. they would be more integrated, more whole, with no artificial boundary between conscious processes and unconscious ones. Because they would be able to accurately symbolize all their experiences in awareness, they would see clearly the difference between what is and what should be. have a basic trust of human nature. They would experience anger, frustration, depression, and other negative emotions, but they would be able to express rather than repress these feelings. open to all their experiences, they would enjoy a greater richness in life than do other people. They would live in the present and thus participate more richly in the ongoing moment. CHAPTER 11: EXISTENTIAL PSYCHOLOGY l. Biography of Rollo May born in Ohio in 1909, but grew up in Michigan he spent 3 years as an itinerant artist roaming throughout eastern and southern Europe. he entered the Union Theological Seminary, from which he received a Master of Divinity degree. He then served for 2 years as a pastor, but quit in order to pursue a career in psychology. He received a PhD in clinical psychology from Columbia in 1949 at the relatively advanced age of 40. During his professional career, he served as lecturer or visiting professor at a number of universities, conducted a private practice as a psychotherapist, and wrote a number of popular books on the human condition. May died in 1994 at age 85. II. Background of Existentialism Søren Kierkegaard, the Danish philosopher and theologian, is usually considered to be the founder of modern existentialism. he emphasized a balance between freedom and responsibility. V. Critique of Rogers Rogers' person-centered theory is one of the most carefully constructed of all personality theories, and it meets quite well each of the six criteria of a useful theory. It rates very high on internal consistency and parsimony, high on its ability to be falsified and to generate research, and high average on its ability to organize knowledge and to serve as a guide to the practitioner . VI. Concept of Humanity Rogers believed that humans have the capacity to change and grow—provided that certain necessary and sufficient conditions are present. Therefore, his theory rates very high on optimism. In addition, it rates high on free choice, teleology , conscious motivation, social influences, and the uniqueness of the individual. A. - People acquire freedom of action by expanding their self-awareness and by assuming responsibility for their actions. However, this acquisition of freedom and responsibility is achieved at the expense of anxiety and dread. What Is Existentialism? existence takes precedence over essence, meaning that process and growth are more important than product and stagnation. existentialists oppose the artificial split between subject and object. stress people's search for meaning in their lives. insist that each of us is responsible for who we are and what we will become. take an antitheoretical position, believing that theories tend to objectify people. B. Basic Concepts Being-in-the-world (Dasein) o a basic unity exists between people and their environments o a phenomenological approach that intends to understand people from their own perspective o Three simultaneous modes of the world characterize us in our Dasein: - Umwelt, or the environment around us; Mitwelt, or our world with other people; and Eigenwelt, or our relationship with our self. Nonbeing o People are both aware of themselves as living beings and also aware of the possibility of nonbeing or nothingness. o Death is the most obvious form of nonbeing, which can also be experienced as retreat from life's experiences. o Other forms: addictions, promiscuous sexual activity, other compulsive behaviors, blind conformity to society’s expectations III. Anxiety People experience anxiety when they become aware that their existence or something identified with it might be destroyed. The acquisition of freedom inevitably leads to anxiety, which can be either pleasurable and constructive or painful and destructive. A. Normal Anxiety proportionate to the threat, does not involve repression, and can be handled on a conscious level. B. Neurotic Anxiety a reaction that is disproportionate to the threat and that leads to repression and defensive behaviors. It is felt whenever one's values are transformed into dogma. Neurotic anxiety blocks growth and productive action. IV. Guilt Guilt arises whenever people deny their potentialities, fail to accurately perceive the needs of others, or remain blind to their dependence on the natural world. Both anxiety and guilt are ontological; that is, they refer to the nature of being and not to feelings arising from specific situations. V. Intentionality The structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future permits people to overcome the dichotomy between subject and object because it enables them to see that their intentions are a function of both themselves and their environment. VI. Care, Love, and Will Care is an active process that suggests that things matter. Love means to care, to delight in the presence of another person, and to affirm that person's