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Ancient Olympic Games
The ancient Olympic games originated in ancient Greece in the year 776 BC through 393 AD.
The games were held with the religious customs in the honor of their God 'Zeus'.
The ceremony of the Olympic games begins from the new moon day in July after every four
The events continued for five days.
First-day opening ceremony held, second-day animal games, third-day foot race, chariot race,
equestrian, throwing and jumping, fourth-day boxing, wrestling, sword fighting and other contact
games, fifth and final day closing ceremony with prize distribution.
Modern Olympic Games
It was Baron Pierre de Coubertin who started Modern Olympic games by drawing the inspiration
of Ancient Olympic games. He founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894 in Paris.
The first games were started in 1896 in Athens, the capital of Greece. In the first Olympic 280
participants from 13 nations participated in 43 events including track-and-field.
Olympic ( Olympic Symbol, Flag, Motto, Oath, Flame, Anthem )
Olympic Symbol
The official symbol of the modern Olympic Games is five coloured interlaced rings. These rings
represent the continents of North and South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe.
They also symbolize the uniting of athletes from all over the world to compete at the Olympic
Games. The Olympic flag, first used at the Antwerp Games in 1920, has the Olympic symbol in
the center of a white field the Olympic rings remain a global representation of the Olympic
Olympic Flag:
Olympic Flag was designed in 1913. This was first flown in 1920 at Antwerp Olympic games.
This flag consists of five ring circles interlinked with each other on a white background.
The colours of rings are green represents Europe, black represents Africa, blue represents
Australia and Oceania, yellow represents Asia and red represent America.
Olympic Motto
Olympic Moto consisting of Latin words Citius, Altus, Fortius meaning faster higher stronger
was introduced in 1924 the Moto was designed to encourage the athletes to impress the
Olympics spirit and perform to the best of their abilities.
The Olympic motto was amended to "Faster, Higher, Stronger-Together" during the International
Olympic Committee's session in Tokyo in 2021. The motto now reads 'Citius, Altius, Fortius Communis' in Latin.
Olympic Oath
At the opening ceremony, an athlete from the host country takes the following oath on behalf of
all the athletes:
"In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Olympic Games,
respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without
doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory. of sport and the
honor of our teams."
The oath-taking practice started from the 1920 Games.
Olympic Flame
The Olympic flame symbolizes the continuity between the ancient modern Games. Modern
Games are opened officially by runners carrying a burning torch brought from the Temple of
Zeus at Olympia.
Except where travel by ship or plane is necessary, the torch is carried overland Greece by a relay
of athletes.
At the site of the Games, the torch is used to light the flame of a giant torch, or cauldron, which
burns for the entire duration of the Games. The flame was first lighted at the 1928 Games.
Olympic Anthem
Created by Greek composer Spyros Samáaras to words written by his fellow countryman, poet
Kostis Palamás, the Olympic Anthem is in fact the oldest property of the modern Games.
The Olympic anthem lyrics penned by Palamas to accompany the music by Samaras create a
bridge between the ancient and modern Games:
Olympic Anthem
"O Ancient immortal Spirit, pure father Of beauty, of greatness and of truth. Descend, reveal
yourself and flash like lightning here, within the glory of your own earth and sky. At running and
at wrestling and at throwing, Shine in the momentum of noble contests, And crown with the
unfading branch And make the body worthy and ironlike. Plains, mountains and seas glow with
you Like a white-and-purple great temple. And hurries at the temple here, your pilgrim. O Ancient
immortal Spirit, every nation."
Ideals of Olympic games
Olympic Movement happens to build a peaceful and better world by educating youth through
sport practised without any discrimination and mutual understanding with a spirit of friendships,
solidarity and fair play.
Objectives of Olympic Games
To draw the attention of the world that sports not only help in developing good health of young
people but to create better citizens and promote the development of their character and
To create a sense of loyalty, team spirit.
To inculcate the concept that sports are a pastime and not an instrument for the material.
To create a spirit of international Amity and to contribute to better understanding among people
and nations.
Olympism refers to the philosophy of the Olympic games. It seeks to create a way of life by
blending sport with culture, education and international cooperation.
It is based on the joy of effort, the educational value, social responsibility and respect for
universal fundamental ethical principles.
The goal of Olympism is to place sport at the service of the harmonious development of
humankind, with a view to promoting a peaceful society concerned with the preservation of
human dignity.
Value of Olympism
There are three values of Olympism Excellence, Friendship and Respect. These values
constitute the foundation on which the Olympic Movement builds its activities to promote sport,
culture and education to build a better world.
First value is striving for best and excellence and
encouraging people to be the best they can be.
The important thing is not winning, but taking part, making progress and enjoying the healthy
combination of body, will and mind..
Celebrating friendship is quite unique to the Olympic Games - an event that brings people
together after every four years.
Friendship is at the heart of the Olympic Movement. It encourages us to see sport as an
instrument for mutual understanding between individuals, and between people all over the world.
This includes respect for yourself, the rules and regulations, your opponents, your body, for
other people, for sport and for the environment.
The Olympic Movement
The Olympic Movement is composed of three main constituents: the International Olympic
Committee (IOC), the International Sports Federations (IFs) and the National Olympic
Committees (NOCs).
The goal of the Olympic Movement is to contribute to building a peaceful and better world by
educating youth through sport practiced in accordance with Olympism and its values.
