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Teachers challenges in facilitating the curriculum delivery and
management for S.Y 2020-2021
A Thesis
Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate School
Davao City
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
December 2021
The Problem and Its Setting
For this journey to be successful as possible, the communication between
teachers and parents is crucial, particularly regarding a child’s social,
emotional and cognitive development
Learning is a never-ending process, and a process is an event that leads
to a specific outcome. Understanding will not be accomplished if challenges will cause
the learning process to be delayed or stopped. A successful learning plan will resolve
these challenges, resulting in learning that is personalized to the learner’s needs. The
mismatch will grow as a result of the ineffective use of approaches, techniques, and
tactics with the learners.
Teachers and students alike have been shocked by the potential impact on
teaching and learning only a few months after the pandemic was announced. Digital and
online delivery modes, mixed or versatile delivery modes, synchronous or asynchronous
delivery modes, or a mixture of all these alternative delivery modes of teaching have
largely replaced conventional face-to-face training (Kaplan 2019).
The students became aware of the financial costs associated with the holding of
online or virtual classes, such as the need to purchase a laptop/desktop, or an Android
phone that is WIFI compatible, as well as a good internet connection, in order to fulfill the
requirements for virtual or online classes. Teachers are affected by the difficulties that
students face. It’s also evident that the pandemic had an effect on teachers’ and
students’ teaching and learning practices (Miller 2019).
One of the sectors most shaken by the Covid-19 pandemic is education, affecting
the lives of students in the country since March. Schools have closed and face-to-face
classes have been suspended in an attempt to stem the spread of the coronavirus. The
initial government response to impose community quarantine and to suspend classes
disrupted school learning in Luzon and later the rest of the country. For the remainder of
school year 2019-2020, students have started fulfilling academic requirements at home
and teachers were required to provide assignments in lieu of classroom teaching.
Several schools have adopted other modes of delivery such as online learning platforms
(Tabor 2020).
Amid the threat of Covid-19, schools in the country have adapted to
blended/distance learning. Every school in the municipality has distinct needs and has to
adjust to what is necessary in its situation. After the conduct of a survey on the possible
learning delivery modalities, modular distance learning is emerging as the most
preferred by schools and considered the sole remedy to reach students (Vaughan 2019).
The teachers are expected to do home visits to their students, depending on the
students’ needs, to monitor their learning performance. Students can also use text
messages or phone calls and other digital platforms to ask assistance from their teacher.
Those who have a hard time in accomplishing the school requirements or learning from
the provided materials may need more teacher’s supervision or assistance. Teachers
can give remedial activities to learners who have difficulty coping with new lessons
(Cleveland ).
Modular learning is playing a significant part in the “new normal” of education in
most schools, but as the following experiences in some households show, mothers and
children are struggling through many difficulties in this mode of education (Garrison
With the implementation of modular learning, parents/guardians play an
important role, serving as teachers and facilitators in guiding their children through the
learning materials. But some factors may challenge this role they are compelled to take
on. For instance, not all parents/guardians have the capacity to facilitate the modular
learning sessions for their children. Though the schools have oriented them on how to
go about it, some are having difficulty because of gaps in terms of skills and knowledge
(Taylor 2019).
Learners who have different needs have their own challenges. The beginners
need more attention and understanding considering that most or all of their lessons
require the presence of facilitators. They have to be watched to make sure they are
learning. Some pupils do not pay attention to their parents or facilitators because they
prefer learning from their teachers. Some even argue with their parents/facilitators on
how they should teach (Holmber 2029).
As schools across the country continued to conduct dry runs of the
implementation of distance learning, educators have identified several challenges with
the new way of delivering lessons to students at home. Among them are the distances
that teachers have to cover in order to distribute self-learning modules (SLMs) to their
students' houses (Borje).
One of the major challenges experienced by the teacher, of course, would be the
distance of the houses of these learners and the kind of road that they have to pass
through, some have to cross rivers in the distribution of the modules likewise its retrieval
Education plays an important role in shaping the lives of students. In the process,
teachers are one of the essential instruments in delivering quality learning. Due to the
emergence of COVID-19 in the Philippines, a lot of changes happened in the
educational landscape. One of these is the mode of instruction that was implemented by
the Department of Education. The current COVID-19 crisis has obliged most education
systems to adopt alternatives to face-to-face teaching and learning(Roman).
