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intro to report

Department of Technologies
Sarhad University of Science and IT, Peshawar
(To be completed by On Job Trainer)
Name of the Trainee: ______________________________________________
Father Name: ____________________________________________________
Registration #: ____________________________________________________
Poor (1)
Fair (2)
Good (3)
Excellent (4)
Quality of Work
Work was not done
when assigned and
very poor response.
Work was done in a
careless manner and
was of erratic quality;
work assignments
were usually late and
required review;
made numerous
With a few minor
adequately performed
most work
requirements; most
work assignments
submitted in a timely
manner; made
occasional errors.
Thoroughly and
accurately performed all
work requirements;
submitted all work
assignments on time;
made few if any error.
Unbale to learn and
response to
learning is very
poor. Unable to ask
any question or
information about
Asked few if any
questions and rarely
sought out additional
information from
appropriate sources;
was unable or slow
to understand new
concepts, ideas, and
work assignments;
was unable or
unwilling to
recognize mistakes
and was not
receptive to making
needed changes and
In most cases, asked
relevant questions
and sought out
information from
appropriate sources;
exhibited acceptable
understanding of new
concepts, ideas, and
work assignments;
was usually willing to
take responsibility for
mistakes and to make
needed changes and
Consistently asked
relevant questions and
sought out additional
information from
appropriate sources;
very quickly
understood new
concepts, ideas, and
work assignments; was
always willing to take
responsibility for
mistakes and to make
needed changes and
Not initiative and
creative at all.
Had little observable
drive and required
close supervision;
showed little if any
interest in meeting
standards; did not
seek out additional
work and frequently
procrastinated in
suggested no new
ideas or options
Worked without
extensive supervision;
in some cases, found
problems to solve and
sometimes asked for
additional work
assignments; normally
set his/her own goals
and, in a few cases,
tried to exceed
requirements; offered
some creative ideas
Was a self-starter;
consistently sought new
challenges and asked for
additional work
assignments; regularly
approached and solved
problems independently;
frequently proposed
innovative and creative
ideas, solutions, and/or
Ability to Learn
Initiative and
Character Traits
Regularly exhibited
a negative attitude;
was dishonest
and/or showed a
lack of integrity on
several occasions.
Was unable to
recognize and/or was
insensitive to ethical
and diversity issues;
displayed significant
lapses in ethical and
professional behavior
Except in a few minor
demonstrated a
positive attitude;
regularly exhibited
honesty and integrity
in the workplace; was
usually aware of and
sensitive to ethical
and diversity issues on
the job; normally
behaved in an ethical
and professional
Demonstrated an
exceptionally positive
attitude; consistently
exhibited honesty and
integrity in the
workplace; was keenly
aware of and deeply
sensitive to ethical and
diversity issues on the
job; always behaved in
an ethical and
professional manner
Attendance and
Was generally
unreliable in
completing work
assignments; did
not follow
instructions and
promptly or
accurately; was
careless, and work
needed constant
follow-up; required
close supervision
Was occasionally
undependable in
completing work
Was generally reliable
in completing tasks;
normally followed
instructions and
procedures; was
usually attentive to
detail, but work had
to be reviewed
functioned with only
moderate supervision
Was consistently reliable
in completing work
assignments; always
followed instructions
and procedures well;
was careful and
extremely attentive to
detail; required little or
minimum supervision
Was absent
Was almost always
late for work with
less attendance.
Was never absent and
almost always on
time; or usually
reported to work as
scheduled, but was
always on time; or
usually reported to
work as scheduled
and was almost
always on-time
Always reported to work
as scheduled with no
absences and was always
Was unwilling or
unable to
understand and
support the
mission, vision, and
Exhibited difficulty in
adapting to
organizational norms,
expectations, and
culture; frequently
seemed to disregard
appropriate authority
and decision-making
understood and
supported the
mission, vision, and
goals; satisfactorily
adapted to
organizational norms,
expectations, and
culture; generally
functioned within
appropriate authority
and decision-making
Completely understood
and fully supported the
organization’s mission,
vision, and goals; readily
and successfully adapted
to organizational norms,
expectations, and
culture; consistently
functioned within
appropriate authority
and decision-making
…………………………On Job Trainer Signature
Department of Technologies Final Year Supervised Industrial TrainingOn-Job Trainer Evaluation Form
Organization Name:
Student Name
of Work
Ability to
r Traits
nce and
tional Fit
[Type here]
Analysis and
Novelty and
Poor (1)
Fair (2)
Good (3)
Excellent (4)
Unable to plan and
set objectives for
the realization of
the industrial
Moderately approach
to plan and set
objectives of the
training, show little
Adequate analysis of
the industrial training.
Objectives have been
set, but strategies to
follow are not clearly
Complete analysis of the
field training has been
done. Objectives have
been set. Strategies to
follow have been
Unbale to think and
create novelty.
Description of unmet
need or problem the
project caters to is
The novelty of the
proposed solution of
different field tasks is
Details of unmet needs
the project caters to are
there. Potential towards
the field training have
been identified.
Milestones have not
been achieved.
Some of the
milestones have
been achieved
Except in few cases,
all milestones are
completed according
to the timeline
All milestones are
completed according to
the timeline defined.
Was absent
Was almost always
late for work with
less attendance.
Was never absent and
almost always on
time; or usually
reported to work as
scheduled, but was
always on time; or
usually reported to
work as scheduled
and was almost
always on-time
Always reported to work
as scheduled with no
absences and was always
Student does not
adapt to the
organization and
gives an impression
of apathy or is often
involved in disputes
or arguments.
Student shows no
insight in functioning
of the organization.
Student repeatedly
has difficulty to get
things done within
the team (e.g.
organizing materials
or facilities, etc).
Student does not
adapt and remains
passive or negative
Student is able to
indicate the
responsibilities of the
different units within
the organization.
Student is able to get
things (e.g., receiving
organizing material
facilities, etc.) done
within the team
Student is able to
adapt to the new
work environment in
a productive and
interactive way.
Student knows how
changes are realized in
the organization.
Student is able to
independently get things
done that affect the
whole team. Student
adapts well to the work
environment, while
reflecting on
contributing with their
personal view.
Knowledge and
skills remain
insufficient (in
relation to the
prerequisites) and
the student does
not succeed to take
appropriate action
to remedy this.
Students’ progress in
knowledge and skills
is limited and requires
extensive guidance by
the supervisor.
The student adopts
knowledge and skills
independently, and
asks for assistance
from the supervisor if
Students explores
solutions independently
and seeks appropriate
knowledge and skills
Timeline and
Attendance and
Insight in the
and adaptation
Development of
knowledge and
[Type here]
Transfer of
(prior) acquired
knowledge to
the professional
context of the
Student lacks
relevant knowledge
expected to such an
extent that student
is unable to perform
the internship tasks.
Student partly lacks
relevant knowledge
expected, or is
sometimes unable to
translate knowledge
to the internship
tasks, or does not
increase knowledge
where necessary.
Signature of On-Job Trainee Advisor
Student shows
relevant knowledge on
an academic level
Student translates this
knowledge to the
internship tasks.
Student increases
knowledge where
Student shows relevant
knowledge on an
academic Student
translates this
knowledge to the
internship tasks. Student
increases knowledge
where necessary and
student increases the
knowledge of the
Signature of ILO/Trainee Advisor
Signature of Head of Department
Department of Technologies
Sarhad University of Science and IT, Peshawar
(To be completed by Trainer Advisor/ILO)
of the Trainee: ______________________________________________
Father Name: ____________________________________________________
Registration #: ____________________________________________________
[Type here]
…………………………On Trainee Advisor Signature
Name: ________________________
Date: ________________________
Department of Technologies Final Year Supervised Industrial TrainingTrainee Advisor/ILO Evaluation Form
[Type here]
Organization Name:
Student Name
nce and
Insight in
tion and
ment of
ge and
Name and Signature of Trainee Advisor/ILO
[Type here]
Poor (1)
Fair (2)
Good (3)
Excellent (4)
Report is disorganized
and layout is
somewhat weak.
Report is disorganized
and layout is somewhat
are ordered well. No major
problems with layout.
are clearly organized in a
logical order. Page layout
is effective.
No introduction/ too
brief or irrelevant
information is present
& is not able to
identify the impact of
the present work, and
the role of
technology solution in
order to solve
The introduction section
is brief and insufficient
information, problem
statement, objective
and expected results are
shown which hardly
identify the impact of
the present work, and
the role of technologists
and solution in order to
solve problems
Sufficient background
information, problem
statement, & project
objectives are shown to
provide a reasonable
analysis of the impact of the
present work, the role of
engineering technologists
on society, towards solving
defined problems
Excellent introduction and
interesting background
information, problem
statement & project
objectives are present
which clearly shows the
ability to analyze the
impact of the present
work, the role of
technologists on society,
towards solving defined
Too limited literature
review on
organization profile.
Moderate literature
review and incomplete
Good literature review
about organization but
incomplete references
Excellent literature review
and proper references
Objectives of the
training, Scope of
responsibilities is not
suitable, not
described properly.
