GENERAL EDUCATION - 8 ETHICS UNIT I: BASIC CONCEPTS Overview: This unit gives you an idea about the Differences between Moral and Non-Moral Standards, Moral Dilemmas, the four branches of ethics, the moral agent together with the universal values. It will also help you to analyze the Six Stages of Moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg. Learning Objectives:_____________ _________________________________________________ At the end of the unit, I am able to: 1. Determine what the difference between Moral and Non-moral standards; 2. Analyze what is moral dilemma and it’s three levels; 3. Evaluate the six stages of Moral Development; 4. Differentiate the four branches of Ethics; and 5. List down the strength and weaknesses of Filipino Moral Character. Setting Up:__________________________________________________________________________ Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: A. Directions: Answer the given question base on your existing knowledge about the lesson. 1. Recall a personal experience in dealing with problems and analyze how they are rooted in Filipino qualities. In hindsight, recommend how you could have done things differently. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ B. Directions:Read/watch the given articles by following their links (URL). You may download them directly by clicking the links. After reading/watching the articles, let us find out how well do you comprehend the lesson. State the most important facts you derived from those materials.Retrieved from Frontlearners. 1. Life of Adolf Hitler: Evolution of Evil a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dd-gdHis6i4 1 2. Life of Nelson Mandela b. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_yA2ZkS-PA Lesson Proper Differences Between Moral and Non-Moral Standards Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the questions and standards of what is right and what is wrong. It discusses the different systems of moral values and principles that determine what are acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. It also involves ideals, moral obligations and prohibitions that people have to observe, follow and respect. Ethics came from the Latin word ethos which means character or moral nature. When you say character or moral nature, the character or moral nature of a person is greatly affected by his or her personal principles and experiences by the belief and value system of his or her surroundings. Non-Moral Standards refer to the rules that affect the choice of a person but are not linked to moral or ethical considerations, similar with ethics people use value judgment in dealing with these aspects. Consequently, they can also affect the way a person develops her moral principles and guidelines but they do not necessarily have moral implications. These are the list of Non-Moral Standards, aesthetics, rules in games, laws, personal experiences and principles, etiquette, recipe or formula, religion and lastly traditions or norms, Moral Standards refer to the rules or set of guidelines that affect the choices of a person and his or her belief system and decision-making process in problems and situations that beg the question of what is morally right and wrong. The characteristics of Moral Standards are the following, concern with the welfare of beings, reliance on reasoning and not on authority, overriding or hegemonic, impartial, fair and just and lastly special emotions and vocabulary. Now let us see and discuss the Characteristics of Moral Standards, number one is concern with the welfare of beings, in moral standards it deals with matters that can seriously injure or benefit the welfare of beings such as in war, child abuse, rape, fraud, murder, and theft while in Nonmoral standards it talks about what is wrong but their concerns do not necessarily affect one’s life or well-being, number two is reliance on reasoning and not on authority in Moral standards it is rely on reasoning and not on authoritative individuals to support and justify their cause while in Non-Moral perspective it is in the context of law and religion they do not need to be based on a valid and sound reasoning, number three is Overriding or Hegemonic the take precedence over other standards and considerations like non-moral standards and self-interest, number four is impartial, fair and just it simply means that there is no exemption to the moral standards, if A is morally right for a certain person P, then it is morally right for anybody relevantly similar to P, and lastly number five is special emotions and vocabulary moral standards are associated with special emotions such as guilt, remorse, and shame and vocabulary such as right, good, wrong, evil, moral, amoral and immoral. Moral Dilemmas A moral dilemma is a situation that begs an agent to choose between two alternatives with equal weight wherein both alternatives are either good or both are evil, but the agent cannot do both or all actions. In this situation, no matter what the agent chooses you will be left with a moral failure but not choosing anything impose greater harm or loss for the agent. For example, Brian is on a crew ship when a fire broke and the ship must be abandoned. The lifeboats are carrying more people than they were designed to carry. The lifeboat he’s in is sitting dangerously low in the water and can potentially sink if added with more weight. There are still other people swimming around them begging to be saved. They are asking him to throw the rope so that they can go up the lifeboat; however, the boat will sink if more people will come abroad. Now, should Brian throw the rope to the people or keep the rope so that lifeboat will not sink. In this dilemma here are some of the conflicts that plagued Brian throughout the decision-making process, number one is if he will help who are swimming their boat will sink and all of them die, number two is if he did not throw the rope then those who are in the water will die and lastly number three is if he can sacrifice himself and help one person but he is not willing to sacrifice himself either. The following are the basic concepts of Moral Dilemma; personal advocates, society, culture religion, family and friends and lastly are education and experiences. Now let us proceed to the three levels of moral dilemma, first you have Individual Dilemma, second you have Organizational Dilemma and third is Structural Dilemma. The first level of Moral dilemma starts with the personal and individual interaction of people with situations in their daily lives. In this level, conflict arrives when a person is asked to choose between two important values for him or her for example, choosing between one’s duties to his or her family one’s love for another person. The second level is Organizational Dilemma unlike individual dilemma this dilemma is encountered by institutions, business, or organizations in their decisionmaking process, at this level the dilemmas that the organizations’ experiences usually affect more than one person and they can be part of the internal group or part of an external stakeholder. For example, Zee has been in a coma for 8 months she only lives through support machines and she never showed any sign of improvement and he never responded to any stimulus given to her. In four other hospitals, there are four patients who are in need of healthy organs such as kidney, heart, lungs and liver. They are in a critical stage and in need of transplants immediately. Patient XTZ is a match for all the patients but removing his organs will cause him death. However, without his organs, the four patients will all die. Now, is it okay to kill someone to benefit more people? How do you choose who to save and who to sacrifice? In the given example aside from the family members, doctors, hospital, sometimes even judges usually help family members decide for the unconscious patients who cannot observe their autonomy over’s one body and life. However, decision over this kind of cases bring up more ethical questions like the following; When do you consider someone to be dead or still alive? When do families and the institution stop waiting for a comatose patient to wake up? Who has the authority to decide over the life of someone who is in the comatose