Many education systems moved activities online, to allow instruction to continue
despite school closures. The shift of the teaching-learning delivery in schools to modular
distance learning made more challenging, on the part of the school personnel, the
delivery of basic quality education. That is why DepEd leaders are always finding
avenues to solve the problems and capacitating its teachers and school heads to
become more effective in the field of modular distance learning (Bagood, 2020).
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this phenomenological research study is to describe how
teachers overcome their academic stress on module distribution and retrieval
during pandemic school year 2020-2021. At this stage in the research, teachers
are experiencing challenges in facilitating the curriculum delivery and
management and how they strategize to overcome their difficulty and insights to
mitigate such for better learning process among learners.
Research Questions
This proposed research paper shall explore the experiences of teachers
during SY 2020-2021 in the challenges with distribution and retrieval of modules,
the strategies and learning insights; hence, this shall answer the following
research questions:
1. What are the problems encountered by teachers in the distribution and retrieval of
2. What are the strategies use by teachers to cope with the foregoing problem?
3. What insights are learned by teachers in modular learning delivery?
Review of Significant Literature
This section presents the review of significant literature where it is
categorized its contents namely, on the general perspective and contentions of
authors on the lived experiences among teachers in the distribution and retrieval
of modules, the problems they encountered and the insights to mitigate
challenging experiences. The last part is the synthesis are summarized leading
the proposal into coming up of a pictorial representation of the study.
Learning Materials Management. Teachers are experiencing problems in the distribution
and retrieval of modules during the pandemic School Year 2020-2021. The case study of
Heredia, et.al (2019) in higher education stated that being transformed through complex
configurations of people, tasks, and material and digital resources. Successful designs
for innovative learning require us to understand how these complex configurations relate
to learners' activity. Its analysis unveils how design fits into a broader social context that
influences structural elements related to learning materials, the learning management
systems adopted, and the social arrangements for students in this case study. The
paper shows how the networked learning approach allows us to explore the complexities
of distance learning in developing countries, offering an analytical ground to identify,
explore, learn and adapt key re-usable design ideas, with the aim of improving distance
teaching and learning in higher education.
Meanwhile, El Messaoudj (2021) revealed that qualitative findings that
participants highly appreciated Edmodo interactive features (simplicity, functionality,
control, communal learning, and real-time feedback), and voiced their readiness to opt
for Edmodo in future learning experiences. Based on empirical evidence, the current
study argues that the Edmodo learning management system has the potential to push
content delivery, receipt, mastery, and assessment in ESP courses to the next level.
Tawalbeh (2020) stated that the online materials and e-activities were too loaded
for the students to understand thoroughly, and much of the feedback they received from
the tutor was not helpful. The results also indicated that there were no statistically
significant differences among students' views of BL or their overall satisfaction of the
online experience that could be attributed to gender or academic achievement level.
Results suggest some pedagogical implications for tutors and programmer coordinators.
Akbay et. al (2021) stated that Integration of e-learning and computerized
assessments into many levels of educational programs has been increasing as digital
technology progresses. Due to a handful of prominent advantages of computer-basedtesting (CBT), a rapid transition in test administration mode from paper-based-testing
(PBT) to CBT has emerged. Recently, many national and international testing agencies
have been offering an electronic version of some low- and high-stake tests along with
their paper versions. In this study, we aim to examine test administration mode effect
from a standpoint of cognitive effort exertion. To this end, the results of this experimental
study suggest that the cognitive effort exertion rates of CBT and PBT examinees are
different. More specifically, the study results suggest empirical evidence that examinees
exert higher cognitive effort in a CBT in comparison to its PBT counterpart.
Mpofu et. al (2012) reports on a study of the implementation of science
teacher education through virtual and open distance learning in the Mashonaland
Central Province, Zimbabwe. The study provides insight into challenges faced by
students and lecturers on inception of the program at four centres. Qualitative
data analysis revealed that the programme faces potential threat from centre-,
institution-, lecturer-, and student-related factors. These include limited
resources, large classes, inadequate expertise in open and distance education,
inappropriate science teacher education qualifications, implementer conflict of
interest in program participation, students' low self-esteem, lack of awareness of
quality parameters of delivery systems among staff, and lack of standard criteria
to measure the quality of services.