Objectives of the
training, Scope of
responsibilities is
discussed but not is a
convincing manner &
much is left to the
readers’ imagination
Objectives of the training,
Scope of responsibilities is
suitable, described properly
and details is included
Objectives of the training,
Scope of responsibilities is
suitable, described
properly and is included
with explanation of its
adoption and supporting
Results & discussion
are not provided
Results stated briefly
without discussion.
Result is explained and
moderate discussion is
provided on the work
Result is explained and
thorough discussion is
provided with respect to
assigned supervisory tasks.
The Industrial
and Scope of
Work Results
& discussion
[Type here]
Visuals PLO-10
Conclusion does not
present the essential
training and results.
No recommendations
for follow-up work
Essential training results
are not clearly stated.
Recommendation for
future work is
Most important results and
contribution are presented.
Strengths and limitations of
the training are discussed. A
good set of
recommendations for
future work is provided.
Conclusions provide a
succinct summary of all
essential results. The
discussion of strengths
and limitations is
insightful and objective. A
clear and complete set of
recommendations for
follow-up work is provided
Most of the
Some of the
All the
Signature of Head of Department
[Type here]
Department of Technologies
Sarhad University of Science and IT, Peshawar
(To be completed by the Examiner)
Name of the Trainee: ______________________________________________
Father Name: ____________________________________________________
#: ____________________________________________________
/pictures are missing
ctures are inadequate &
not properly labelled
res are adequate and
ures are adequate, well
labeled and presented
Poor technical writing.
Minimal use of technical
Appropriate use of technical
Commendable use of
technical language.
Report is 25% original
Report is 50 % original
Report is 75% original
Report is 100% original
…………………………Report Examiner Signature
Name: ________________________
Date: ________________________
[Type here]
[Type here]
Department of Technologies Final Year Supervisory Industrial Training Report Marks
Organization Name:
on Profile
s and
Scope of
Signature of Examiner
[Type here]
Completion &
Poor (1)
Fair (2)
Good (3)
The system failed to
produce the right
accurate results.
The system execution led
to inaccurate or
incomplete results. It was
not correctly functional or
not all the features were
The system was correctly
functional and all of the
features were
The system was correctly
functional and all of the
features were
implemented. It was
demonstrated how the realworld problem was solved.
Does not make use of
analytical tools and/or
engineering technology
techniques & knowledge
relevant to the project.
Does not demonstrate
requisite command of the
material covered in the
curriculum. Unable to
finish the proposed
Information is arranged in
confused and
unstructured way.
Student lacks of
confidence. Poor use of
English. Does not attempt
to look at audience at all.
Read notes or looks at
computer screen only.
Presentation is too short
or too long for the
allocated time.
Student cannot determine
the impact of his/her
work in terms of society,
environment and
Conclusions are not
logical or are completely
unrelated to the
objectives, limited
evaluation of significance
and quality of results,
recommendations are
missing or irrelevant
Employ some analytical
tools and/or engineering
technology techniques &
knowledge acquired.
Make progress towards
addressing the technical
challenges of the project.
Complete most of the
major tasks in the
proposed project.
Employ appropriate
analytical tools and/or
engineering technology
techniques & knowledge
acquired in his course of
study to the project at
hand. Clearly demonstrate
mastery of many areas of
the curriculum and is able
to successfully complete
the proposed project
Slides cover accurate
description of most of
important outcomes. Use
of charts, graphs, figures
etc. Fair use of English.
Hold attention by
consistent use of direct
eye contact. Presentation
runs with desired pace
and finishes within
allocated time
Employ appropriate
analytical tools and/or
engineering technology
techniques & knowledge.
Clearly demonstrates
mastery of several areas
of the curriculum and is
able to propose
innovative solutions to
the technical challenges
posed by the project.
Slides cover complete,
accurate description of
important outcomes.
Effective use of charts,
graphs, figures etc. Use of
fluent English and
confident. Hold attention
by direct eye contact and
nature hand gestures.
Excellent timing and
smooth transition among
different parts
Student can clearly
explain the impact of
his/her work in terms of
society, environment and
Conclusions are logical
and related to the
objectives, clearly
evaluate significance and
quality of results,
recommendations for
future work are clearly
stated and justified
Lifelong Learning
(concepts of system
specification and
are included here)
Delivery: Oral
delivery, contact
with audience,
slides, timing
Work Impact
Conclusions and
[Type here]
Slide’s cover some of the
outcomes. Limited use of
charts, graphs, figures etc.
Use of English with
noticeable errors. A few
eye contacts only.
Presentation pace is not
well planned but finished
within allocated time.
Student is marginally
aware of the impact of
his/her work in terms of
society, environment and
Some of the conclusions
are logical but are not
necessarily related to the
originally stated
objectives, limited
evaluation of significance
and quality of results,
recommendations are
attempted but not
Student is adequately
aware of the impact of
his/her work in terms of
society, environment and
Conclusions are logical,
attempt to relate them to
objectives, attempt to
evaluate significance and
quality of results,
recommendations are
clearly stated and justified
Excellent (4)
Student has no or very
less knowledge of both
problem and solution.
Cannot answer questions.
Student is uncomfortable
with information. Seems
novice and can answer
basic questions only.
Student has competent
knowledge and is at
ease with information.
Can answer questions
Student has presented full
knowledge of both
problem and solution.
Answers to questions are
strengthened by
rationalization and
Signature of Head of Department
Department of Technologies
Sarhad University of Science and IT, Peshawar
(To be completed by the Examiner)
Name of the Trainee: ______________________________________________
Father Name: ____________________________________________________
Registration #: ____________________________________________________
Department of Technologies Final Year Supervised Industrial Training- VIVA/PRESENTATION
Evaluation Form
[Type here]
Organization Name:
Student Name
& accuracy
ion &
& answers
Signature of Examiner
Signature of Head of Department
[Type here]
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .......................................................................................................................
Power Sector of Pakistan ......................................................................................................................
KE HIERARCHY SESSION ....................................................................................................................
11-KV Distribution Network .................................................................................................................
Integrated Business Centre ..................................................................................................................
SMART GRID OVERVIEW ..................................................................................................................
Oracle-NMS& SCADA Devices ............................................................................................................
Oracle MDM& AMI .............................................................................................................................
GIS Software: .......................................................................................................................................
Meter Repair ........................................................................................................................................
DISTRIBUTED GENERATION ...........................................................................................................
[Type here]
UTILITY ANALYTICS ..........................................................................................................................
Partial Discharge Test of Current Transformer .................................................................................
[Type here]
WAPDA Charter
The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) was established through an act of
parliament in February 1958 for integrated and rapid development and maintenance of water and power
resources of the country. This includes controlling soil salinity and water logging to rehabilitate the affected
land in order to strengthen the predominantly agricultural economy of the country.
As per the charter, amended in March 1959 to transfer the existing electricity departments from the
federating units to it, WAPDA has been assigned the duties of investigation, planning and execution of
projects and schemes for:
• Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Power,
• Irrigation, Water Supply and Drainage,
• Prevention of Water Logging and Reclamation of Saline Land,
• Flood Control and
• Inland Navigation.
Under the later on developments, vis-à-vis the “Energy Policy 1994”, setting up of thermal power generation
projects was shifted to the private sector. Similarly, as a result of restructuring of the Power Wing, the
utility part was corporatised into independent companies. This shifts from convergence to divergence gave
birth to 14 entities to operate in different zones. These are National Transmission and Dispatch Company
(NTDC), four Thermal Power Generation Companies (GENCOs) and nine Distribution Companies
(DISCOs). The present status of these companies is of corporate public limited entities under the residual
Power Wing is therefore now responsible for major hydro-electric power projects and schemes in operation.
Human Resources
The Authority comprises of a Chairman and three Members, each heading Water, Power and Finance Wing.
The Members oversee the affairs of their respective wings through General Managers for the streamlined
operations in their respective areas. During past 62 years of its operations, WAPDA has developed its
human resource as a reservoir of knowledge, competence and expertise through training and experience
gained at the accomplished projects and remaining associated with diversified development activities.
These include professionals, specialists, scientists, economists, administrators, accountants and skilled
workers for planning, building, managing and operating various projects.
Water Wing
Water Wing Member (Water) controls the water wing through its implementation divisions including
North, Central, South and Northern Areas in addition to project specific zones including Mangla, Neelum
Jhelum, Mohmand Dam Diamer Basha Dam and Dasu Hydropower Projects. These zones cover, in general,
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Punjab, Sindh and Balochistan, Gilgit-Baltistan and AJ&K. The activity of water wing
involves execution of water storage Dams conveyance canals development of hydropower projects, Salinity
Control & Reclamation Projects (SCARPS) and research in water sector. Chief Engineers and Projects
[Type here]
Directors at various levels are responsible for effective and timely implementation of Water Wing Projects.
Financial affairs of this wing are looked after by GM Finance (Water). Apart from project offices, there are
other offices including Hydro Resources Management (HRM), Technical Services (TS), Hydro Planning,
Coordination & Monitoring (C&M) and Central Design Office (CDO) which provide various technical
services to different projects.
Hydro Resources Management (HRM) is responsible for the management of water resources throughout
the country. This office performs various tasks like monitoring, collection, evaluation and publishing of
hydro-meteorological data for planning, development and operation of water resources projects;
coordination with federal/provincial flood management and reservoir operation authorities; , forecasting of
water availability for distribution of water among provinces; annual, periodic and special inspections of
water sector projects; evaluation of proposals submitted by consultants, reviewing PCII & PC-I for various
projects and additional assignments assigned from time to time etc.