stage? If the call of duty of the doctor is to save lives, will a recommendation from the institution conflict with the principle? It is ethical to kill one person to benefit the many? How do we choose who to save and who to sacrifice? The last level of dilemmas deals with structural dilemmas that affect a network of institutions and operative theoretical paradigms like universal care, juvenile laws, and immigration. Unlike organizational dilemmas, this type of dilemma can affect a community and even a society at large. Hence, these are also the most complicated dilemmas that people face. For example, the issue of undocumented immigration has been widely discussed in different countries especially since President Donald Trump of America, openly criticized it and created measures to stop it and even sent back some immigration to their home countries. However, even if a lot of American citizens have same sentiments as he does, a growing number of oppositions claim that it is inhumane to send back immigration from their homes especially those who moved to America out of circumstances like extreme poverty, persecution and war, at the same time many immigrants have families, wives, husbands, and children who will be left once they leave the country. What do you think about this problem? Freedom as a Foundation for Moral Acts People face different moral dilemmas and issues in your everyday lives. When you listen to the news, you hear about unending debates about topics like abortion, freedom of expression, and war. Then you start asking who is right and who is wrong. If you are experiencing this kind of dilemma you might be one of two things; you have the freedom to engage in a discussion about an issue, but like most people, you resort to a subjective and oftentimes biased understanding of an issue. There are four parts of Ethics, Descriptive Ethics, Normative Ethics, Meta Ethics and Applied Ethics. First up you have Descriptive Ethics it is the thing that individuals really accept to be correct or wrong and it thinks about various moral standards utilized in over a wide span of time. Next is Normative Ethics it is the thing that individuals should do, a prescriptive morals and it talks about how individuals can settle on what is ethically right you have three segments of Normative morals this are Virtue Ethics which is centers around one's character and kindness, second parts are Deontology it is obligation morals or all out objective and good absolutism and in conclusion is, Consequentialism it is centers around the outcomes of an activity. Meta Ethics it doubts the significance of goodness, morals and profound quality including how individuals can realize what is valid or bogus and ultimately is, Applied Ethics it is the utilization of moral hypotheses in various open and private issues like medication, business and so on. Thomas Beauchamp and James Childress had Four Principles in terms of Normative Ethics; these are Respect to Autonomy, Beneficence, Non- maleficence and Justice. First you have Respect to Autonomy it means the acknowledgement that every person has the right to make choices to hold views and to act based on one’s value and beliefs as long as the person is conscious and has proper understanding of the matter on hand. Second is Beneficence it is the promotion of doing as much goodness as possible refers to the acts of kindness, compassion and generosity. Third is Non-maleficence it is the avoidance of any unjustifiable and unnecessary harm and lastly is Justice which means the distribution of resources equally and fairly. The Moral Agent Culture is the shared and learned patterns of behaviors, interactions, symbolisms, and values of a group of people that manifest in your religion, food, clothing, language, marriage, social habits, music, arts and customs. It reflects the identity of a particular group of people. There are many cultures in the world and they can be different from each other. These differences in cultural patterns create a widely diverse belief and value systems across the world which makes it harder to develop an absolute moral guideline for anyone. A principle can be seen critical in the survival of the people in one culture while it can also be seen negatively and unacceptable by another culture. Hence, the rise of the concept of cultural relativism. Cultural Relativism is the disposition that sees a general public's way of life inside the setting of the general public's issues and openings. It expresses that there is nothing of the sort as general realities in light of the fact that various perspectives and esteeming. Coming up next are the case regarding Cultural relativism, first is various social orders have distinctive good codes, there is no target standard that can be utilized to pass judgment on one cultural code superior to another, the ethical code of our own general public has no extraordinary status, it is only one among many, there is no well- known fact in morals that is there is no ethical certainties that hold for all individuals consistently, the ethical code of a general public, figures out what is directly inside that society, that is if the method of a general public says that a specific activity is correct, at that point that activity is directly in any event inside that society, and ultimately is it is simple pomposity for you to attempt to pass judgment on the lead of different people groups. We ought to receive a disposition of resistance toward the acts of other cultures. For instance, The Callatian accepted that it was the privilege to eat their dead while the Greeks consider the thought shocking and wrong. Presently which good code is correct and which isn't right? Which is the ethical method of rewarding the dead? Would it be a good idea for us to acknowledge the reason this is only a matter of sentiment? There are Advantages and Dangers in Cultural Relativism, cultural relativism teaches everyone to be more open-minded and respectful of other cultures. It calls out of discrimination against race, nationality, and culture and opens more opportunities for everyone. However, the danger with this arises when we are called to a position to judge a practice that is repressive and sometimes even harmful towards a group of people. People are more reluctant to interfere in the customs of other people. For example, in Middle East women are regarded as second class to men. Laws governing them are stricter and they have less rights and privileges compared to men. Now, it is part of their culture to be overly repressive with women that there are even apps allowing husband and father to monitor their wives and daughter’s actions and where about. Cultural reformation like what happened during the time of the crusades when Western cultures destroyed native cultures under the name of religion and politics are considered wrong because it is wrong to see one culture as inferior to another, hence, promoting cultural preservation at the same time. Cultural relativism always uses the context of the culture as a premise. An action is considered right if its right under the context of the person’s culture even if it is wrong in another’s culture. Cultural relativism pushes people to look beyond their own cultures and be less xenocentric and ethnocentric as they can see the similarities and differences of the culture. As James Rachel (2004) said, this points out that it is a mistake to overestimate the amount of differences between cultures, not every moral rule can vary from society to society. However, it makes it harder to define exactly a culture because cultures can overlap with each other and have similarities. Although it is possible to find a unique practice but cultural relativism makes identification of cultures more fluid than before. In summary, adopting the attitude of cultural relativism teaches a person how to be tolerant and respectful of different cultures. It teaches a person to be more understanding and to always look for the context of the moral code or principle being held. However, cultural relativism is not immune to criticisms. It is difficult to use as an argument in ethics because it’s premises root from the matter of opinion of a culture. Thus, it is purely dependent on the cultural standards that the problem or issue