value as much as one's own. Care is also an important ingredient in will, defined as a conscious commitment to action. A. Union of Love and Will May believed that our modern society has lost sight of the true nature of love and will, equating love with sex and will with will power. He further held that psychologically healthy people are able to combine love and will because both imply care, choice, action, and responsibility. B. Forms of Love Sex: A biological function through sexual intercourse Eros is a psychological desire that seeks an enduring union with a loved one. It may include sex, but it is built on care and tenderness. Philia, an intimate nonsexual friendship between two people, takes time to develop and does not depend on the actions of the other person. Agape is an altruistic or spiritual love that carries with it the risk of playing God. Agape is undeserved and unconditional. VII. Freedom and Destiny Psychologically healthy individuals are comfortable with freedom, able to assume responsibility for their choices, and willing to face their destiny. A. Freedom Defined Freedom comes from an understanding of our destiny . We are free when we recognize that death is a possibility at any moment and when we are willing to experience changes even in the face of not knowing what those changes will bring. B. Forms of Freedom May recognized two forms of freedom: (1) freedom of doing, or freedom of action, which he called existential freedom, and (2) freedom of being, or an inner freedom, which he called essential freedom. C. Destiny Defined May defined destiny as "the design of the universe speaking through the design of each one of us." In other words, our destiny includes the limitations of our environment and our personal qualities, including our mortality, gender, and genetic predispositions. Freedom and destiny constitute a paradox because freedom gains vitality from destiny, and destiny gains significance from freedom. VIII. Psychopathology May saw apathy and emptiness—not anxiety or depression—as the chief existential disorders of our time. People have become alienated from the natural world (Umwelt), from other people (Mitwelt) and from themselves (Eigenwelt) . Psychopathology is a lack of connectedness and an inability to fulfill one's destiny. IX. Psychotherapy The goal of May's psychotherapy was not to cure patients of any specific disorder, but rather to make them more fully human. May said that the purpose of psychotherapy is to set people free, that is to allow them to make choices and to assume responsibility for those choices. X. Critique of May May's psychology has been legitimately criticized as being antitheoretical and unjustly criticized as being antiintellectual. May's antitheoretical approach calls for a new kind of science—one that considers uniqueness and personal freedom as crucial concepts. However, according to the criteria of present science, May's theory rates low on most standards. More specifically, we give it a very low rating on its ability to generate research, to be falsified, and to guide action; low on internal consistency (because it lacks operationally defined terms) , average on parsimony, and high on its organizational powers, due to its consideration of a broad scope of the human condition. XI. Concept of Humanity May viewed people as complex beings, capable of both tremendous good and immense evil. People have become alienated from the world, from other people, and, most of all, from themselves. On the dimensions of a concept of humanity, May rates high on free choice, teleology, social influences, and uniqueness. On the issue of conscious or unconscious forces, his theory takes a middle position. CHAPTER 12: PSYCHOLOGY OF THE INDIVIDUAL 1. Biography of Gordon Allport born in Indiana in 1897, the son of a physician and former school teacher. He received an undergraduate degree in philosophy and economics and a PhD from Harvard, spent 2 years studying under some of the great German psychologists, but he returned from Europe to teach at Harvard. Two years later he took a position at Dartmouth, but after 4 years at Dartmouth, he returned to Harvard, where he remained until his death in 1967. 2. Allport's Approach to Personality Theory A. What Is Personality? "the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine [the person's] behavior and thought. Dynamic organization: patterned yet subject to change Psychophysical: importance of both psychological and physical aspects of personality Determine: not merely the mask we wear but the person behind that Characteristics: uniqueness of the individual - Behavior and thinking: anything the person does (external or internal) B. What is the Role of Conscious Motivation? began with his short-lived discussion with Freud, when Allport had not yet selected a career in psychology. Whereas Freud would attribute an unconscious desire in the story of the young boy on the tram car, Allport saw the story as an expression of a conscious motive. He was inclined to accept self-reports at face value C. What Are the Characteristics of a Healthy Person? Proactive behavior: not only