Technical Services (TS) provides technical advisory services on different water resources and hydropower
Central Design Office (CDO) is responsible for providing one window design services for projects such as
dams, power houses, irrigation and drainage networks, flood protection, roads and buildings, providing
technical support to the field formations of WAPDA (Water Wing), GENCO, NTDC, DISCOs etc. during the
implementation/construction of the new projects and remedial measures/trouble shooting for already
completed projects reviewing of detail designs, tender/construction drawings, technical specifications
implied/used by Consultants appointed for study of WAPDA Projects, imparting training to water wing
drafting staff required for the departmental promotion and establishing drafting standards, schedule of
rates and verification of nonscheduled rates etc.
Hydro Planning Organization (HPO) is responsible for planning and feasibility studies of hydropower &
water resources projects in the country. HPO at present has taken up hydropower projects at various stages
of study having a total capacity of over 20,000 MW.
The Office of Coordination & Monitoring Water provides streamlined information of Water Wing to the
Government functionaries and Ministries. This office also has the responsibility of Human Resource
Management & Administration to all WAPDA Water Wing office.
[Type here]
Power Wing
WAPDA Power Wing is now responsible for operation and maintenance of the Hydel Power Stations under
generation license granted by NEPRA in the name of General Manager (Hydel) Operation After-debundling of WAPDA into various companies related to the business of Thermal Generation, Transmission
and Distribution,. The electricity produced from these Power Stations is delivered to NTDCL Grid System
and invoices are raised to CPPAG according to the Tariff approved by NEPRA.
Rehabilitation/ Refurbishment of old Hydel Power Stations is also planned and implemented to enhance
the reliability and life of power plants. WAPDA is also responsible to associate and monitor the designs and
erection/commissioning of future hydroelectric power stations and other Electrical & Mechanical
Power Wing is also providing technical and management trainings to its employees for capacity building at
WAPDA Administrative & Staff College Islamabad, WAPDA Engineering Academy Faisalabad and Hydel
Training Centre Mangla. This facility is also extended to employees of ex-WAPDA entities
(NTDCL/DISCOs/GENCOs), AJK Hydro Board, Gilgit Baltistan and Power Stations in private sector.
A separate establishment also exists in the Power Wing for Purchase & Disposal of unserviceable or surplus
materials/items in all WAPDA formations. All the financial matters of Power Wing are managed by General
Manager (Finance) Power under the control of Member Power.
Presently, the total installed capacity of 21 No. WAPDA Hydel Power Stations is 8420 MW which is about
23% of the total system capacity of 36,166 MW from all sources. The Net Electrical Output is about 32,000
GWh per annum.
Member (Finance) oversees the financing functions of WAPDA and is the administrative head of WAPDA
Audit, Accounts, Finance and Costing Cadres.
General Manager (HRD) is vested with the responsibility for overall administration and services.
Secretary WAPDA in addition to looking after day-to-day affairs of the Secretariat, prepares minutes of the
Authority's meetings, maintains records of its decisions and issues its directives and coordinates among the
three Wings besides monitoring and implementation of Authority's decisions.
Authority Fund
The Authority Fund consists of the following:
• Loans and grants obtained from the federal and provincial governments
• Sale proceeds of WAPDA Bonds
• Loans obtained by the Authority with general sanctions of the government
[Type here]
• Foreign aids and loans obtained from the IBRD, ADB and other International loan giving agencies on
such terms and conditions as may be approved by the Government
• All other sums received by the Authority
Water Wing
Water Wing of WAPDA is responsible for planning, designing and execution of Water Resources
Development Projects in the sector of irrigation, drainage and hydropower. Inter-provincial major surface
water projects including large dams are also operated and maintained by Water Wing, WAPDA.
Indus Basin Projects (5 Barrages, 8 inter-river Link Canals (1965 – 70), Mangla (1967) and Tarbela Dams
(1976) have been completed by WAPDA Water Wing, and are contributing towards national economy.
Water Wing is also carrying out IBP consequential works of Mangla Watershed Management Project,
Chashma Barrage and C.J. Link Canal. Eighteen (18) million acres of land have been reclaimed from
waterlogging & salinity in four provinces. More than 15,000 tube wells were installed and 12,000 km of
surface drains and 13,000 km of pipe drains have been constructed in the waterlogged areas. These projects
have enhanced cropping intensity from 70 % to more than 110 % in about 16 million acres of land. All these
projects had already been handed over to respective provinces over the last decade.
Chashma Hydropower Project, (184 MW), Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project (1450 MW) have been
operating since 2001 and 2003. National Drainage Program in four provinces has been completed since June
Sabakzai Dam Project (0.015 MAF, 6875 acres), Mirani Dam (0.152 MAF, 33,200 acres), Mangla Dam Raising
Project (additional 2.88 MAF storage & additional 644 Million Units), Satpara Dam (17.3 MW, 0.053 MAF,
command area 15,536 acres), Gomal Zam Dam (17.4 MW, 0.892 MAF storage, command area 191,139 acres),
Darawat Dam (0.089 MAF, 25,000 acres), Greater Thal Canal Phase-I (355,000 acres), Rainee Canal (113,690
acres) have been completed during 2007 – 2014.
Duber Khwar Hydropower Project (130 MW), Khan Khwar HPP (72 MW), Allai Khwar HPP (121 MW),
Satpara Dam (17.3 MW) and Jinnah HPP (96 MW) have been put in commercial operation during 2008 2014.
The Water Sector Projects which are currently under construction include: Nai Gaj Dam (0.16 MAF, 28,800
acres), Kachhi Canal (Phase-I) in Balochistan (102,000 acres), Drainage Schemes in Sindh & Balochistan
RBOD-I (517,310 acres) & RBOD-III (679,000 acre), Lining of Muzaffargarh & TP Link Canals (300,000
The infrastructure Construction Work of Diamer Basha Dam (4500 MW) which includes employee's colony,
staff offices, school etc. have been awarded and main dam work is planned to be awarded soon subject of
arrangement of funds by GoP.
[Type here]
The Hydropower Projects which are currently under construction include: Golen Gol Hydropower Project
(106 MW) Neelum Jhelum (969 MW) Hydropower Projects, Tarbela 4th extension (1410 MW) & Keyal
Khwar HPP (128 MW), whereas Contracting for Stage-I of Dasu HPP (2160 MW) is in progress.
WAPDA has lined up various projects for construction in the coming years, these projects include: Dasu
Stage-II (2160 MW), Kurram Tangi Dam (83.4 MW, 0.9 MAF, 84,380 acres), Mohmand Dam (800 MW, 0.49
MAF, command area 16,737 acres), Bunji HPP (7100 MW), Tarbela 5th Extension HPP (1320 MW), Phandar
HPP (80 MW), Lower Palas Valley HPP (665 MW), Lower Spat Gah HPP (496 MW), Thakot HPP (4000
MW), Basho HPP (40 MW), Harpo HPP (34.5MW), Patan HPP (2300 MW), Basho (40 MW), Shyok Dam
(690 MW, 5.4 MAF), Chiniot Dam (69 MW, 1 MAF), Tungas HPP (2200 MW), Yulbo (2800 MW),Middle
Palas Valley (398 MW), Upper Palas Valley (157 MW), Middle Spat Gah (501 MW), Upper Spat Gah (277
MW), Akhori Dam (600 MW, 6 MAF) D.G Khan Canal Lining (300,000 acres), CRBC Lift cum Gravity
(284,140 acres).
In addition, WAPDA has initiated construction work on 12 Small and Medium Dams, which are located in
four provinces of Pakistan. Balochistan: Winder Dam (0.3 MW and 0.036 MAF storage), Naulong Dam (4.4
MW and 0.20 MAF storage), Hingol Dam (1 MW and 1.41 MAF storage), Garuk Dam (0.3 MW and 0.05 MAF
storage) and Pelar Dam (0.3 MW and 0.099 MAF storage). Sindh: Nai Gaj Dam (4.2 MW and 0.30 MAF
storage) and Darawat Dam (0.45 MW and 0.12 MAF storage). KPK: Kurram Tangi (83.4 MW and 1.2 MAF
storage), Tank Zam Dam (25.5 MW and 0.345 MAF storage) and Daraban Zam Dam (0.75 MW and 0.069
MAF storage). Punjab: Ghabir Dam (0.15 MW and 0.066 MAF storage) and Papin Dam (0.3 MW and 0.089
MAF storage).0.345 MAF storage)and Daraban Zam Dam (0.75 MW and 0.069 MAF storage). Punjab:
Ghabir Dam (0.15 MW and 0.066 MAF storage) and Papin Dam (0.3 MW and 0.089 MAF storage).
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Power Wing
At the inception of WAPDA during the year 1958, there was only 112 MW Hydel installed capacity. After
establishing WAPDA, first major Hydropower Project completed by WAPDA was Warsak Hydroelectric
Power Station (160 MW) in 1961 which doubled the Installed Capacity of WAPDA. Prior to re-structuring
completed in 2007, WAPDA established other generation source in addition to Hydro such as Steam / Gas
Turbines, Combined Cycle & Coal.