belongs to. According to the article, The Filipino Moral Character has strengths and weaknesses just like any other culture. It also emphasized the need to preserve some aspects of the Filipino culture but at the same time highlights the parts that need improvement. The following are the Strengths of Filipino Moral Character pakikipag-kapwa tao, family orientation, joy and humor, flexibility, adaptability, and creativity, hard work and industry, faith and religiosity, ability to survive. The following are the weaknesses of the Filipino Moral Character extreme personalism, extreme family-centeredness, lack of discipline, passivity and lack of initiative, colonial mentality kanyakanya syndrome. In order to understand how you can develop virtue as a habit, you need to understand these three topics; Universal Values, Moral Character, and Moral Development. Universal Values you often hear about character building but do you really understand the meaning of it? How can you say that a trait is virtuous? And most importantly, how can we really make sure that as you develop your character you are also developing your moral compass? Character building often talks about universal values. Universal values are values that have the same worth or level of importance across cultures and ethical principles. In principle, these universal values are conducts that every rational person wants to follow. The following are the common universal values; Integrity, Peace, Freedom, Human Dignity, Social Progress, Equal rights, Responsibility, Compassion, Loyalty, Innovativeness, and Intuitiveness. Have you ever wondered why you have to apply these common universal values in our lives? Imagine a world without a concept of respect for human life. What kind of world do you have? How do you feel about it? Would you like to live in this kind of world? Now imagine a world where people respect and love each other. What can you observe in this world? Imagine being in a relationship with a partner who always lies to you, how do you feel about this kind of relationship? Would you prefer it if both of you are honest with each other? Do you think you can be honest all the time? The thought experiments showed us how an application of a particular value system can affect the sense of security of the people involved. A world without respect for human life can result in a chaotic environment where people are always afraid of their own lives or possessions. On the other hand, a relationship that is not based on honesty does not really differentiate it from a relationship with a stranger where we cannot fully trust the person. So why do you need to have universal values? In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle wrote that virtue is both intellectual and moral for it requires time and experience to be developed and can only come as a result of habit. The excellence of character is defining by the combination of qualities that make an individual the sort of ethically admirable person (Howiak. 2005). In the article “A Short List of Universal Values”, Richard Kinnier, Jerry Kernes and Therese Dautheribes (2000) said that the call for a list of universal values is becoming more urgent because of the future of human survival may depend on it. According to Kinnier, 2000, a standard of agreed-upon rules might serve to recover worldwide communication and cooperation. “Ringer contended that without some all-inclusive principles you are left with no real way to denounce savagery, physical torment, mutilation, spouse beating, kid misuse, subjection, murder or annihilation, on the off chance that they are a piece of ongoing practice and social customs of a gathering.” (Kinnier et al,2000). In a lecture by UN secretary- General Kofi-Annan (2003) in Germany he said why do you need to have universal values? Now you can conclude that universal values are important for the survival of human species because it pushes people to protect themselves by protecting and not inflicting harm to other people. Respect, care, and compassion for other people to create a more peaceful and cooperative environment. On the other hand, greed, gluttony, anger, and selfishness push people to create disagreement and conflict among people. Moral Character, look back at your childhood which parts and elements of your lives do you think to have the most impact on your current belief system and moral character? The relationship of a person’s individual acts and moral character is circular which means that one affects the other. Your individual acts become your habits which molds your moral character. Meanwhile, your moral character is manifested in your decisions, attitudes and acts. Lawrence Kohlberg developed the Six Stages of Moral Development that hopes to understand how moral reasoning changes as a person grows old and matures. The following are the Six Stages of Moral Development by Lawrence Kohlberg; Level 1 Pre-Conventional Morality age 9 years old and below, in this level the primary focus of an individual is the self, people don’t have a personal code of Morality yet, they follow the standards and rules that adults teach to them, the Moral codes are mostly dependent on the avoidance of punishment, under this level is the Stage 1 and Stage 2 of Moral Development. Stage 1 is Obedience and Punishment Orientation in this stage right and wrong is determined by punishment and authority, the physical and mental consequences of action indicate the goodness or badness of behavior, and Moral rightness is equivalent to obedience. Stage 2 is Individualism and Exchange start to learn about individuality and satisfaction of one’s desire, moral rightness is equivalent to the idea of giving and take, the principle of equality and resolution of conflicts. Level 2 Conventional Morality under adolescence to middle age, people start to internalize the moral standards of the groups they belong to and reasoning is usually based on the norms of their groups, under this level is the Stage 3 and Stage 4 of Moral Development. Stage 3 is Good Interpersonal Relationship the right and wrong is determined by the approval of others and conformity to norms, good behavior is determined by praise, peer pressure is also prominent at this stage and deviance and indifference are treated as sins and Moral rightness is equivalent to “conformity and acceptance”. Stage 4 Maintaining the Social Order a person becomes more aware of laws and societal norms and wants to be a good citizen. Level 3 Post-Conventional Morality under adults, and not everyone reaches this level, individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice, under this level is the Stage 5 and Stage 6 of Moral Development. Stage 5 Social Contract and Individual Rights you understand that even if norms and laws exist they might not be always morally right, you learn how to use logic, abstract thinking, and moral principles to determine what is right and wrong. Stage 6 the Universal Principles you develop your own ethical guidelines and the willingness to defend it even if it means going against the majority of the people, you believe that a person is not mean but an end and a very few numbers of people have reached this level. Assessing Learning_______________________________________________________________ Activity 1 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided before the number. 1. These are moral dilemmas that are experienced and resolved on the individual level. 2. It speaks of code or system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. 3. Type of dilemmas involved situations in which a difficult choice has to be made between two courses of action, either of which entails transgressing a moral principle. 4. The branch of philosophy that studies morality or the rightness or wrong of human conduct. 5. These tell us what is or is not allowed in a particular context or situation. 6. These are rules that are unrelated to moral or ethical considerations. 7. Only they can possess or practice values such as love, honor, social relationships, forgiveness, compassion, and altruism. 8. These refer to cases involving network or institutions and operative theoretical paradigms. 9. These refer to ethical cases encountered and resolved by social organizations. 