Belonging to the Olympic Movement requires compliance with the Olympic Charter and
recognition by the IOC
In addition to its three main constituents, the Olympic Movement also encompasses the
Organizing Committees of the Olympic Games ("OCOGS"), the national associations, clubs and
persons belonging to the IFS and NOCs. particularly the athletes, whose interests constitute a
fundamental element of the Olympic Movement's action.
As well as the judges, referees, coaches and the other sports officials and technicians. It also
includes other organizations and institutions as recognised by the IOC.
International Olympic Committee (IOC)
International Olympic Committee (IOC) is the supreme authority of the Olympic movement
formed in June 1894. The headquarters of IOC is at Lausanne, Switzerland. It is the authority
which organises the modern Summer and Winter Olympic Games.
The IOC is the main governing body of the National Olympic Committees (NOC), the
international sports federation, the athletes, the sponsors, the broadcast partners and united
nation agencies.
The Role of IOC
• To encourage and support the promotion of ethics in sports as well as education of youth
through sports.
To dedicate its effort to ensure that in sports the spirit of fare play prevails • To encourage and
support the organisation, development and coordination of sports and sports competitions
• To ensure the regular celebration of Olympic games
• To cooperate with the competent public or
private organisation and authorities.
• To take action in order to strengthen the
unity and to protect the independence of Olympic movement
• To act against any form of discrimination affecting the Olympic movement
• To encourage and support the promotion of women in sports at all levels
Indian Olympic Association (IOA)
IOA was formed in 1927 by Sir Dorabji Tata as it's first president, D.G. Noehrem as it's secretary
and G.D. Sodhi as assistant secretary. It is affiliated with IOC. The head office of IOA is in New
The Functions Of IOA
• To develop and promote Olympic movement and amateur sports
• To promote and encourage physical moral and cultural values among youth for development
of good health and good. citizen
• To enforce all rules and regulation of games and sports at National level competitions
• To provide training and preparation of players for participation at international level
• To provide technical help for conducting National Level Competition
• To observe and check the smooth working of national sports association
• To provide official sponsorship to players for participation at International Level Competition
• To supervise the sports development in the country
• To arrange funds for Sports program for training of players, infrastructural development and
sponsorship of players, etc.
To promote Olympic games at every level in India.
National Olympic Committees (NOC)
The mission of the National Olympic movement is to promote, protect and develop the Olympic
movement in their respective countries, in accordance with Olympic charter.
NOC encourage the development of sports as well as sports for all while also providing training
of sports administrator based on the fundamentals of olympism
There are 206 NOCs. The IOC is the sole authority to recognise a NOC. Together with the
International Sport Federations, the NOCs are a constituent of the Olympic Movement under the
leadership of the IOC.
The mission of the NOCS is to develop, promote and protect the Olympic Movement in their
respective countries, in accordance with the Olympic Charter.
The International Sports Federations
The International Sports Federations are international non-governmental organizations which
are recognised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as administering one or more
sports at world level.
International Sports Federations seeking IOC recognition must ensure that their statutes,
practice and activities conform with the Olympic Charter.
Responsibilities of IFs
The international Sports federations are responsible for establishing and enforcing the rules
concerning the practice of the respective sports and to insure their application.
To oversee the development of their sports
worldwide acting in accordance with the
Olympic Charter, including the adaption and
implementation of world anti doping code.
To manage and to monitor the everyday running of the world's various sports disciplines,
including for those on the programme, the practical organization of events during the Games.
To supervise the development of athletes practicing these sports at every level.
IFs governs its sport at world level and ensures its promotion and development. They monitor
the everyday administration of their sports and guarantee the regular organization of
competitions as well as respect for the rules of fair play.
Association of Federations
In order to discuss common problems and decide on their events calendars, the summer
federations, the winter federations and the recognised federations have formed associations:
• The Association of Summer Olympic
International Federations (ASOIF) • The Association of International Olympic
Winter Sports Federations (AIOWF)
The Association of IOC Recognised International Sports Federations (ARISF).
Other Federations
Badminton World Federation (BWF)
Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA)
International Basketball Federation (FIBA)
International Biathlon Union (IBU)
International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation (IBSF)
International Boxing Association (IBA)
International Canoe Federation (ICF)
International Equestrian Federation (FEI)
International Fencing Federation (FIE)
International Golf Federation (IGF)
International Gymnastics Federation (FIG)
International Handball Federation (IHF)
International Hockey Federation (FIH)
International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF)
International Judo Federation (IJF)
International Luge Federation (FIL)
International Modern Pentathlon Union (UIPM)
International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF)
International Skating Union (ISU)
International Ski Federation (FIS) International Ski Mountaineering Federation
International Surfing Association
International Swimming Federation (FINA)
International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF)
International Tennis Federation (ITF) International Volleyball Federation (FIVB)
International Weightlifting Federation (IWF): The International Federation of Sport Climbing
Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI)
United World Wrestling (UWW)
World Archery Federation (WA)
World Athletics (WA)
World Curling Federation
World DanceSport Federation (WDSF)
World Rowing (FISA)
World Rugby (WR)
World Sailing (WS)
World Skate
World Taekwondo (WT)
World Triathlon (TRI)
Olympic Family
The Olympic Family regroups diverse groups of leaders from the Olympic Movement, including
the IOC President and IOC Members, International Federations and National Olympic
Committees Presidents and Secretaries General, Chairs and CEOs of TOP Partners, future
OCOG senior executives, RHB senior executives and others.