reacting to external stimuli but causing their environment to react to them Motivated by conscious process: flexible and autonomous Relatively trauma-free childhood Extension of the sense of self: not self-centered; social interest are important to them Warm relating of self to others: intimate and compassionate; love other unselfishy Emotional security or self-acceptance: not overly upset when things do not go as planned Realistic perception: problem oriented Insight & humor: no need to attribute their own mistakes and weakness to others; can laugh at themselves; see themselves objectively Unifying philosophy of life: have a clear view of the purpose of life (not necessarily religious) 3. Structure of Personality most important structures of personality are those that permit description of the individual in terms of individual characteristics, and he called these individual structures personal dispositions. A. Personal Dispositions “common traits” which permit inter-individual comparisons “personal dispositions” which are unusual to the individual. Interpersonal comparisons are inappropriate to personal dispositions and any attempt of comparison transforms it to a common trait Levels (continuum) of personal dispositions: o Cardinal dispositions: characteristics that are so obvious and dominating that they cannot be hidden from other people. Not everyone have this o Central dispositions: all people have 5 to 10 central dispositions, or characteristics around which their lives revolve Secondary dispositions: are less reliable and less conspicuous than central traits. Occur with some regularity B. Motivational and Stylistic Dispositions Allport further divided personal dispositions into o motivational dispositions - strong enough to initiate action o stylistic dispositions - the manner in which an individual behaves and which guide action (does o not really have an exact drive or instinct that causes the behavior) C. Proprium all those behaviors and characteristics that people regard as warm and central in their lives. self/ego could imply an object or thing within a person that controls behavior, whereas proprium suggests the core of one's personhood (values/conscience) - 4. Motivation motives change as people mature and also that people are motivated by present drives and wants. A. - B. - - Theory of Motivation people not only react to their environment, but they also shape their environment and cause it to react to them. His proactive approach emphasized the idea that people often seek additional tension and that they purposefully act on their environment in a way that fosters growth toward psychological health. Functional Autonomy some (but not all) human motives are functionally independent from the original motive responsible for a particular behavior. two levels of functional autonomy: o perseverative functional autonomy: tendency of certain basic behaviors (such as addictiv e behaviors) to perseverate or continue in the absence of reinforcement o propriate functional autonomy: self-sustaining motives (such as interests) that are related to the proprium. a behavior is functionally autonomous to the extent that it seeks new goals, as when a need (eating) turns into an interest (cooking). Not all behaviors are functionally autonomous: o biological drives = eating, breathing, and sleeping o reflex actions such as an eye blink o physique, intelligence, and temperament habits in the process of being formed; patterns of behavior that require primary reinforcement o sublimations that can be tied to childhood sexual desires o some neurotic or pathological symptoms. 5. Critique of Allport His views are based more on philosophical speculation and common sense than on scientific studies. His theory rates low on its ability to organize psychological data and to be falsified. It rates high on parsimony and internal consistency and about average on its ability to generate research and to help the practitioner. 6. Concept of Humanity Allport saw people as thinking, proactive, purposeful beings who are generally aware of what they are doing and why. On the six dimensions for a concept of humanity, Allport rates higher than any other theorist on conscious influences and on the uniqueness of the individual. He rates high on free choice, optimism, and teleology and about average on social influences. o o CHAPTER 13: FIVE-FACTOR TRAIT THEORY 1. The Pioneering Work of Raymond B. Cattell Raymond Cattell used factor analysis to identify a large number of traits, including personality traits. Included in personality traits were temperament traits, which are concerned with how a person behaves. Temperament traits include both normal and abnormal traits. Of the 23 normal traits, 16 are measured by Cattell's famous 16 PF scale. Whereas, McRae and Costa’s work yielded scores on only 5 personality traits (NEO-PI Inventory) 2. Basics of Factor Analysis a mathematical procedure for reducing a large number of scores to a few general variables or factors. Correlations of the original, specific scores with the factors are called factor loadings. Traits generated through factor analysis may be either unipolar (scaled from zero to some large amount) or bipolar (having two opposing poles, such as introversion and extraversion). For factors to have psychological meaning, the analyst must rotate the axes on which the scores are plotted. Eysenck used an orthogonal rotation whereas Cattell favored an obiique rotation. The oblique rotation procedure ordinarily results in more traits than the orthogonal method. 