10. This cannot be said to be moral for it has no freedom or choice but to work according to what is commanded based on its built-in program. 11. Ethics is considered as a normative study of human actions for it is concerned with norms of human conduct. 12. Rules generate a stable system that provides justice, in which even the richest and most powerful have limitations on what they can do. 13. Non-normal standards are not the only rules or principles in society, but they take precedence over other considerations, including aesthetic, prudential, and even legal ones. 14. Morality requires and allows choice, which means the right to choose even differently from our fellows. 15. Most philosophers hold that unlike animals, human beings possess some traits that make it possible for them to be moral. 16. Dealing with human actions and reasons for action, ethics is also concerned with character. 17. The word ‘ethics’ is derived from Latin ethos, which means ‘character’, or, in plural, ‘manners’. 18. Moral dilemmas arise even in professional work. 19. Copyright and patents help protect people’s intellectual property. 20. Basic examples of moral standards include rules of etiquette, fashion standards, rules in games, and various house rules. Activity 2 Name: Score: Course/Year/Section: _ Date: Directions: Answer the given question base on your existing knowledge about the lesson. 1. Pick four from the following topics and identify four arguments, two for in favor and two for opposing. In two paragraphs, write down your own opinion about the chosen topic. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. universal health care free education lowering of the age for juvenile law animal rights the Facebook dilemma _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Activity 3 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions:Answer the following questions concisely. 1. Differentiate the three levels of Moral Dilemma. Site an example. INDIVIDUAL DILEMMA _ ORGANIZATIONAL DILEMMA STRUCTURAL DILEMMA _ 2. Think of personal dilemma that you’ve encountered before and write down the details. _ 3. What is moral dilemma? Cite an example. _ Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 4 _ Score: Date: Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided before the number. 1. These are moral dilemmas that are experienced and resolved on the individual level. 2. It speaks of code or system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. 3. Type of dilemmas involved situations in which a difficult choice has to be made between two courses of action, either of which entails transgressing a moral principle. 4. The branch of philosophy that studies morality or the rightness or wrong of human conduct. 5. These tell us what is or is not allowed in a particular context or situation. 6. These are rules that are unrelated to moral or ethical considerations. 7. Only they can possess or practice values such as love, honor, social relationships, forgiveness, compassion, and altruism. 8. These refer to cases involving network or institutions and operative theoretical paradigms. 9. These refer to ethical cases encountered and resolved by social organizations. 10. This cannot be said to be moral for it has no freedom or choice but to work according to what is commanded based on its built-in program. Activity 5 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided before the number. 1. What people actually believes to be right or wrong. 2. It discusses how people can decide on what is morally correct. 3. It questions the meaning of goodness, ethics and morality including how people can know what is true or false. 4. It is the application of ethical theories in different public and private matters. 5. It focuses on one’s character and benevolence 6. It focuses on the consequences of an action. 7. It is the acknowledgement that every person has the right to make choices and to hold views. 8. It refers to the acts of kindness, compassion and generosity. 9. It is the avoidance of any unjustifiable and unnecessary harm. 10. It is the distribution of resources equally and fairly. 11. It is the capacity to see the interconnectedness of things and the logic behind the processes involved. 12. It is the principle of detaching oneself from any form of bias and prejudice in order to come up with an objective. 13. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions and standards of what is right and what is wrong. 14. It determines what is acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. 15. It is the absence of necessity, coercion or constraint in choice or action. Activity 6 Name: Course/Year/Section: Score: _ Date: Directions:Elaborate the Thomas Beauchamp and James Childress “The Four Principles”, site an example. THE FOUR PRINCIPLES DEFINITION EXAMPLE 1.Respect for Autonomy 2.Beneficence 3.Non-maleficence 4.Justice Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 7 _ Score: Date: Directions:Differentiate the Four Branches of Ethics and site an example. 1. Descriptive Ethics 2. Normative Ethics 3. Meta Ethics 4. Applied Ethics Activity 8 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided before the number. 1. It is shared and learned patterned of behaviors, interactions and values of a group of people. 2. It is the attitude that views a society’s culture within the context of the society’s problems and opportunities. 3. Filipino people regard others with dignity and respect. 4. Filipinos possess a genuine and deep love for family. 5. Filipinos have fun and cheerful approach to the ups and downs of life. 6. It is the tendency that every Filipino has to be superficial and even somewhat flighty. 7. It is the acknowledgement that every person has the right to make choices and to hold views. 8. Filipinos lacks of patriotism and active awareness. 9. This manifest interpretations to actions. in the tendency to give personal 10. Filipinos will take two or three jobs in order to feed their families. Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 9 _ Score: Date: Directions: State the Filipino Moral Character Strengths and Weaknesses. STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES Activity 10 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions: Answer the questions concisely. 1. Elaborate Cultural Relativism Advantages and Dangers by siting more examples. a. Cultural Relativism Advantages _ b. Cultural Relativism Dangers Activity 11 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions: Answer the following questions concisely. 1. Plot the stages of your life according to the six stages of moral development of Lawrence Kohlberg’. Include personal illustrations and identify where you are now in your moral development. 2. Summarize the Three (3) levels of Moral Development including the six (6) stages of Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Development. UNIT II: Determinants of Morality Overview This unit will explain morality or immorality of human actions. And also expound the definition of moral dilemmas and distinguishes the different responses between the reason and feelings. This unit also discusses the analysis of your feelings in moral personal practices. Learning Objectives At the end of the unit, I am able to: 1. Learn how and when the actions are good or bad; 2. Remember immediate responses to moral dilemmas; 3. Distinguish between the responses based on reason and those based on feelings; 4. Seize and analyze their feelings in personal moral experiences; and 5. Compare reasonable and emotional reactions. Setting Up Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: Directions:Read the text below and answer the following questions. “MANILA, Philippines – the free legal assistance group (Flag) said on Thursday, April 4, that initial drug war documents showed a lack of effort to investigate the killings committed under mantle of Oplan Tokhang. “Investigation leaves much to be desired. While all cases indicate that investigations are ongoing, it appears that not much effort has been places into identifying and arresting the assailants, based on the length of time devoted to investigating the case, “said FLAG’s Ted Te in a news conference on Thursday with Flag Chairman and opposition senatorial Candidate Chel Diokno.” (Lian Buan, 2019) 1. How well do