Besides Electricity Generation, WAPDA established very large Network of Transmission & Distribution
prior to re-structuring (2007) including 51,425 Km High Voltage (HV) and Extra High Voltage (EHV)
Transmission Line, 705 Grid Stations, More than 187,648 km 11 KV High Tension (HT) and Low Tension
(LT) Lines and
Electrification of more than 136,000 villages.
After Re-structuring in 2007, Power Wing was split up into 15 companies i.e. NTDCL, 10 DISCOs & 4
GENCOs with separate management. WAPDA's role is now limited to the Operation and Maintenance of
the running Hydel Power Stations and future development of Water resources as well as Hydro Electric
Power Stations.. The present mandate of WAPDA Power Wing is as under:Operation & Maintenance of Hydel Power Station
WAPDA is operating 21 Hydel Power Plants having total installed capacity of 8420 MW contributing & vital
role to provide the cheap Hydel Energy to the National Grid Neelum Jhelum (969 MW) &Satpara (17.4 MW)
are not included in WAPDA Hydroelectric Generation License and are being individually. Neelum Jhelum
Hydropower company is responsible for O&M of Neelum Jehlum & Government of Gilgit Baltistan (GoGB)
is responsible for O&M of Satpara Dam.
Presently, tasks / works include Correspondence with NEPRA regarding Proposed Modification for New &
Upcoming Hydel Projects in existing Generation License of WAPDA Hydroelectric Power Plants,
Preparation and Submission of Monthly Invoice to CPPA-G for sale of Energy, Processing of procurement
Cases and Finalization of O&M Budget Estimates / Foreign Exchange Budgets for Hydel Power Station.
Rehabilitation of Existing Old Hydel Power Stations / Technical Monitoring of E&M Works of New Projects
Tasks / works consisting of Preparation of Concept papers / feasibility studies and PC-I, Review of
Bidding/Prequalification Documents, Approvals of PC-I from competent forum of Authority / GoP levels,
Preparation and Evaluation of Expression Of Interest Documents, Evaluation of Technical & Financial
Proposals of Consultants, Coordinate with the Consultants in pre and post Contract Award activities and to
monitor the progress of the work on daily, fortnightly and monthly basis regarding to Rehabilitation of
Existing Old Hydel Power Stations / Technical Monitoring of E&M Works of New Hydro Projects are being
Training activities
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Hydel Generation plays an important role to provide the cheep Hydel Energy to the system. Trained and
skilled staff is the back bone to run the system efficiently without any interruption and by increasing the
availability and reliability of the system. To achieve the goals following setup of the Training Directorate is
WAPDA Administrative Staff College, Islamabad
WAPDA Engineering Academy, Faisalabad
WAPDA Examination Directorate
Mangla Hydel Training Centre, Mangla
WAPDA Administrative Staff College, Islamabad
The task of Staff College is to impart training of officers of WAPDA and Administrative skills including
Project & Contract Management and Computer. base application programmers
WAPDA Engineering Academy, Faisalabad
The Academy being unique of its kind in the country is playing vital role in
boosting up the technical known-how (electrical, mechanical, civil laboratories / workshops and gas, steam,
analogue simulators) of Engineers and supervisory staff representing public and private sector.
WAPDA Examination Directorate
This Directorate is responsible to conduct Departmental Examination of BPS-16 to BPS-18 and Induction
Examination of Officers of WAPDA.
Mangla Hydel Training Centre, Mangla.
This training centre is primarily responsible for training of subordinate staff and Hydel Engineers in their
respective fields. In addition, orientation of new recruited Engineer pertaining to their job, Refresher
Courses of WAPDA Engineers mandatory before promotion are also conducted in the Training Centre.
Finance Wing
Finance Wing of WAPDA headed by Member Finance, is responsible for all budgetary, financial and
accounting matters, exclusively the financing and funds management for Wapda Projects. These functions
are wing wise performed by GMF (W), GMF (P) and DGF (B&C) respectively. The financial matters of all
three Wings are technically under overall control of Member Finance like preparation of PSDP budget
proposals for Water and Power projects, financing of these projects both from local and international
monitory & capital markets.
Member Finance looks after revenue generation and financing needs of all the offices of WAPDA.
The functions of Finance Wing may be broadly categorized under following financial activities:
Budgeting and Management Information System:
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Formulation of Public Sector Development Program, Preparation of Foreign Economic Assistance Budget,
Budget chargeable to current Expenditure of Ministry, Determination of funding requirements, pleading
the Budgetary needs of WAPDA and monitoring of different Development Programs.
Accounts & Financial Reporting:
Arrangements of Funds releases/allocations, Remittance of Funds to Projects, Management & maintenance
of Foreign Loans/Grants/Credits, Audit reports, Inspection of Projects Accounts, Annual Accounts,
Financial reporting, Proceeds of WAPDA Bonds/SUKUK/TFCs and compilation of Financial statement of
Wapda Projects.
Internal Audit:
The Internal Audit division is to provide the WAPDA Authority and Management with systematic
assurance, analysis, appraisals, recommendations, advice and information, with a view to assisting the
Authority and Management on the effective discharge of their liabilities and the achievement of WAPDA
mission and goals.
There is a major role of Finance wing to observe NEPRA rules for the implementation of Wapda Tariff,
obtaining Generation Licenses with its modifications. Also monitoring the activities related to Costing and
Corporate Planning Cell in Wapda.
Funding of Hydroelectric Projects (operational as well as under development) is also being carried out by
Finance Wing.
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Power Sector of Pakistan
WAPDA was bifurcated in 2007
Responsible for Water
Pakistan Electric Power Corporation and Hydro-Power
Responsible for the management of all the
affairs of the corporatized - (09) distribution
Companies, 4 Generation Companies and
All Companies work under independent Board of Directors (Chairman and some
directors are from the
Private Sector)
NTDC (National Transmission and Dispatch Company):
1. Started working in 1998
2. Operates and Maintains twelve (12) - 500kV and twenty-one (21) –
220kV Grid Stations
3. 5077 km of 500kV transmission line and 7350 km of
220kV transmission line in Pakistan
NEPRA (National Electric Power Regulatory Authority):
1. Approves tariffs for all Distribution Companies and approves
performance codes/standards for the Distribution Companies
2. Some of the performance standards are:
a. The distribution company shall supply 95% of its
consumers within the range of +/- 5% of the nominal
voltage and +/-1% of nominal frequency
b. Following voltages shall be used for distribution
i. 400/230V
ii. 11kV
iii. 33kV iv. 66kV
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v. 132kV
vi. 220kV
3. The Company shall supply Electric power to its customer of the
power quality in accordance with
IEEE standards 519-1992 pertaining Harmonic Content
DISCOs (Distribution Companies):
Pakistan has 11 electric supply Companies, i.e.
1. IESCO (Islamabad Electric Supply Company)
2. PPIB (Private Power Infrastructure Board)
3. AEDB (Alternative Energy Development Board)
4. GEPCO (Gujranwala Electric Power Company)
5. PESCO (Peshawar Electric Supply Company)
6. FESCO (Faisalabad Electric Supply Company)
7. HESCO (Hyderabad Electric Supply Company)
8. LESCO (Lahore Electric Supply Company)
9. QESCO (Quetta Electric Supply Company)
10. K-Electric (Karachi Electric Supply Company)
Power System Structure in Pakistan
Before 2007, Pakistan had a centralized power system structure, but the centralized
power structure had proved not only inefficient, but also difficult to manage. The figure
below depicts the Centralized Power System Structure of Pakistan
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Body /
Due to the inefficiencies and management issues involved in centralized power system
structures, many nations around the world had started deregulating and restructuring the
power system structures to increase efficiency, curtail losses and to improve management.
The de-regulated and re-structured setup of WAPDA is as shown below
Ministry of
Water and
Residual Assets
Finance Wing
GENCOs (3)
NTDC (1)
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DISCOs (9)
IPPs and SSP
Water Wing
Un-Bundled and re-structured setup of Pakistan
The Un-Bundling and re-structuring of individual companies has made the management
and running of these companies easier, compared to the centralized system. The above
model can be further modified to include import/export of power from the distributed
resources, a concept that is also known as “Distributed Generation”
11KV Distribution Network
The electricity at our home has actually been through three major steps,
Generation, transmission and distribution. The transmission of the
electricity from the generation side to the grid station is done at 132kV to
reduce the losses in transmission. Onwards from the Grid station to the
substation or ring-main –unit (RMU), the 132kV is step-downed to 11kV. The
distribution network is mainly powered by the 11kV till the PMTs due to
several reasons. One of the major reasons that the distribution network from
the grid station to the PMT is using 11kV because of the reduced losses as
well as the factor that electricity theft is not possible on the 11kV and
therefore the utility, which in our case is KE, use 11kV.
The first feeder with which the main cable is connected is called the Primary
Substation. For KE network, Karachi and its suburbs are divided on
administrative purposes into 4 Regions, i.e. Region I, Region II, Region III
and region IV. The Region II and Region III are further divided into 2
subregions. To handle these in-total 6 regions, 6 have established 6
Operation Control Rooms (OCRs). Each OCR controls multiple Area
Operation Centers (AOCs). The OCRs are responsible for the 11kV networks,
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the 0.4V network maintenance and management is under the control of the
Network Customer Center (NCC).