Xiao et.al (2020) aimed to investigate the current needs of student-teachers'
professional development, develop a training module to improve their initial ELT
proficiency and determine its effectiveness. The mixed methods research design with
parallel strategy, starting with the quantitative and following by the qualitative research
methods were employed in eliciting various sets of research data. Numerous
instruments were utilized in different stages with 168 respondents (student-teachers and
English teachers), 18 informants (parents, kindergarten English teachers, principals and
stakeholders) and 58 participants (student-teachers). The ADDIEM training process was
adopted as a guideline for the framework to develop the training module. The study
resulted in the following outcomes: 1) fourteen prioritized topics within the four
transformed training modules (Linguistic Bases, Lesson Design, Teaching Techniques
and Teaching Demonstration) were identified as the challenges facing the current
student-teachers; 2) training objectives and its syllabus, lesson plans, instructional
strategies, training participants and location, delivery of the training, and training
evaluation and improvement were defined sequentially in each phase as the specific
components of the training activities; and, 3) the ADDIEM Training Process, constituting
of the six phases of need analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and
modification, was merged systematically to develop a feasible training module, and the
training program was highly accepted because of its effectiveness of great benefit and
satisfaction. Finally, the constructive recommendations in view of focusing on
establishing a pleasant teaching and learning environment, ensuring sufficient training
periods, identifying the trainer's professional traits and competences, specifying trainees'
background knowledge, altering training models at the in-service level were made for
future practice and research.
Walabe and Luppicini (2020) explored E-Learning delivery in Saudi Arabian
Universities from a holistic perspective to advance knowledge on the evolution of Saudi
Arabia's distance education system. Data collection consisted of 28 in-depth, one-onone interviews with instructors and course designers to capture missing insider
perspectives and was supplemented by a thematic analysis of core supporting
documents related to the universities' strategies for delivering online learning. Three core
thematic areas were isolated and analyzed: (1) Distance education growing pains, (2)
Learning theory integration challenges, and (3) Pedagogical and technical alignment.
Stafford Beer's Viable Systems Model (VSM) provided an interpretive lens to explain
how Saudi Arabia's distance education system remained viable while passing through
periods of significant change. A blended learning model is proposed to address the
complex interplay of factors influencing E-learning delivery within Saudi Arabia's
distance education system.
Tost, Spires and In (2019) shared that life in Cambodia can be challenging and
education is often seen as a key development intervention to address social and
economic issues. However, rural Cambodian youth face a variety of barriers to
education. The current case study examines these barriers using a questionnaire
assessing youth's attitudes toward education (N = 50). Results indicate that poverty and
the pressure to migrate for work are a significant barrier to educational attainment,
despite the perceived benefits of education by youth and encouragement by families.
Results also reveal that inter-educational issues persist. These findings can be used to
better tailor development aid targeting educational measures, particularly encouraging a
shift from convincing rural Cambodians to value education to targeting the contextual
barriers that exist.
Tiba and Condi (2021) conducted a qualitative method where TPACK model
formed the framework and data were deductively analyzed. Findings revealed that NQTs
embraced technology and used it in varying ways and frequencies. The majority used
videos to capture learners' interest during lessons and teach difficult concepts, to use
PowerPoint to consolidate lesson, to use technology to facilitate collaborative learning;
and to boost learners' self-esteem. Some of the NQTs in schools that lacked resources
did not teach constructively with technology, they did not blend technology, pedagogy
and content knowledge as required for effective teaching with technology. It is
recommended that Western Cape Department of Education (WCED) and Departments
of Education in other countries bridge the digital gap by prioritizing, in their planning
schedules, the need to have one furnished computer laboratory capable of
accommodating an entire class with the necessary technological resources in schools
that lack resources.
Lapawi and Husmin (2020) stated that Computational thinking (CT) is a problemsolving process and argued to be one of the more important skills for the 21st century.
The study's results were analyzed with inference statistics and using a t-test. The study
revealed that there was a significant improvement in science achievement after using
Science Module. The study indicated that the effectiveness of Science Module is an
effective step toward enhancing achievement in science and thus should be applied in
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics teaching and learning to solve
complex problems.