3. The Big Five: Taxonomy or Theory? A large number of researchers, including Robert McCrae and Paul Costa, Jr., have insisted that all personality structure can be narrowed down to five, and only five, and no fewer than five dominant traits to emerge from factor analytic techniques. In Search of the Big Five In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Costa and McCrae quickly discovered the traits of extraversion (E), neuroticism (N), and openness to experience (O). A. Five Factors Found the five factors have been found across a variety of cultures and languages. In addition, the five factor s show some permanence with age; that is, adults tend to maintain a consistent personality structure as they grow older. A. - 4. B. Description of the Five Factors McCrae and Costa agreed with Eysenck that personality traits are basically bipolar, with some people scoring high on one factor and low on its counterpart. Neuroticism: people who score high on N tend to be anxious, temperamental, self-pitying, self-conscious, emotional, and vulnerable to stress-related disorders, whereas people with low scores on N tend to have opposite characteristics. Extraversion: People who score high on E tend to be affectionate, jovial, talkative, a joiner, and fun-loving, whereas low E scorers tend to have opposing traits. Openness (to experience): High O scorers prefer variety in their life and are contrasted to low O scorers who have a need for closure and who gain comfort in their association with familiar people and things. Agreeableness: People who score high on A tend to be trusting, generous, yielding, acceptant, and good natured. Low A scorers are generally suspicious, stingy, unfriendly, irritable, and critical of other people. Conscientiousness: people high on the C scale tend to be ordered, controlled, organized, ambitious, achievement-focused, and self-disciplined. 5. Evolution of the Five-Factor Theory - B. - their Five-Factor taxonomy was being transformed into a Five-Factor Theory (FFT) Units of the Five-Factor Theory The three core components include: o basic tendencies - the universal raw material of personality; define the individual’s potential & direction; basis in biology and their stability over time and situation o characteristic adaptations - are acquired personality structures that develop as people adapt to their environment (flexibility); what we learn o self-concept – an important characteristic adaptation which are the knowledge and attitudes about oneself Peripheral components include: o biological bases - which are the sole cause of basic tendencies (genes, hormones, brain structures) o objective biography - everything a person does or thinks over a lifetime (objectively = not how they view experiences) o external influence - or knowledge, views, and evaluations of the self; “how we respond” to the opportunities and demands Basic Postulates Basic tendencies: four postulate: o individuality - every adult has a unique pattern of traits o origin - all personality traits originate solely from biological factors, such as genetics, hormones, and brain structures o development - traits develop and change through childhood, adolescence, and mid-adulthood o structure - traits are organized hierarchically from narrow and specific to broad and general. 6. Critique of Trait and Factor Theories The factor theories of Eysenck and of McCrae and Costa rate high on parsimony, on their ability to generate research, and on their usefulness in organizing data; they are about average on falsifiability, usefulness to the practitioner, and internal consistency. 7. Concept of Humanity Factor theories generally assume that human personality is largely the product of genetics and not the environment. Thus, we rate these two theories very high on biological influences and very low on social factors. In addition, we rate both about average on conscious versus unconscious influences and high on the uniqueness of individuals. The concepts of free choice, optimism versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology are not clearly addressed by these theories. CHAPTER 14: COGNITIVE SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY 1. Overview of Cognitive Social Learning Theory Both Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel believe that cognitive factors, more than immediate reinforcements, determine how people will react to environmental forces. Both theorists suggest that our expectations of future events are major determinants of performance. 