The 11kV operations are divided as follows:
11kV Operations
11 kV Operations
Control Room
Control Room
Area Operation
Centers (AOCs)
The methodology or the Standard Operating Procedures defined for the
rectification of the Main Cable Fault are:
1. Fault Indication: This step requires the knowledge regarding the fact
that a fault has occurred through Customer Call, SCADA alarms, or
Smart Meter Alarms.
2. Fault Identification: This step is determining of the type of the fault
that has occurred, for example, was it a breaker trip, feeder trip, or
wire/cable breakage, etc
3. Fault Localization: This step is determining or pin-pointing the exact
location of the fault.
4. Back-Feeding: This step is performed to temporarily restore the power
of the effected customers through some alternative source, till the time
the primary source where the fault has occurred is being repaired or
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5. Fault Rectification: Fault removal
6. Restoration: Removal of the fault and rolling back any temporary
measures or action taken on the affected area, and restoring the grid
back to its original state.
Customer care
Customer care department is considered to be the FACE of WAPDA. Any
customer having an enquiry that is complaint, suggestion or request first
concerns with the department of customer care. A call on 118* actually binds
the channel between the consumer and the utility representative. It is
considered to be the toughest department to have worked in as handling such
remorse issues requires not just skills of a spokesperson but a mind of peace
and fragility of water.
Customer Accounts
Department of Customer Accounts (CA) deals with the billing infrastructure
of the connected consumers. Firstly the meter reading is recorded by a MR
that is Meter Reader, his job is to survey his devised area and to look over all
the meter readings and calculate the amount of units consumed by subtracting
the new recorded reading with the previous recorded reading. He performs
this task in G-Sheets or HHU that is Hand Held Units, the meters that are
being recorded are called as MRU or Meter Reading Units previously known
as sections. And a single survey consisting about multiple MRUs is considered
to be a LOT. Now after MR has recorded the reading he brings it back to DEO
that is Data Entry Officer, he actually punches those readings into SAP.ISU
that is industry specific utility. Screening and different checks will be
performed through this reading and a final bill in printed from this software.
Now different procedure is forecasted when MR would be unable to get the
reading of designated place, which includes average billing that is if MR is
unable to fetch the reading KE bills the consumer on basis of average units
consumed and balances it out under next month reading. Now the day DEO
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enters all the reading in the software is considered to be as the cycle day or
now-a-days termed as portions. Such tedious procedure has to go through for
billing a consumer under normal circumstances.
A smart grid is a class of technologies that people are using to bring utility
electricity delivery systems into the 21st century, Smart Grid can also be seen
as the computerization of the existing HT and LT network as well as merging
the Information and Communication Technology into the Grid for Real Time
monitoring and controlling of the grid. These systems are made possible by
two-way digital communications technologies and computer processing. The
purpose of the smart grid technology is to improve the efficiency, reliability,
economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.
Electronic power conditioning and control of the production and distribution
of electricity are important aspects of the smart grid
EXAS Tech University 10
1. Improving Power Reliability and Quality
– Better monitoring using sensor networks and communications
– Better and faster balancing of supply and demand
2. Minimizing the Need to Construct Back-up (Peak Load) Power Plants
– Better demand side management
– The use of advanced metering infrastructures
3. Enhancing the capacity and efficiency of existing electric grid
– Better monitoring using sensor networks and communications
– Consequently, better control and resource management in real-time
4. Improving Resilience to Disruption and Being Self-Healing
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– Better monitoring using sensor networks and communications
– Distributed grid management and control
5. Expanding Deployment of Renewable and Distributed Energy Sources –
Better monitoring using sensor networks and communications
– Consequently, better control and resource management in real-time
– Better renewable energy forecasting models
6. Automating maintenance and operation
– Better monitoring using sensor networks and communications
– Distributed grid management and control
7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions
– Supporting / encouraging the use of electric vehicles
– Renewable power generation with low carbon footprint
8. Reducing oil consumption
– Supporting / encouraging the use of electric vehicles
– Renewable power generation with low carbon footprint
9. Enabling transition to plug-in electric vehicles – Can also
provide new storage opportunities
10. Increasing consumer choice
– The use of advanced metering infrastructures
– Home automation
– Energy smart appliances
– Better demand side Management
1. Demand Response and Consumer Energy Efficiency
2. Wide‐Area Situational Awareness
3. Energy Storage
4. Electric Transportation
5. Advanced Metering Infrastructure
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6. Distribution Grid Management
7. Cyber Security
8. Network Communications
The WAPDA smart Grid department was established with the main task of
introducing Smart Grid technology in Pakistan, to improve network
planning & management while reducing aggregate technical & commercial
losses. The Smart Grid department has been putting great hard work and
effort into implementation of the smart-grid technology across Karachi.
Presently, KE is implementing 2 smart grid clusters across Karachi
The HT network has SCADA devices installed and the LT network has the
smart-meters. All the devices, i.e. smart meters and SCADA, communicate
their data to the Head end devices that communicates the data to the
respective software. KE is presently using the following softwares for the data
and the network management of the Smart Grid, i.e. Oracle Utilities
Network Management System (OUNMS), HX8000 for SCADA Devices,
Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management System (OUMDM), ESRI
Geographical Information System (GIS), Oracle Utilities Business
Intelligence software (OUBI), for generation of report generation and
business interface, these softwares are one of the most widely used softwares
around the world in the utilities, the Head End have their own softwares for
communication and management of the data. The Oracle Utilities softwares
have been integrated with the SAP software modules as it is the Enterprise
Resource Planning system (ERP) that has been
implemented in Wapda. The SAP respective module that are integrated with
the Oracle systems are SAP IS-U B&I (for billing), SAP IS-U EDM (for Loss
Calculation), SAP CRM (for Customer Relation Management) and SAP PM
(for Maintenance).
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Oracle-NMS& SCADA Devices
Oracle NMS is a network management system acquired by the Wapda for the
integration and management of the Wapda HT network for smart grid
network management. Oracle NMS provides the user with vast
functionalities and operational support that could provide KE with the key
cutting edge benefits that would allow the KE with the much needed insight,
real time management and fault and error indication of the system. These
benefits combined with the different functionalities and operation abilities
of the system would greatly enhance the capabilities of Wapda and would
allow KE to adopt modern business practices at par with those being adopted
around the world.
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Oracle NMS has different features such as web management, feeder load
management, outage management system, distribution management system,
crew/gang allocation, tracking of the crews/gangs, notification of different
alarms and events, SCADA along with Fault Location Isolation Service and
Restoration, Fault Location Analysis, etc.. The NMS receives data from
SCADA devices installed in the HT network, because presently NMS is not
being implemented on the LT network. The SCADA devices would allow real
time values and information regarding the current, voltage, VAR, VA and the
threshold limits that have been applied in the systems.
The software also provides different critical features like storm management,
allows simulation (study mode) and “what if” scenarios. The system allows
the replication of the real time situations and values in simulation allowing
the user to test the pros and cons of different actions, as well as the system
would also provide different suggestion and solutions to the user. These
features allow the user to carry out the best possible measure for the
respective issue.
It also allows a satellite view of the HT network spread out via integration
with the GIS software allowing the proper fault indication and network
overview. This feature allows user to have insight in the connection and
location of the different devices, feeders, and substations. NMS allows
creating authority for control zones that would allow a hierarchical structure
with respect to the Wapda hierarchy.
The power flow analysis, Volt/VAR, suggested switching, and conservative
voltage reduction are one of the few highly important tools that have been
provided in the oracle NMS software. These tools allow a greater level of
control of the grid and the network in the hands of the users and tilt the
direction of the user towards pre-emptive dealing with conditions that could
result in greater faults.
Power Flow Extensions enable engineering analysis of the electrical
distribution system for use in the operations and control center rather than
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for design or planning purposes. They assess the equipment loading and
feeder voltage profiles for selected portions of the electrical network, and
provide overload, fault, and voltage violation information for review.
Suggested Switching helps to generate switching steps for two fundamental
types of scenarios. Switching steps can be generated to restore power to a DE
energized device, or to de-energize and isolate a device that is currently
energized while minimizing the amount of resulting dropped load.
The software produces restoration steps by solving the power flow for each
eligible tie point with adjacent feeders, in order to determine the remaining
feeder capacity and the overloads after the de-energized section is picked up.
Several alternate switching plans may be produced and listed in ranked
order. The user can select the desired switching plan and generate it in Web
Switching Management. When your objective is to isolate a device,
restoration steps are similarly obtained while accounting for the effects of
the switching steps required for isolation of the desired devices.
Volt/VAR Optimization generates a set of optimal substation transformer
tap positions and capacitor bank statuses to minimize power losses and
maintain power quality as the system load changes. Volt/VAR Optimization
also allows you to specify a particular loading scenario against which to
perform the Volt/VAR analysis. Based on the selected load scenario,
Volt/VAR optimization uses the real-time load values or appropriately loads
values from the historic load profile for all load points in the analysis area.