Strategies in Coping up. Rethinking Problem-Solving Teaching Strategies in the Primary
Sector for Both Face-to-Face and Online Delivery by Kuboni (2021) reported that a
series of video tutorials that were developed for offering at a distance to primary school
students of Trinidad and Tobago during the pandemic. The materials selected for the
review focused on the teaching of problem-solving skills based on topics drawn from the
mathematics curriculum. The tutorials were developed and presented by primary school
teachers with support from the Ministry of Education. The main purpose of this review
was to assess the instructional strategies employed in the delivery of the video tutorials.
An inductive-deductive approach was employed for this purpose. The review also sought
to examine the effectiveness of video broadcast to support instructional delivery. The
reviewer's overall conclusion was that greater attention should be paid to formulating
strategies specifically for the task of solving a given class of problems, rather than simply
relying on the procedures derived from the underpinning mathematical operations. The
reviewer made some brief recommendations about the development of a technology-use
policy intended to deploy educationally-appropriate modern technology to support the
learning of primary school students.
Meanwhile, Cadero (2021) shared that Effective teacher professional
development is defined as structured professional learning activities which result
in changes in teacher practice and improvements in student learning outcomes.
Superintendents face common challenges unique to the rural environment which
hinder the delivery of effective teacher professional development in rural school
districts. These barriers must be addressed to ensure a high-quality education for
all rural students. Superintendents overcame challenges by establishing a vision
and systems within existing resources and employing aligned professional
development practices. Superintendents desired supports which were responsive
to the unique needs of rural school districts. The findings may inform the work of
rural administrators, professional development consultants, policymakers,
regulatory agencies, and rural organizations. The findings may also lead to policy
changes, shifts in rural school district resource allocation, and changes in rural
teacher professional development delivery to ensure the educational equity of all
rural students.
Meanwhile, Muscat (2020) shared that Distance Education Students' Use of
Activities in Their Self-Instructional Modules, explored the effectiveness or otherwise of
the in-built activities in the course manuals given to DE students of the University of
Education in supporting their learning. It came out strongly from the study that almost all
students attempted answering the in-text activities in the course modules supplied to
them. Issues like inability to manage their time, laziness, and absence of video footage
on some of the activities prevented them from getting involved completely in the
activities. Further, pressure from schoolwork, as most of them were teachers, and
difficulty in understanding some concepts were some of their challenges. The activities,
on the other hand, supported DE students to learn effectively, even though some of the
activities were very challenging. It was concluded that a number of factors combine to
influence how an individual is likely to respond to an activity. These include time
constraints, level of difficulty of concepts, nature of the activity and the mode of delivery.
It is therefore recommended, among others that the modules need reviewing to include
activities that seek the opinion of learners, with most of the concepts well explained.
Kuusisto and Tirri (2021) discusses the challenges of educating teachers in
Finland. As a goal in teacher education for the 21st century we propose the purposeful
teacher, referring to a teacher who has a long-term moral commitment to serve students,
the school community and society. The teachers identified happiness, relationships,
work and self-actualisation as the most important contents of their aspirations. All the
content categories could be understood as potential purposes in that the benefit
extended beyond the teachers themselves. However, almost half of the student teachers
(46%) and over half of teachers (55%) revealed only self-orientation. Less than half of
them (43%, 36%, respectively) showed a beyond-the-self orientation, which is indicative
of a purposeful teacher. Among the practising teachers, teaching appeared to be mainly
a mediating factor in realising their purposes or aspirations. These results have
implications related to contemporary teacher education in Finland. Both pre- and inservice teachers need to know about purposeful teaching in order to find meaning in
their work.
Zammit and Williard (2019) conducted an Application of Psychological Theory to
Enrich the Experience of Online Learners on a Developmental Psychology Module.
Online learners differ significantly from those in face-to-face learning environments, in
terms of both student characteristics and patterns of engagement. Naturalistic/warm
delivery style; Collaborative teaching; Scaffolding; Reducing cognitive load; and
Engaging activities to enhance learning. This article aims to prompt discussion from
other practitioners who are involved in remote delivery about their experiences in
adapting to a remote learning environment.