2. Biography of Julian Rotter Julian Rotter was born in Brooklyn, New York n in 1916. As a high school student, he became familiar with some of the writings of Freud and Adler, but he majored in chemistry rather than psychology while at Brooklyn College. In 1941, he received a PhD in clinical psychology from Indiana University. After World War II, he took a position at Ohio State, where one of his students was Walter Mischel. In 1963, he moved to the University of Connecticut and has remained there since retirement. 3. Introduction to Rotter's Social Learning Theory it assumes that humans interact with their meaningful environments: that is, human behavior stems from the interaction of environmental and personal factors. human personality is learned, which suggests that it can be changed or modified as long as people are capable of learning. personality has a basic unity, suggesting that personality has some basic stability. - 4. motivation is goal directed. people are capable of anticipating events, and thus they are capable of changing their environment and their personality. Predicting Specific Behaviors - must be analyzed in order to make accurate predictions in any specific situation. A. Behavior Potential - possibility that a particular response will occur at a given time and place in relation to its likely reinforcement. B. Expectancy - their confidence that a particular reinforcement will follow a specific behavior in a specific situation or situations. Expectancies can be either general or specific, and the overall likelihood of success is a function of both generalized and specific expectancies. C. Reinforcement Value - person's preference for any particular reinforcement over other reinforcements if all are equally likely to occur. Internal reinforcement is the individual's perception of an event, whereas external reinforcement refers to society's evaluation of an event. Reinforcement-reinforcement sequences suggest that the value of an event is a function of one's expectation that a particular reinforcement will lead to futur e reinforcements. D. Psychological Situation - part of the external and internal world to which a person is responding. Behavior is a function of the interaction of people with their meaningful environment. E. Basic Prediction Formula - Hypothetically, in any specific situation, behavior can be predicted by the basic prediction formula, which states that the potential for a behavior to occur in a particular situation in relation to a given reinforcement is a function of people's expectancy that their behavior will be followed by that reinforcement in that situation. need being related to behaviors that lead to the same or similar reinforcements: (1) recognition-status refers to the need to excel, to achieve, and to have others recognize one's worth; (2) dominance is the need to control the behavior of others, to be in charge, or to gain power over others; (3) independence is the need to be free from the domination of others; (4) protectiondependence is the need to have others take care of us and to protect us from harm; (5) love and affection are needs to be warmly accepted by others and to be held in friendly regard; and (6) physical comfort includes those behaviors aimed at securing food, good health, and physical security. Three need components are: (1) need potential, or the possible occurrences of a set of functionally related behaviors directed toward the satisfaction of similar goals; (2) freedom of movement, or a person's overall expectation of being reinforced for performing those behaviors that are directed toward satisfying some general need; and (3) need value, or the extent to which people prefer one set of reinforcements to another. Need components are analogous to the more specific concepts of behavior potential, expectancy, and reinforcement value. C. General Prediction Formula The general prediction formula states that need potential is a function of freedom of movement and need value. Rotter's two most famous scales for measuring generalized expectancies are the Internal-External Control Scale and the Interpersonal Trust Scale. D. Internal and External Control of Reinforcement The Internal-External Control Scale (popularly called "locus of control scale") attempts to measure the degree to which people perceive a causal relationship between their own effor ts and environmental consequences. E. Interpersonal Trust Scale The Interpersonal Trust Scale measures the extent to which a person expects the word or promise of another person to be true. 6. 5. Predicting General Behaviors The basic prediction is too specific to give clues about how a person will generally behave. A. Generalized Expectancies To make more general predictions of behavior, one must know people's generalized expectancies, or their expectations based on similar past experiences that a given behavior will be reinforced. Generalized expectancies include people's needs, that is, behaviors that mov e them toward a goal. B. Needs Needs refer to functionally related categories of behaviors. Rotter listed six broad categories of needs, with each Introduction to Mischel's Personality System Like Bandura and Rotter, Mischel believes that cognitive factors, such as expectancies, subjective perceptions, values, goals, and personal standards are important in shaping personality. In his early theory, Mischel seriously questioned the consistency of personality, but more recently, he and Yuichi Shoda have advanced the notion that behavior is also a function of relatively stable cognitive-affective units. 