The user-selectable load scenarios are:
•Real-time loads
•Scaled loads
•Peak loads
•Specific period loads
Feeder Load Management (FLM) is also one of the major tools of NMS that
allows you to manage energy delivery in the electric distribution system and
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identify problem areas. Feeder Load Management monitors the vital signs of
the distribution system and identifies areas of concern so that the
distribution operator is forewarned and can efficiently focus attention where
it is most needed. It allows for more rapid correction of existing problems
and enables possibilities for problem avoidance, leading to both improved
reliability and energy delivery performance.
Feeder Load Management is automatically triggered by pertinent changes in
the electric distribution system, such as increased demand or switch status
changes. Feeder Load Management provides dynamically updated views of
closest-in-time alarms, peak loads, and present loads of all the feeders.
Feeder Load Management directs users to those feeders where capacity
margins and/or device limits are at risk or violated.
The purpose of the Fault Location Isolation Service and Restoration (FLISR)
tool is to respond to protection trips of SCADA monitored and controlled
switches (such as the feeder circuit breakers CB and downstream re-closers).
FLISR automatically identifies the faulted section using the protection trip
and Fault Indication flags and then automatically schedules the isolation and
restoration actions to restore the non-faulted areas de-energized by isolating
the fault. It can also present the isolation and restoration actions for
execution by the user. If Oracle NMS Power Flowis implemented, FLISRwill
use power flow analysis in the solution analysis.
In short NMS is a highly applicable and important system that is required to
manage the operation-ability of the smart grid network and to conduct its
monitoring in the real time. Though KE would not be able to implement all
of its operations all at once, because the existing transmission and
distribution setup is quite obsolete and would require massive investment
for up gradation, but installation and integration of the smart devices into
the existing system would allow real time monitoring of the system but
would also extend the life of the system as it would provide the required
necessary insight into the system and would allow the option of preventive
maintenance rather than being totally blind sighted regarding the grid and
the network. What NMS has to offer for KE itself is quite huge, but what KE
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can extract at the moment requires KE to modify its existing operations with
respect to the system with is quite advanced and extensive and provides the
proper example of centralized command and control. The OUNMS is a type
of Advanced Distribution Management and the architecture is shown below.
SCADA Devices:
SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) is a category of software
application program for process control, the gathering of data in real time
from remote locations in order to control equipment and conditions. SCADA
is used in power generation plants as well as in transmission and distribution
departments of different utility companies, oil and gas refining,
telecommunications, transportation, and water and waste control.
SCADA systems include hardware and software components. The hardware
gathers and feeds data into a computer that has SCADA software installed.
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The computer then processes this data and presents it in a timely manner.
SCADA also records and logs all events into a file stored on a hard disk or
sends them to a printer. SCADA warns when conditions become hazardous by
sounding alarms.
D-SCADA provides a low-cost modular system option for interaction with
automated and intelligent distribution system field devices. It uses a simplified
data model that is typically generated through an automated process. The DSCADA may be implemented to communicate directly with the field through
a variety of methods to meet specific customer requirements.
D-SCADA includes the following
1. Data acquisition: provides the interface to the system field devices and
ensures data integrity.
2. Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (ICCP) interface:
provides the ICCP interface that connects D-SCADA to the OMS and
MWFM system. It facilitates real-time data transmission and reception.
3. Intelligent electronic device (IED) management tools: enables the
user to view and change the status of the data acquisition function’s
objects and the system field devices. They also display IED
communication errors and allow the user to view and reset
communication error counts.
4. Network control executive: handles switching commands from the
OMS and manages their execution.
5. Data archiving interface: directs scanned and derived system data to
an independent long-term archiving system.
6. Configuration management tool: monitors the status of key
components of the D-SCADA network servers, printers, network
interfaces, true time devices, database domains, etc.
7. Distribution management system: A comprehensive and intricate
DMS is capable of managing fault detection, isolation, and recovery and
Volt/VAR control while interfacing with (or integrating functionality
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traditionally found in) distribution SCADA systems, workforce
management systems, outage management systems and geographic
information systems.
1. DTU: Devices on substation are called Distribution Terminal Unit
(DTUs) model used by KE HXDTU3000.
2. RTU: Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) like Fault Current Indicators
(FCIs) are being placed on Underground and Overhead lines.
3. DCU: The data from the devices installed on Substation, underground
cables and overhead lines is then gathered into a Data Control Unit
(DCU), model used by KE is HXDCU40.
Communication from all the devices installed in D-SCADA system of
KElectric like the readings from FCI to DCU is being conducted at 2.4GHz
through Zigbee technology.
Oracle MDM& AMI
MDM is the Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management software that is
required for the control and management of the Advanced Metering
Infrastructure (AMI) meters or in simpler words the smart meters. The
purpose of MDM is defined in simpler terms is collection of data and profiles
from different data devices, i.e. meters at different ends and as well as head
ends, and then providing the respective data to the respective systems for
their operations. For example the MDM receives the data from the meters
installed and then would provide the load profiles to the NMS for its
calculation and operations.
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Wapda deploys Oracle utilities data management system (MDM) for storage
and acquisition of vast amount of data received through head-end system
from smart meters. The software imports, validate, store and format data
before making it available for billing and analysis purpose. This database
with its analytical tools is also interfaced with other information systems like
customer information system (CIS), billing system, Outage management
system (real-time outage information from AMI meters), geographic
information system (GIS), and transformer load management. One of the
primary functions of MDM is to implement validation; estimation and
editing on AMI data to ensure that inspire of disruptions in communication
networks or at customer premises, the data sent to the aforementioned
systems is complete and accurate.
The key features of MDM include its capability to provide smart meter
integration with head-end -systems, supports different commodities:
electric, gas, water and others. It has 360 degree user interface that provides
all data related to a device like average usage profile, outage period, meter
reader remarks etc, Facilitate new customer programs by providing multiple
bill determinants rules (like peak demand, time of use, critical peak pricing,
real time pricing).It has usage & event subscriptions so that the data could be
published to downstream systems.
MDM has several functional areas
1. Service Provider: A service provider is required for the transmission
and receiving of the data from the meter to the system and from the
system to the meter. For every system there is a service provider, its
function is to either route data from any system to the MDMS (head
end systems have service provider to send info from meters to MDMS)
or from MDMS to any system. (CIS have service provider to receive bill
determinants from MDMS).
2. Device Management: Most devices are meters. Device info includes its
manufacturer, model, head end system which holds record of its
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Every device has measuring components and the combination of unit
of measure (UOM like kWh), time of use (TOU: on-peak or off-peak)
and Service quantity identifier (SQI: energy consumption or
generation) shows what the device measures. Device configuration
shows how the measuring components are configured.
3. Validate-Estimate-Edit (VEE): The Initial Measurement Data is
recorded and VEE rules are applied on it. The VEE rules validate the
meter reading that whether the reading is matches the historical data
pattern or in other terms performs the sanity check of the reading,
incase the reading fails the sanity check, and the reading is edited with
the estimated value keeping in view the past trend of the specific
meter readings. Each measuring component is periodically measured.
Each MC has its associated VEE group. When initial measurements are
initialized, VEE rules are applied based on its VEE group & associated
region, device type, customer type, usage pattern.
4. Measurements: The system creates final Measurements once the Initial
Measurement Data has successfully passed the VEE rules. If measuring
component is re-measured, there may be an existence of multiple
readings, but for a specific date & time only one final measurement is
allowed. there are derived values as well like the value calculated after
distribution loss is calculated or after conversion in different unit of
5. Installation Information: A service point exists for every geographic
location at which a device can be installed; it includes postal address,
geographic identifiers, and other geographic-related attributes that
could directly impacting VEE and usage calculation logics. The
Installation Information also maintains an event history and the
removal date if any so that the system can recalculate the historical
6. Usage Subscription: It is an actually a record of an ongoing request to
calculate billing determinants for one or more service points. It has a
1:1 correlation with a contract in the CIS (that is a system-of-record).
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All contractual information that impacts how bill determinants are
calculated is defined on the usage subscription and it is synced with
CIS system that provides the data. CIS is a SAP module used in the
customer accounts.
7. Usage Calculation Rules: The system performs usage calculation rules
on the billing determinants from the usage subscription for a given
time period. The usage calculation rules can be run in the real time
and in the in batch process which is a standard integration in the CIS.
8. Usage Transaction: It records the results of the usage calculations,
which would be sent out to one or more of the participants in the MD,
such as the energy service provider associated with the subscription’s
service point of view. The service point measurement can periodically
“push usage” to the system, whereas the CIS system can also request
usage when it would require calculating the billing determinants.
9. Communication: MDM has inbound and outbound communication is
a record of a messages sent or received by a service provider or by an
MDM participant to / from the head – end or the edge application. The
purpose of inbound and out bound communication is defines below:
Inbound Comm.: record of message sent by a service provider,
although initial measurements are true inbound communications yet
they are not regarded as inbound due to their large volumes.
Outbound: record of message sent from MDMs or sent to MDM
participants, while usage transaction is true outbound comm. it is no
considered outbound due to their large volumes.
10. Events: Devices can send/communicate different type of Events, for
example, some of the major events are:
a. “Last Gasp”: If a meter detects power loss is imminent, it sends a
last-gasp message to notify the utility regarding the power failure
or outage condition.
b. “Tamper Detection”: This event occurs when the meter detects
that a consumer or someone is tampering with the meter.
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The purpose of meter event is to create or register the interest of
the service provider or utility regarding any ongoing activity or
abnormal condition.