you feel after reading the news clip? Do you feel upset, angry, sad or indifferent? _ Lesson Proper According to the Catholic Dictionary, there are factors in human conduct that determine whether it is good or bad. There are three such determinants of morality, namely the act itself, the intention, and the circumstances. These three answer the questions of the badness or the goodness of the human actions. By act itself is meant what the free will chooses to do--in thought, word, or deed-or chooses not to do. Be end or intention is meant the purpose for which the act is willed, which may be the act itself (as one of loving God) or some other purpose for which a person acts (as reading to learn). In either case, the end is the motive or the reason why an action is performed. By circumstances are meant all the elements that surround a human action and affect its morality without belonging to its essence. A convenient listing of these circumstances is to ask: who? where? how? how much? by what means? how often? Some circumstances so affect the morality of an action as to change its species, as stealing a consecrated object becomes sacrilege and lying under oath is perjury. Other circumstances change the degree of goodness or badness of an act. In bad acts they are called aggravating circumstances, as the amount of money a person steals. To be morally good, a human act must agree with the norm of morality on all three counts: in its nature or act, its intention, and its circumstances. Departure from any of these makes the action morally wrong. Feelings and moral decision-making Do you believe that it is completely wrong to follow our emotions or feelings in response to moral dilemmas? What are the hazards of letting our feelings cloud our decisions? What about the dangers of following merely logical reasoning without affecting our feelings? So, why do we have feelings? “Human creatures are the most selfconscious animals” which allow them to develop “basic emotional responses” and generate more rational methods to help them survive. This is the difference between humans and animals. (Simons, I., 2009) In accordance with the Philosophy Professor Jordi Valverdu, The Role of our Emotions is for survival and innate social responsibilities. In accordance with Dr. Simons and Professor Valverdu, the role of our emotions is primarily for the survival of the species. This helps us and be on the most level of the food chain for hundreds of years. Let’s look at some examples below. Back in the days when our ancestors live in the desert without the protective gear that we are experiencing right now, their primary tool for their survival in their bodies “fight or flight” mode. In this mode, their bodies prepare tense, their muscles tighten, their lips dry and their consciousness became alert. This response is triggered by “fear” which people feel when they sense potential threat or a hazard. Our ancestors benefited a lot from using their emotions and feelings in surviving from Sangers. For instance, our bodies automatically shift to a fight mode when we feel afraid which is then triggered by a sense of danger around us. Hence, feel is not always a bad thing for humans. Charles Darwin was one of the people to research into human feelings or emotional responses. According to him, aside from survival, we also use our feelings to communicate with one another. In the preceding example, fear is a helpful tool to keep us from getting hurt in the past. Now, how about our other emotions? According to Charles Darwin, there are three principles to consider in understanding the emotions as a response to an experience. These are the principle of functional habits, the principle of antagonistic-thesis, and the principle of involvement of the enthused nervous system. The Principle of Functional Habits states that emotional responses are useful expressive habits based on experience. They are functional. Examples of this are the lifting of eyebrows when stunned, the gnarling of teeth when furious, and sneer when enrage. While the Principle of Antagonistic-Thesis entails that the purpose of these emotional responses is for communication clarity. It is the opposite of serviceable habits. The gaping mouth shows wonder or lack of understanding and the shrugging of shoulders indicates passive expressions are examples of this principle. Lastly, the Principle of Involvement of the Enthused Nervous System which says that the nervous system needs to discharge excess energy. The amusement is a quasiconvulsive motion that explodes an overflow of nervous energy that was induced by either physical/psychological tension. Charles Darwin has an interesting understanding of humans which he explained through his 3 principles such as: Principle of Functional Habits, Principle of Antagonistic-Thesis, and Principle of Involvement of the Enthused Nervous System. We might agree nor do not agree with Darwin but his explanation is fascinating due to its focus on the biological state of the human bodies when expressing different emotions. Darwin’s 3 Principles – Difficulties So, can we rely solely on our emotions when making decisions? The answer is regrettably NO. By now, we have already comprehended the positive impact of feelings and emotional responses for our survival. Much today, having some emotions is good as they give us motivation and curiosity. However, excess of these feelings can cloud our minds from being able to decide properly, particularly if you are under extreme happiness, sadness, or fear. An example of this is that the rage’s irritability makes us feel discontented. These feelings also hinder us from hearing other’s opinions and thoughts. Anger can also lead to rush decisions. Excessive confidence can make us lazy in evaluating our opinions. Extreme grief can stop living our lives to the most complete and appreciating what we have in life. Unnecessary optimism can make us less cautious with the hazards associated with our decisions. Obsessions or irrational fears cause people to experience extreme fear about a situation, living creature, place, or an object that even without reason. Requirements of morality The reason is the capacity to see the interconnectedness of things and the logic behind the processes involved. With reason, one looks for the causes and effects of actions and provides supports for a hypothesis. Impartiality is the principle of detaching oneself from any form of bias and prejudice in order to come up with an objective criterion that is free from unfair and unequal treatment of one type of person to another. So, should we completely refrain from listening to our feelings? The answer is NO.We should learn how to balance our feelings and rational mind. Our feelings let us get in touch with our humanity. It helps us in empathizing with other people and thinking about how a certain action would most probably affect them. On the other hand, reason and impartiality make us see things clearer as it pushes us to be objective and detach ourselves from our selfish desires. Assessing Learning Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 12 _ Score: Date: Directions: Read the given articles by following the links (URL). You may download them directly by clicking the links. 1. When is Impartiality is Morally Appropriate by Brad Hooker. a. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289934847_Wh en_Is_Impartiality_Morally_Appropriate Impartiality: Its Nature and Application by Ellen Marie Maccarone. a. http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0006632/maccarone_e.pdf 2. After reading the articles, let us find out how well you comprehend the lesson. State the most important facts you derived from those materials and list down at least 10 Definition of Terms. Impartiality is Morally Appropriate by Brad Hooker Impartiality: Its Nature and Application by Ellen Marie Maccarone Activity 13 Name: _____________________________ Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ Directions:Answer the following questions. 1. Give any situation concerning Reasoning, elaborate your answer? 2. Give any situation concerning Impartiality, elaborate your answer? 3. The difference between Impartiality and Reasoning? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ UNIT III. VIRTUE ETHICS__________________________________________________________ Overview This unit provides you a vibrant understanding of virtue ethics and the highlights of the biography of the proponents. The criticism of virtue ethics is also provided in this unit as well as the ways on how to manifest these virtue ethics in your life. Learning Objectives: GENERAL EDUCATION - 8 ETHICS At the end of the unit, I am able to: 1. Articulate what virtue ethics is; 2. Critique virtue ethics; and 3. Make use of virtue ethics. Setting Up Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ _ Directions: Rate your level of happiness in each given situation from 1-10. The highest happiness rate is 10 and 1 is the lowest. Write your answer in the column before the given situation. You have bought a new IPhone 11 Pro Max. You have bought a new house and a lot. You are drinking alcohol with friends. You have bought a new car. You have just won a competition. You are having a party with your family. You have a new boyfriend/girlfriend. You are having a party with your friends. You have bought new clothes. You have graduated from college. Lesson Proper Virtue ethics Virtue ethics is a moral structure wherein hypotheses underline the purpose and significance of one's character and virtue so as to evaluate the integrity of their actions. It focuses on the improvement of an individual's general righteous character or greatness. (Kraut, R, 2018) According to Aristotle, a virtuous individual is the one who is routinely checking his conduct and correcting them accurately. For the Greeks, virtue is equal to greatness. 22 GENERAL EDUCATION - 8 ETHICS Aristotle or Artistoteles lived in Greece sometime in 384 and 322 BCE. He contemplated reasoning under Plato in the Academy and built The Lyceum, his own school. He is considered as perhaps the best philosopher in old Philosophy. In Aristotle's theory of ethics, he centered on discussing excellence and character or “what makes a human life good or worth living” working in his book and moral hypothesis which he called Nicomachaean Ethics which he named after his child Nicomachus. Telos is a Greek expression that signifies "last reason". It additionally implies reason, objective, end or genuine last capacity of an object. (Hurthouse, 1999) According to Aristotle everything that a man has a capacity or action, the great and the well is thought to live in the capacity. From the word telos come the principle of teleology which is the ethical theory that considers reason to be the "end" and one's obligation and good commitment depend on what is the acceptable or attractive result. Teleology is additionally known to be a consequentialist theory. Aristotle was not the person who created teleology but rather his form is the most acclaimed record of this ethical theory. For instance, Millen needs to purchase another cellphone regardless of whether her cellphone is as yet working. Do you think her choice to purchase another cellphone is right if we will utilize the standards of teleology? Telos: The function Argument Aristotle accepted that all things have purposes, objectives, or ends which must be accomplished to its benefit. He considered this contention the capacity argument. Aristotle likewise underlines the need to realize one's actual function to have the option to accomplish goodness or greatness. He called this intellectual virtue. Telos: The Golden Mean Aristotle states in Nicomachean Ethics that virtue is a mean. It is a condition of clarification and apprehension from pain and pleasure. An excellent character is the one that is continually and effectively cleaning up the soul from closing out or slaving from pain and pleasure. Photo taken from Frontlearners.com Here are the similar perspectives on men's constant propensities and their classes under the rule of golden mean. Deficiency Prudence Spineless Self-depression Virtue Temperance Good Temper Honesty Deficiency Self-indulgence Irascibility Boastfulness 23 Boorishness Surliness Cowardice Wittiness Friendliness Courage Stinginess/Miserlines s Sloth Humility Moroseness Generosity/Magnificenc e Ambition Modesty Good humor Buffoonery Obsequiousness Rashness/Recklessnes s Extravagance Greed Loquacity/Pride Absurdity How about we check this guide to comprehend the ramifications of following Aristotle's the golden mean. In the area of satisfying others, we consider agreeableness to be an ethical demonstration yet its lacking rendition, being quarrelsome, and its outrageous adaptation, ingratiation are both seen as grievous by individuals. It is hard to manage factious individuals while you'll never become more acquainted with the genuine individual behind charmed man. (Sachs, 2002) Virtue ethics St. Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas was born in Roccasecca, Italy between 1224 and 1226. At the point when he kicked the bucket, he was consecrated as the benefactor holy person of educators, hence as a rule being designated "The Universal Teacher." His two notable works of art are Summa Theologiae and Summa Contra Gentiles. The two works of Aquinas on his comprehension of the Latin philosophy. In spite of Aquinas in Christianity, he didn't prevent from attempting to reconcile religion and science. He immovably accepts that confidence and reason can live one next to the other and not restricted to one another. Hence, his laborers primarily spin in getting Christianity and the regular law under the focal points of reason and oppose obdurate getting faith. (Chenu, 2019) There four types of law that oversee the universe as indicated by Aquinas. These are Eternal Law, Divine Law, Human Law, and Natural Law. Eternal law is indistinguishable from the brain of God. It is everlasting however confused by the human brain. Divine law is the law that originated from the disclosure of God to people written in the Old and New Testaments. Human Law is the law that is formulated by a human explanation as indicated by geological, social, and historical conditions. Natural law is the law that administers everything in nature and the establishment of pragmatic thinking human law. In any case, in this exercise, we will just concentrate on natural law. Virtue Ethics: Natural Law Let’s focus our lesson on natural law. Aquinas' moral theory rotates in the possibility of the "Natural Law.” For him, the natural law isn't particular from divine fortune however in fact pieces of it since it causes us to see how God really made the universe and ordered it. According to him what is good is to be done and evil is to be avoided. All in all, what is the meaning of natural law? For Aquinas, natural law is our natural comprehension and tendency to do certain things normally, for example, safeguarding or ensuring one's life, teaching our kids, keeping our opportunity, working for the benefit of all of the community, looking for God, and avoiding obliviousness. In this way, we should apply these standards in a judicious way with a steady impression of our desire to prosper as people and that piece of nature is that we likewise have carnal impulses that we should screen. Along these lines, how might we become virtuous according to St. Thomas Aquinas? Human nature is normally disposed of being a rational, free, social, and physical being. We should consistently seek after what is beneficial for us. On the off chance that something will stop us from prospering as individuals, it isn't right to look for it. To realize what is acceptable and terrible for us, we should consistently think about our essential needs and comprehend the natural law. Natural law likewise has three moral principles which are essential to know to comprehend the fundamental principles of Aquinas’ virtue ethics. Aquinas contended that there are three general qualities that manage our ethical information where each and every individual who has accomplished primary education can comprehend.He said that these qualities are pertinent consistently at all times, places, and circumstances. They are principles that can be learned through the reflection of one's very own encounters by analyzing them with human explanation, aside from faith. Natural Law: Three Universal Values Here are the three universal moral principles as indicated by Aquinas. First is, all-inclusive standards are