7. Biography of Walter Mischel Walter Mischel was born in Vienna in 1930, the second son of upper-middle-class parents. When the Nazis invaded Austria in 1938, his family moved to the United States and eventually settled in Brooklyn. Mischel received an MA from City College of New York and a PhD from Ohio State, where he was influenced by Julian Rotter. He is currently a professor at Columbia University. 8. Background of the Cognitive-Affective Personality System Mischel originally believed that human behavior was mostly a function of the situation, but more lately he has recognized the importance of relatively permanent cognitive affective units. Nevertheless, Mischel's theory continues to recognize the apparent inconsistency of some behaviors. A. The Consistency Paradox The consistency paradox refers to the observation that, although both lay people and professionals tend to believe that behavior is quite consistent, research suggests that it is not. Mischel recognizes that, indeed, some traits are consistent over time, but he contends that there is little evidence to suggest that they are consistent from one situation to another. B. Person-Situation Interaction Mischel believes that behavior is best predicted from an understanding of the person, the situation, and the interaction between person and situation. Thus, behavior is not the result of some global personality trait, but rather of people's perceptions of themselves in a particular situation. 9. Cognitive-Affective Personality System However, Mischel does not believe that inconsistencies in behavior are due solely to the situation; he recognizes that inconsistent behaviors reflect stable patterns of variation within a person. He and Shoda see these stable variations in behavior in the following framework: If A, then X; but if B, then Y. People's pattern of variability is their behavioral signature, or their unique and stable pattern of behaving differently in different situations. A. Behavior Prediction Mischel's basic theoretical position for predicting and explaining behavior is as follows: If personality is a stable system that processes information about the situation, then as people encounter different situations, they should behave differently as those situations vary. Therefore, Mischel believes that, even though people's behavior may reflect some stability over time, it tends to vary as situations vary. B. Situation Variables Situation variables include all those stimuli that people attend to in a given situation. C. Cognitive-Affective Units Cognitive-affective units include all those psychological, social, and physiological aspects of people that permit them to interact with their environment with some stability in their behavior. Mischel identified five such units. First are encoding strategies, or people's individualized manner of categorizing information they receive from external stimuli. Second are the competencies and self-regulatory strategies. One of the most important of these competencies is intelligence, which Mischel argues is responsible for the apparent consistency of other traits. In addition, people use self-regulatory strategies to control their own behavior through self-formulated goals and self-produced consequences. The third cognitive-affective units are expectancies and beliefs, or people's guesses about the consequences of each of the different behavioral possibilities. The fourth cognitive-affective unit includes people's subjectiv e goals and values, which tend to render behavior fairly consistent. Mischel's fifth cognitive-affective unit includes affectiv e responses, including emotions, feelings, and the affect that accompanies physiological reactions. CHAPTER 15: PSYCHOLOGY OF PERSONAL CONSTRUCTS 10. Critique of Cognitive Social Learning Theory Cognitive social learning theory combines the rigors of learning theory with the speculative assumption that people are forward-looking beings. It rates high on generating research and on being internally consistent; it rates about average on its ability to be falsified, to organize data, and to guide action. 11. Concept of Humanity Rotter and Mischel see people as goal-directed, cognitive animals whose perceptions of events are more crucial than the events themselves. Cognitive social learning theory rates very high on social influences, and high on uniqueness of the individual, free choice, teleology, and conscious processes. On the dimension of optimism versus pessimism, Rotter's view is slightly more optimistic, whereas Mischel's is about in the middle. 1. Overview of Kelly's Personal Construct Theory Kelly's theory of personal constructs can be seen as a metatheory, or a theory about theories. It holds that people anticipate events by the meanings or interpretations that they place on those events. Kelly called these interpretations personal constructs. His philosophical position, called constructive alternativism, assumes that alternative interpretations are always available to people. 