11. Activity: Activity is a record of an event taking place; activity can also
be related to any combination of “master – data” objects.
12. Service Requests: These requests are created to orchestrate
communication sent to the head end systems, such as, a request to
commission a meter, turn a meter off, ping a meter, etc., are all
orchestrated via a service request. The service request can be created
via different methods, for example; services call from an external
system, a user online/ real – time, or a business process.
MDM provide benefits to both utilities and consumers, some of which are
described below:
1. Supports smart grid and smart programs allowing customers to easily
access usage and program information
2. Provides a central data source for all utility departments
3. Optimizes asset utilization through load aggregation
4. Improves on-time and accurate billing with comprehensive integration
of meter–to-cash operations
5. Aids detection of energy and water theft. Determines effectiveness of
energy/water and conservation programs.
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BTS Station
The Graphical representation of the MDM system is as follows:
The system generates service
requests to either enable or
disable the service at the service
System maintains information
about all the meters and the service
points at which they are installed
(the CIS is the system of records)
Meter and Service Points
It initiates business processes that
commissions, decommissions and
monitor the state of the smart
Service Requests
Smart Meter Messages
The system is the system of
record for all measurements and
meter events
The system transforms the data
measurements in billable data
that is used by the subscribing
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Outage Management
Market Participant
Measurements and Events
Billable Usage
Mobile Workforce/Crews
Oracle Utilities MDM –
L+G Meters
Fusion Middleware & SGG
Meter Data Management
Device Interfaces
VEE Groups
Usage Sub.
Service Points
360 º Portals
Exception Man.
Bill Determinants
Custom Rules
Measurement Svcs.
OU Application Framework
Fusion Middleware
Customer Care
and Billing
Other Systems:
Billing, Work
Management, etc.
© 2010 Oracle Corporation
– Proprietary and Confidential
Conceptual Architecture
The Oracle MDM software applies Middleware Software fusion and Smart
Grid Gateway to communicate between the Meters, in this case the LANDIS
and GRYS meters, and the Oracle Utilities MDM software. The data from the
meters after being transferred to the Oracle Utilities MDM is extracted by
the Business Intelligence and CSS systems, in this case the Oracle Utilities
Business Intelligence (OUBI) software. The above mentioned systems are
directly integrated with the OUMDM software, but for those systems such as
SAP ERP modules or other Oracle softwares like OUNMS requires
middleware for the fusion and transfer of data from one system to another as
per the requirement of the system.
Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is architecture for automated,
twoway communication between a smart utility meter with an IP address and
a utility company. The goal of an AMI is to provide utility companies with
real-time data about power consumption and allow customers to make
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informed choices about energy usage based on the price at the time of use.
AMI is seen as an important part of any smart grid initiative.
Wapda is purchasing smart meters by
1. IskraMeaco (Slovenia) via TMA (sales agent)
2. Hexing (Chinese) via KBK (local dilution)
3. Holley (China) via IMS (local assembly)
Meters are classified into the following major categories
1. Electrostatic meters
2. Electromechanical meters
Meters used by WAPDA are of the following types
1. Single phase Direct Online Meters
2. Three phase Direct Online Meters
3. CT Operated Meters
4. CTPT Meters
Advance Metering Infra-structure is essentially another department of Smart
Grid. That is responsible for the installation of smart meters, gathering data
from them and enhancing company’s profits and protecting revenues by
applying advanced metering techniques on the basis of data being gathered
from the meters.
Previously there were three ways to access a meter.
1. By meter Reader
2. By the information consumer provides.
3. Meter inspector.
Concept of smart meters has revolutionized the system. These meters can
perform two ways communication which means it sends information
containing any sort of alarm, outage (which is called last gasp information;
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the data the meter sends just as its capacitor gets discharge due to outage or
shutdown). Etc. Thus advance metering reduces the time and efforts and
increases customer satisfaction because the complaints get resolved quickly.
Smart meters and smart grid cannot completely eradicate theft but the
purpose of installation of these devices is to get an insight of the events on
the field.
Smart meters send interval base data, the interval is set to be of 15 minutes.
The billing period of the meters is set to be of 30 minutes.
The hierarchy of installation of meters is as follows
Isolation point
Distribution t/f
The data by smart meters then would be integrated directly into the
softwares like MDM through which it would be easy to identify the reasons
of energy and positions of faults and outages.
Communication of smart meters is GPRS and GSM based. It has a modem,
and a module in which SIM is connected. KE is using SIMs of Mobilink and
Telenor in there meters.
There are two possible topologies which can be followed, either to have a
SIM installed in every meter which would obviously be expensive, or to have
SIM in only one meter and by using parallel communication connect the
meters to a universal BUS that is RS-485 this would be a much cheaper
option. KE is following the parallel communication topology, which is
further elaborated in the following figure.
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BTS Station
Alarm and Event Communication from meter to the software
GIS Software:
Geographical Information System is used to represent Electrical
Transmission and Distribution network with satellite imaging. GIS helps to
• Current location of different electrical component
• All underground, overhead, LT and HT network present in a system
• How much customers are linked to a feeder or connection
• Every component of the network even the poles are named with an ID
number which helps to locate the component faster in the system.
• Distance between any two components can be determined easily through GIS
• GIS helps to understand the conditions of the network that could help in
installing new component at a particular location.
• GIS even helps in editing as to look for how can a system be designed.
• GIS helps in forecasting the accessibilities that CAN/CANNOT be acquired
within a location.
• GIS could also help in localization and back feeding the network under a
particular feeder.
• For poles it can also indicate the purpose of its position, for example whether
it’s an SHANKLE point or T/OFF pole etc.
• GIS serves as the basic parameter for implementation of Smart Grid on the
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• It could be very helpful in indicating the location of the fault and forwarding
to rectify the matter faster.
• GIS also helps to identify the strength of a cable connecting a PMT to feeder,
whether it underground or overhead, whether HT or LT.
• It helps in identifying how many PMTs or Poles are connected to a particular
• GIS has an accuracy up to -+3m of indicating a network to the original system
planted by the engineers.
• Generally GIS helps in serving the overview of the system, how it is integrated
and how efficiently it can be designed and implemented.
Meter Repair
There are several different types of meters:
1. CT/PT meters on HT
2. CT operated meter on LT
3. Direct Online 1 -
ᵠ meters
4. Direct Online 3 -
ᵠ meters
There are two categories of meters;
1. Electro-Mechanical Meters: has dials in units of
2. Electro-Static Meters: has impulses with units of
The meters are tested on the Faulty Meter Report by the meter reader or the
consumer. Several tests are performed on the meter to verify whether the
meter is faulty or not. The types of test performed on the meters are:
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1. Dial Test: Revolution test of the meter Dial.
2. Creeping Test: Forward and backwards movement of the
meter dial in the absence of the electric supply.
3. Physical Test: Integrity Check of the Meter
4. Accuracy Test: Test on 1/10 of load, ¼ of load, ½ of load, and
full load.
The Meters are of different Accuracy Classes, i.e. Class-0.5 (0.5% accuracy),
Class-1 (1-% Accuracy), Class-2 (2% Accuracy).
What is Distributed Generation?
Distributed generation (or DG) generally refers to small-scale (typically 1 kW
– 50 MW) electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to
customers or that are tied to an electric distribution system. Distributed
generators include, but are not limited to synchronous generators, induction
generators, reciprocating engines, micro turbines (combustion turbines that
run on high-energy fossil fuels such as oil, propane, natural gas, gasoline or
diesel), combustion gas turbines, fuel cells, solar photovoltaic, and wind
Applications of Distributed Generating Systems
There are many reasons a customer may choose to install a distributed
generator. DG can be used to generate a customer’s entire electricity supply;
for peak shaving (generating a portion of a customer’s electricity onsite to
reduce the amount of electricity purchased during peak price periods); for
standby or emergency generation (as a backup to Wires Owner's power
supply); as a green power source (using renewable technology); or for
increased reliability. In some remote locations, DG can be less costly as it
eliminates the need for expensive construction of distribution and/or
transmission lines.
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Benefits of Distributed Generating Systems
Distributed Generation:
a. Has a lower capital cost because of the small size of the DG
(although the investment cost per kVA of a DG can be much
higher than that of a large power plant).
b. May reduce the need for large infrastructure construction or
upgrades because the DG can be constructed at the load
c. If the DG provides power for local use, it may reduce pressure on
distribution and transmission lines.
d. With some technologies, produces zero or near-zero pollutant
emissions over its useful life (not taking into consideration
pollutant emissions over the entire product lifecycle i.e.
pollution produced during the manufacturing, or after
decommissioning of the DG system).
e. With some technologies such as solar or wind, it is a form of
renewable energy.
f. Can increase power reliability as back-up or stand-by power to
g. Offers customers a choice in meeting their energy needs.
Challenges associated with Distributed Generating Systems
a. There are no uniform national interconnection standards
addressing safety, power quality and reliability for small
distributed generation systems.
b. The current process for interconnection is not standardized
among provinces.
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c. Interconnection may involve communication with several
different organizations
d. The environmental regulations and permit process that have
been developed for larger distributed generation projects make
some DG projects uneconomical.
e. Contractual barriers exist such as liability insurance
requirements, fees and charges, and extensive paperwork.
