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elements of teaching

The principal elements that make teaching and learning
possible and attainable are the teachers, the learners,
and a conducive learning environment. The teacher
serves as the prime mover of the educational wheel.
The learners are the key participants in the learning
process. The favourable environment provides essential
features and ingredients that could make headway in
guiding the processes and methodologies needed for a
smooth linkage among the three.
The Learner
The Nature of the Learner
The learner is an embodied spirit, a union
of a sentient body and a rational soul. His
body experiences sensations, and feels
pleasure and pain. His soul is the principle
of spiritual acts, the source of intellectual
abstraction, self reflection, and free
rational volition.
The Fundamental Equipment of the Learner
(5) senses
• Feelings
• Emotions
• Rational Will
All learners are equipped with cognitive as well as
appetitive faculties however, they differ in the degree to
which they are utilized and expressed on the account of
the learners’ abilities, aptitudes, interests, values and
attitudes and home background.
1. Ability
• The students’ native ability dictates the prospects of
success in any purposeful activity. It determines their
capacity to understand and assimilate information for
their own use and application.
2. Aptitude
• It refers to the students’ innate talent or gift. It
indicates a natural capacity to learn certain skills.
3. Interests
• Learners vary in activities that are undertaken due
to a strong appeal or attraction. Lessons that give
the learners the chance to express themselves will
be more meaningful and easily absorbed.
4. Family & Cultural background
• Students who come from different socioeconomic
background manifest a wide range of behaviour
due to differences in upbringing practices.
5. Attitudes
• Attitude refers to an individual perspective and
• Some positive attitudes are curiosity,
responsibility, creativity & persistence.
Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory
1. Verbal-linguistic Intelligence
2. Logical-mathematical Intelligence
3. Spatial Intelligence
4. Bodily-kinaesthetic Intelligence
5. Musical Intelligence
6. Interpersonal Intelligence
7. Intrapersonal Intelligence
8. Naturalist Intelligence
Learning Styles
1. Sensing-thinking (Mastery Learner)
2. Intuitive thinking (UnderstandingLearner)
3. Intuitive-Feeling (Self-Expressive Learner)
4. Sensing-Feeling (Interpersonal Learner)
The Professional Teacher
The professional teacher is the “licensed professional who possesses
dignity with high moral values as well as technical and professional
competence...he adheres to, observes, and practices a set of ethical and
moral principles, standards, and values.” (Code of Ethics of Professional
Teachers, 1997). The professional teacher is the one who went through
four to five year period of rigorous academic preparation in teaching
and one who is given a license to teach by the Board of Professional
Teachers of the Professional Regulation Commission after fulfilling
Requirements prescribed by law such as the Licensure Examination for
Teachers (LET).
Professional Attributes
A professional teacher possesses the following attributes:
 Control of the knowledge base of teaching and learning and use
this knowledge to guide the science and art of his/her teaching
 Repertoire of best teaching practice and can use these to
instruct children in classrooms and to work with adults in the
school setting.
 Disposition and skills to approach all aspects of his/her work in a
reflective, collegial, and problem-solving manner.
 View of learning to teach as a lifelong process and dispositions
and skills for working towards improving his/her own teaching as
well as improving schools.
Personal Attributes
• Personality is the sum of one’s personal
characteristics. It is one’s identity.
• Teachers are judged more strictly than any other
professionals. The personality they project determines
they make upon students and colleagues.
• Personalities may be described as authoritative, weak,
dynamic, or “magnetic”. Teachers’ personality must
be natural and genuine, devoid of pretences and
artificiality. They must be consistent, true and
Personal Attributes
1. Passion
Passion in teaching is a compelling force that emerges
from one’s inborn love for children. Passionate teachers
exude spontaneity in ministering to the needs of the
students especially those experiencing learning difficulties.
2. Humor
Humor stands for anything funny, which elicits a
smile, laughter or amusing reaction. It is an essential
quality of teachers that serves a number of purposes.
Personal Attributes
3. Values and Attitudes
Teachers are model of values. Values connote standards, code
of ethics and strong beliefs.
a. Open-mindedness is basic in promoting respect and trust
between teachers and students
b. Fairness and impartiality eliminates discrimination.
Teachers must be unbiased and objective in judging their
students work and performance.
c. Professionalism is highly treasured in the teaching
profession. Teachers are adjudged professional if they are
knowledgeable, skilled and value-laden.
Personal Attributes
4. Patience
• In teaching, patience refers to a teacher’s
uncomplaining nature, self-control and persistence.
Patient teachers can forego momentous frustrations
and disappointments. They calmly endure their
students’ limitations and difficulties. The teacher’s
capacity to adjust his methodologies could allay the
tension and save time and effort for appropriate
Personal Attributes
5. Enthusiasm
Enthusiasm is synonymous to eagerness and excitement.
Enthusiastic teachers are full of energy and dynamism. With
enthusiastic teachers, students look forward to any activity they
can participate in with them.
Commitment is a “solemn promise” to perform the duties and
responsibilities mandated by the laws and code of ethics of the
profession. It is an unwavering pledge to perform all teaching and
learning activities with consistency and selflessness to the best
interest of the students under their care.
The learning environment is the place where
teaching and learning can take place in the
most effective and productive manner. It
consists of the classroom and all the
instructional features and the nonthreatening classroom climate needed in
planning and implementing all teaching and
learning activities.
Arrangement of Furniture
The furniture, like the table for demonstration located in
front of the room and the chairs facing it are neatly
arranged with sufficient spaces in-between for ease in moving
around. Display shelves for safekeeping of projects, collections
and outstanding work are located at the sides. Attached to
the wall is the bulletin board for hanging posters,
announcements and illustrations about the unit being
undertaken. During discussions, the board in front is used for
clarifying step-by-step procedures and making clearer
diagrams, illustrations and figures.
Arrangement of Furniture
• Teaching devices like globes, maps and charts
are kept in nearby cabinets, together with
simple tools and materials. A temporary
table is placed at the right side where
supplies, materials and handled instruments
are arranged, ready for the day’s lesson.
Physical Condition of the Classroom
As soon as the students enter they are attracted by a
clean and orderly set-up. Natural light and flowing
fresh air add to their comfort and ease. Free from noise
coming from the surroundings, students’ concentration
and interest are easily sustained. The doors and windows
could be opened and closed with less difficulty and noise.
The light fixtures are located where needed.
A diverse situation may exist in the classroom at any
given time. Students differ in abilities and interests while
teachers likely employ different strategies. Teachers
must be sensitive to positive or negative interactions and
must immediately undertake an instant revision or
adjustment in the methodology when necessary. The
primary goal is to be able to motivate them to work
harmoniously, thereafter, inculcate the values of
cooperation and congeniality.
A Facilitative Learning Environment
Pine and Horn (1990) described the learning environment
that facilitates learning. It is an environment:
 Which encourages people to be active;
 Which promotes and facilitates the individual’s discovery of
the personal meaning of idea;
 Which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective
nature of learning in which difference is good and desirable;
A Facilitative Learning Environment
 Which consistently recognizes people’s right to make mistakes;
 Which tolerates ambiguity;
 In which evaluation is a cooperative process with emphasis on selfevaluation;
 Which encourages openness of self rather than concealment of self;
 In which people are encouraged to trust in themselves as well as in
external resources;
 In which people feel they are respected;
 In which people feel they are accepted;
 Which permits confrontation.
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