2. Biography of George Kelly George Kelly was born on a farm in Kansas in 1905. During his school years and his early professional career, he dabbled in a wide variety of jobs, but he eventually received a PhD in psychology from the University of Iowa. He began his academic career at Fort Hays State College in Kansas, then after World War II, he took a position at Ohio State. He remained there until 1965 when he joined the faculty at Brandeis. He died 2 years later at age 61. 3. Kelly's Philosophical Position Kelly believed that people construe events according to their personal constructs, rather than reality. A. Person as Scientist People generally attempt to solve everyday problems in much the same fashion as do scientists; that is, they observe, ask questions, formulate hypotheses, infer conclusions, and predict future events. B. Scientist as Person Because scientists are people, their pronouncements should be regarded with the same skepticism as any other data. Every scientific theory can be viewed from an alternate angle, and every competent scientist should be open to changing his or her theory. C. Constructive Alternativism Kelly believed that our interpretations of the world are subject to revision or replacement, an assumption he called constructive alternativism. He further stressed that, because people can construe their world from different angles, observations that are valid at one time may be false at a later time. suggests that our personal constructs tend to be similar to the construction systems of other people to the extent that we share experiences with them. (11) The sociality corollary states that people are able to communicate with other people because they can construe those people's constructions. With the sociality corollary, Kelly introduced the concept of role, which refers to a pattern of behavior that stems from people's understanding of the constructs of others. Each of us has a core role and numerous peripheral roles. A core role gives us a sense of identity whereas peripheral roles are less central to our self-concept. 5. 4. Personal Constructs Kelly believed that people look at their world through templates that they create and then attempt to fit over the realities of the world. He called these templates personal constructs, which he believed shape behavior. A. Basic Postulate Kelly expressed his theory in one basic postulate and 11 supporting corollaries. The basic postulate assumes that human behavior is shaped by the way people anticipate the future. B. Supporting Corollaries The 11 supporting corollaries can all be inferred from this basic postulate. (1) Although no two events are exactly alike, we construe similar events as if they were the same, and this is Kelly's construction corollary. (2) The individuality corollary states that because people have different experiences, they can interpret the same event in different ways. (3) The organizational corollary assumes that people organize their personal constructs in a hierarchical system, with some constructs in a superordinate position and other subordinate to them. (4) The dichotomy corollary assumes that people construe events in an either/or manner, e.g., good or bad. (5) Kelly's choice corollary assumes that people tend to choose the alternative in a dichotomized construct that they see as extending the range of their futur e choices. (6) The range corollary states that constructs are limited to a particular range of convenience; that is, they are not relevant to all situations. (7) Kelly's experience corollary suggests that people continually revise their personal constructs as the result of their experiences. (8) The modulation corollary assumes that only permeable constructs lead to change; concrete constructs resist modification through experience. (9) The fragmentation corollary states that people's behavior can be inconsistent because their construct systems can readily admit incompatible elements. (10) the commonality corollary Critique of Kelly Kelly's theory probably is most applicable to relatively normal, intelligent people. Unfortunately, it pays scant attention to problems of motivation, development, and cultural influences. On the six criteria of a useful theory, it rates very high on parsimony and internal consistency and about average on its ability to generate research. However it rates low on its ability to be falsified, to guide the practitioner, and to organize knowledge. 6. Concept of Humanity Kelly saw people as anticipating the future and living their lives in accordance with those anticipations. His concept of elaborative choice suggests that people increase their range of future choices by the present choices they freely make. Thus, Kelly's theory rates very high in teleology and high in choice and optimism. In addition, it receives high ratings for conscious influences and for its emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual. Finally, personal construct theory is about average on social influences.