• Phase balancing: If power factor of all the three phases are same that
indicates the phases are balanced as power factor is the cosine of phase
• Voltage analysis: If load voltages of all the three phases are same that
indicates the voltages are balanced.
• Load Balancing: If the line currents of the three phases are not same
that means the load unbalancing has occurred and thus some current
must be flowing through the neutral otherwise the neutral current
must be zero.
I1<0 +I2<120 +I3<240 =IN=0
Line loss analysis: knowing the conductor material (resistivity), its
length to which it is extended and its cross sectional area the total
resistance of the conductor can be known. Multiplying this resistance
with square of current, line loss can be calculated.
Line loss=I2R where R=PL/A
Transformer load management: If the customers connected to a
particular PMT are continuously facing tripping or explosions of PMT
that means that the transformer is running on over load. Thus by
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summing up the maximum demands of the consumers a PMT should
be installed of such rating that it does not trip.
∑Customers Max Demand< PMT rating
Unit Difference analysis: The difference of the power provided by the
PMT to a particular area and the sum of total power consumed by the
customers connected to that PMT. If an enormous difference is
observed in these two measurements then that means the company is
facing loss.
∑KW PMT-∑KW Consumer=Δ
Feeder load management: If the feeder of a particular area is tripping
frequently that means it is being overloaded. Sum of all PMTs
connected to a single feeder must not exceed the feeder’s maximum
capacity in order to avoid tripping.
∑Rating of All PMTs < Feeder Maximum Capacity
Fault current: If any fault current is detected by FCIs it can be
observed on the data table. Any abrupt rise in current means that a
fault has occurred. Fault current is normally 6 times the nominal
X up to fault-1 *100
• Fault location analysis: On the basis existence of fault current on the
data sheet, we can know location of the fault that on what patch fault
has occurred. And how many consumers are affected of that particular
• Short circuit KVA: The magnitude of short circuit fault current
multiplied by voltage of the line before occurrence of fault can be used
to calculate the short circuit KVA of the asset. And thus we can know
the capacity of the instrument
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Short Circuit KVA= Post fault current * pre fault voltage
• Asset utilization monitoring: Assets can be defined as any device or
instrument that is important to the company. It can be a meter, PMT,
or any device. Through the data we can see if the PMT is running on
overload so it can be changed before exploding etc.
• Power factor analysis: Lesser power factor causes burden to the
utility company and also to the consumer as consumer always pays for
active power consumption lesser power factor indicates that it is using
more reactive power. The data indicates the different values of power
factors, it is thus easy for the company to impose penalty on the
consumer if its power factor is less than 0.85.
• Outage minutes validation: The data can provide us with the
duration of outage, formula for outage duration can be expressed as,
Duration= Power Up (time/min) - Power Down (time/min)
Outage dollarization: The amount of revenue lost by the utility due to
outage. For example, 4000 customers are effected due to outage of 4
hours with 15 Rs per unit cost and an average of 1.5kWh per house. The
revenue lost by the company in that 4 hours will be 3lac 60thousand
Outage Dollarization (Rs) = No. of outage hours*no of consumers
under outage*per unit cost*average energy consumed per hour
• Customer segmentation: On the basis of the data consumers can be
categorized into different segments. For example, the area from which
the revenue is not being regained by the company or the utility
company is facing loss. The consumers of that area can be segmented
into high loss similarly category of medium loss and low loss can be
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• Diversion and back feeding: Knowing load of the PMTs connected
to a particular feeder, we can devise a diversion plan or back feeding
pattern during outage. Let suppose that if a feeder has capacity of
10,000 KVA and the summation of all the PMTs connected to it are
8000 KVA, which means if there is outage in any other area so the
2000KVA load of that area can be fed through this feeder.
Feeder Capacity-∑PMTs rating= Back feeding Capacity
• Events and alerts: Alerts and events can be identified by the current
flowing through the system, system voltages, power factor and
apparent power. When the total KVA rating not equals to the
consumed KVA rating of the system there is said to be theft present in
the system. Other alerts such as temper alerts in meter can be
identified through a notification from the meter.
• Load profile analysis: Load profile analysis can be performed by the
voltage, active and reactive power consumed by the system by
constructing the graph of present values and indicating the Max
Demand, Utilization factor etc. concerning the system.
• Demand Factor: Consumers do not use all the devices at full load
simultaneously. Maximum demand for each consumer is therefore less
then total connected load.
Demand Factor= Max Demand/ Total connected load
Demand factor is usually less than 1.
Average Load or Average Demand: From the data average demand
can be calculated in a particular time interval. As it is the ratio of
energy consumed in a given time period
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Av. Load=Energy Consumed in a given period/Hours in that time
• Diversity Factor: Maximum demands of individual consumers are not
likely to occur simultaneously, so there is diversity in occurrence of
load. Large diversity factor has the effect of reducing the maximum
demand, consequently lesser plant capacity is required, thus capital
cost is reduced and the cost of generation is also reduced.
Diversity Factor= Sum of individual maximum demand/coincident max
demand of whole system
• Utilization Factor:
Maximum Demand/Rated System
Partial Discharge Test of Current Transformer
Partial discharge is a localized dielectric breakdown of a small portion of a
solid or fluid electrical insulation system under high voltage stress, which
does not bridge the space between two conductors.
PD level over 2,500pC (in paper) and over 10,000pC (in oil) may be
destructive ionization
a. Insulation Degradation (Reversible)
Conductive mode particles, bridges gap in oil insulations,
causes 100pC to 10,000pC
ii. Increased moisture content around 3-4% resulting in
concentration of the moisture in oil; also causes reduction
in PD inception voltage by approx. 20%, resulting PD
discharge 2,000 – 4,000pC.
iii. Poor impregnation, resulting PD discharge 1,000 –
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iv. Air gas bubbles (3 – 5mm), resulting PD discharge 1,000 –
b. Oil Barrier Insulation break-down (Irreversible)
i. Breakdown of oil gap; apparent change 10,000pC and rises
rapidly to 100,000 – 1,000,000pC
ii. Incipient carbonizing the cellulose (heating over 300C);
corresponds to several charge pulse of 100,000 –
c. Creeping Discharge
i. Splitting oil molecules under effect of sparking. Formation
of hydrocarbons followed by formation of carbonized
traces in pressboard. Lowering of PD magnitude to 1,000 –
d. Failure of turn – to – turn insulation
i. Sporadic PD pulses of magnitude 400 – 1000pC
ii. Rises up to more than 100,000pC
Sources of PD generation
Sources of PD
Core and coil Assembly Operating Voltage
structure and oil
Electrostatic Shields
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Typical Faults
contamination with
attributed to particles, bubbles,
reversible change of
static electrification,
insulation condition
bad impregnation,
high moisture,
PD attributed to the
Partial breakdown in
irreversible degradation oil; surface
of insulating material
discharge; creeping
Sparking and arcing
between bad
“Conductor under
floating potential”
discharges Tracking
in wooden blocks
PD associated with
voltage induced by
magnetic flux
PD associated with
voltage induced by
stray flux
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closed loops between
members linked by the
main flux
(insulated bolts of core,
bolts, pressing metal
rings, etc); sparking
due to floating
potential closed
loops between
adjacent members
linked by
stray flux; floating
potential (e.g.
ungrounded magnetic
Operating Voltage
Localized defect within
the core: bad
impregnation, high
short-circuits between
sparking across the
core surface Breakdown
in oil; surface discharge
across the
Operating voltage PD
operating voltage at
the fix tap position:
PD associated with
switching process
Methods of PD detection
Type of sensors
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Partial breakdown in
the selector and in the
diverter switch
Poor or worn out
Direct connection to the
or through high
CT on the grounded wire,
(“Rogovski coils”)
Additional sensors in bus
duct, electrostatic
shields, neural
High sensitivity Can
De-energizing for
be calibrated in
terms of apparent
charge Approximate
location of PD source
All capabilities to
trend data Use of
PD pattern
Sensors configuration
match for better noise
Easy to use Possible
assessing external
PD problems
PD in the bushings
Serving as a noise
(corona) channel
High disturbances
Only discharges of
extremely high
level can be
Difficult to
distinguish an
equipment having
from surrounding
on transformer tank
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Easy to install
Capability detecting
emission magnitude
and trend,
Pulse repetition rate
and trend
Localizing a source of
Low sensitivity
Minimal detecting
apparent charge
Responded to rain,
electrical disturbances
in the
Transformer Tests
i. Accuracy Test ii.
Dielectric insulation tests
iii. Temperature rise tests
iv. Short time current tests
v. Verification of terminal markings and polarity
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Standard Number
BS EN 60044-1
Commission (IEC)
IEC 60044-1
AS 1675
AS 60044-1
ANSI C.57.13
Ref: ISO/IEC 17025
Typical specification for a 11 kV CT
a. System voltage:11 kV
Insulation level voltage (ILV) : 12/28/75 kV
Ratio: 200/1 - 1 - 0.577 A
Core 1: 1A, metering, 15 VA/class 1, ISF<10
Core 2: 1 A, protection, 15 VA/5P10
Core 3: 0.577 A, Class PS, KPV>= 150 V, Imag at Vk/2 <=30 mA,
RCT at 75 C<=2 ohms
Short time rating:20 kA for 1 second
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