consistent with each individual who has arrived at the time of reason as a general rule. It's the guideline of personality and non-logical inconsistency. The model for the main good standard is you should consistently do great and keep away from evil. Second is, all-inclusive rules that with certain reflections can be reached from the main standards. Its model is, we ought to reimburse the beneficial things done to us. On account of our parents, we can't reimburse their penances really; consequently, we should regard and love them consistently. In conclusion, widespread rules that are not handily seen by individuals so a savvy educator must assistance clarify it. Furthermore, the best model for this is we ought to be beneficent to those out of luck. Presently we should move to another point given by Thomas Aquinas in his moral hypothesis. In this inquiry, he was asking how we can achieve happiness in which he addressed that we can accomplish joy once we have recognized and achieved our ultimate objective from different methods. He accepted that we generally set different ultimate objectives throughout everyday life except we additionally have an extreme end which is bliss, itself. A definitive ultimate objective is a finish all things considered and won't be utilized as a way to some further closures. For instance, secondary school students concentrate hard to get passing marks at school. Having passing marks is critical to get ready for school. Once in school, studies mean to secure as much information as possible to get passing marks and graduate on schedule. A decent scholastic foundation will at that point influence in getting a decent line of work. A great job implies steady and good pay. Riches carry a feeling of monetary opportunity to an individual to do exercises that will satisfy the person in question. In the example, we can see that there is part of objectives referenced yet every one of these objectives were as yet not the finish of the activity, rather, they were then used to help accomplish another objective until one arrived at the last and extreme ultimate objective which is to be happy. All in all, is it conceivable to have numerous goals? The appropriate response is no. For Aquinas, there is just extreme ultimate objective which is happiness in light of the fact that a definitive ultimate objective is something we look for the wellbeing of its own and is altogether fulfilling the entirety of one's wants. In his work, Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas characterized righteousness as a "propensity" that causes an individual to play out his capacity, activity, or development appropriately. He introduced numerous sorts of ethics in his book that characterize human goodness; notwithstanding, he recognized four explicit temperances that arranges us to carry on with ethically great lives. He called this the Cardinal Virtues. These are prudence, temperance, courage, and justice. The first virtue under Cardinal Virtues is prudence. Reasonability is the righteousness of scholarly fitness or capacity to do certain things mentally and sanely. For instance, Aria needs to go to the sleep gathering of her cousin yet she has a test the following day. She begins to figure out how she will have the option to go to the sleeping party but then breeze through her test the following day. She thought of cheating yet it isn't right. She likewise thought of reading for not many hours and heading off to the sleeping party with her books and notes. She picked the subsequent choice and arranged her timetable in like manner. The second virtue is temperance. Restraint is the temperance of refining our methods of making the most of our real wants. It guides us to follow a control like balance, accommodation, quietude, forbearance, and celibacy. For instance, swearing off drinking liquor, eating exorbitantly, engaging in sexual relations, and living extravagantly is temperate for Aquinas. Being modest, tame, and mercy are additionally viewed as ethical on the grounds that these show control of one's passionate responses. Courage is the virtue of limiting feelings of trepidation while figuring out how to bear preposterous hunger for wild activities. Fearlessness realizes when to battle and when to fly. In the event that you have fearlessness, you likewise have continuance, certainty, heavenliness, persistence, and diligence. For instance, facing a challenge to go after that position you are sitting tight for quite a long time is a type of mental fortitude yet skydiving without legitimate hardware for the adrenaline surge is a type of foolishness. The last cardinal excellence is, justice that different from the three, is centered on going people to productive members of society. Equity is the ethicalness that administers our connection with others and the state. This righteousness administers our relationship with others not at all like different excellences referenced. The reason for this prudence is to cause individuals to turn out to be productive members of society. The two kinds of equity are commutative and distributive. Commutative is justice between common individual residents. While distributive is equity as the aggregate activities of the individuals from the state. Kant and Rights Theorists: Goodwill and Categorical Imperative Immanuel Kant is a German Philosopher (1724-1804) whose way of thinking on the goodwill and categorical imperative is established in utilizing an individual's capacity to reason. We have four learning results to accomplish before the finish of the theme, Kant, and Rights Theorists. We will accomplish these learning results through talks and class exercises. We will use contextual analyses, book articles, and different references for this point. We will have a test and a case examination as an appraisal. Kant's way of thinking addresses the inquiries: what would i be able to know? The heavenly confidence which isolates what we can experience versus what we can't comprehend; we can just know about things we can understand; what would it be a good idea for me to do? Which intends to act sanely in agreement to an all-inclusive good law; what may I trust? That spirits are godlike, there is God and that world is planned as per standards of equity. Kant accepts that the feeling of profound quality of people doesn't really originate from an incomparable power of God. So as to decide directly from wrong, we need to utilize reason. As indicated by him, profound quality and religion ought to be isolated on the grounds that people have various religions, that we will have various answers and reasons for our ethical quality. Maxim A maxim serves as a premise or rule on how and why we act. It is like an unwritten guideline book which humans attribute to. For instance, on the off chance that we need cash, we buckle down. These are two sorts of saying. First is the abstract or the theoretical goal. This typically benefits an individual. Second is the target or the absolute objective. This depends on the reason. Duty and Goodwill How carry out proverbs identify with obligation and generosity? Duty is an objective maxim “irrespective of all objects desire.” This obligation of man is to follow the unmitigated goal (target adage). The inability to do so implies that one is silly, represents his/her own pleasure, and abuses reason. Kant likewise contends that the inspirations of people for their activities go past joy, and that we practice reason above impulse. According to Sjöstedt-H, (2007) the capacity of the reason isn't delight or bliss, however, to create a will that is acceptable in itself. Cooperative attitude is in this manner about after obligations without respect for joy or wants. It is "showed in representing the purpose of obligation" (Sjöstedt-H, 2007). For instance, you experience an old who is encountering trouble going across the road where you are in. Regardless of whether you are in a surge, you step in to assist (of obligation, and not for joy). Imperatives What are the goals? A basic is an order. Models are the signages like keep off the grass or don't hinder the driveway. There are two sorts of objectives: hypothetical and categorical. Hypothetical imperatives are restrictive orders dependent on your applicable want. Models; In case you have to float through the test, you have to inspect (If you would prefer not to pass, at that point the order isn't pertinent to you). In the event that you need to join the class, at that point join! (In case you're not enthused about joining, by then don't join). The categorical imperative is an all-inclusive moral guideline that is unqualified, objective, and soundly essential. For instance, the guidance, "While conforming, offer an approach to people with handicaps." Even in the event that you need to advance beyond the line to spare time, you may decide not to do as such. Let us talk about the clear cut basic in the following slides. Categorical Imperative Kant discussed The Categorical Imperative (CI) which acknowledges that there is a unique standard of moral quality. This is an instance of deontological moral speculation (deon is Greek for obligation), which says that how we judge our exercises as either right or wrong isn't dependent upon the outcomes, anyway on whether our exercises fulfill our commitment. CI chooses our commitment. In order to separate the even-minded clarification, Kant agrees that normal administrators (a man using insightfulness and reason) are required to insist to instrumental guidelines. Thus, the non-instrumental rule of CI is fundamental to a sound being which "must be viewed as self-sufficient, or free, in the feeling of being the creator of the law that ties it." To further understand CI, let us look at some of its formulations. Formula 1: The Universality principle. According to Kant, a man must act just as indicated by the adage which you can simultaneously will that it should turn into an all-inclusive law without logical inconsistency. Example: While at checkout in the grocery store, you noticed that the bagger accidentally placed items in your bag even if you have not purchased them. Is it morally okay for you to do this? Analysis: If you approve of the maxim (in the example, your maxim is taking something you have not paid for or simply stealing), then you are universalizing it, meaning everyone should always do the maxim (stealing) you approve of. Formula 2: The formula of Humanity: According to Kant, “Act so that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of the other, always as an end, and never as a mere means.” Example: Lina runs to Ana’s house. Lina’s husband arrives a few minutes later, looking for his wife. Ana lied and told him Lina wasn’t inside. Lina, however, decided to slip through the back door and unfortunately bumped through her husband on her way out. Upon the encounter, the man assaulted his wife. Analysis: Ana is considered responsible for Lina’s assault because her lie has caused it. If Ana told the truth, the responsibility of the assault would fall on the husband. Ana violated the moral law about lying, but she did it with the intent of protecting Lina. Morality and the Categorical Imperative How does morality relate to the Categorical Imperative? CI emphasizes basic respect for the humanity of others. According to Kant, “moral law is a truth of reason, and hence that all rational creatures are bound by the same moral law” (Jankowiak, n.d.). CI serves as the basis and justification of morality because morality governs us, and we cannot excuse ourselves from it. Thus, violating CI results in immoral actions. Other philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, and Aquinas also believe in the importance of having standards of rationality as a basis for morality. Hobbes point out, however, that “these standards were either instrumental principles of rationality for satisfying one’s desires.” Locke and Aquinas, on the other hand, argue that these standards are “external rational principles that are discoverable by reason” Johnson and Cureton, 2019. The Moral Worth of Persons Given the CI, what makes someone a good person? According to Kant, the moral worth is evaluated through people, and not actions (a person is morally worth vs lacks moral worth). Motivation – what caused you to do the action determines whether you are good or bad. You are morally worthy if your actions are motivated by morality. You lack moral worthiness if your actions are motivated by emotion or desire. Let us look at this example from Sjöstedt-H (2007), “Imagine that I win the lottery and I’m wondering what to do with the money. I search for what might be the most amusing to do with it: purchase a yacht, travel in top of the line far and wide, get that knee activity, and so forth. I conclude that what might be extremely fun is to give the cash to a good cause and to appreciate that exceptional inclination you get from satisfying individuals, so I part with all my lottery cash.” Based on Kant’s assumptions, the person in the example is not morally worthy because the motivation was selfish and was based on what was the “most fun.” The moral worth of the deed could have been achieved had it been done out of a sense of duty, regardless of the person found it “fun” or not. Kant and Rights Theorists: Different Kinds of Rights Understanding the relationship between legal rights and moral rights is key to comprehending rights theories. We have four learning outcomes to achieve by the end of the topic, Kant, and Right Theories. We will achieve these learning outcomes through lectures and class activities. We will be utilizing case studies, books, articles, and other references for this topic. We will be having a quiz and a case analysis as an assessment. What are Rights? In the first place, let us characterize rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2016) characterize rights as Rights are privileges (not) to play out specific activities, or not to be in sure states, or qualifications that other (not) play out specific activities or not be in sure states. Nickel (1992) characterized human rights as "fundamental good ensure that individuals in all nations and societies supposedly have basically on the grounds that they are individuals. Calling these ensures "rights" recommends that they join to people who can conjure them, that they are of high need, and that consistency with them is required as opposed to optional. Human rights are oftentimes held to be all-inclusive as in all individuals have and ought to appreciate them and to be autonomous as in they exist and are accessible as measures of defense and analysis whether they are perceived and executed by the lawful framework or authorities of the nation." (Nickel, 1992:561-2) Human rights permit each person to have a decent life. It guarantees that the positive and negative essentials to accomplish these are accessible and available. A few affirmations show and foundations that secure human rights are: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), European Convention on Human Rights (1954), International Covenant of Civil and Political Rights (1966), International Bill of Rights, and open specialists or the legislature that the individual is exposed to. Be that as it may, human rights don't give us an exhaustive record of profound quality. (Human rights don't forbid lying which is ethically offbase). "What human rights do principally plan to recognize is the reason for deciding the shape, substance, and extent of basic, open good standards." (Fagan, n.d.) The central idea of rights is normal to law and profound quality. In this manner, human rights are sure of good certifications. Which carries us to the accompanying inquiries: Are lawful rights moral? Are good rights lawful? Moral Rights What are moral rights? Moral rights are rights that are granted to any human simply because they are human. Everyone has unalienable access to moral rights. The existence and validity of a moral right do not depend on the law. Moral rights represent the natural law. Moral rights are grounded in moral reasons. Moral rights are not enforceable by law. Example: The Right to privacy. On the off chance that I reserve an option to protect, at that point you (and others) are committed not to attack my security. A situational example is when you paid the hospital bill for a colleague without her consent so that he may be released from the premises and so that he can come back to work. If your colleague does not pay you back, you cannot go to court since you voluntarily offered help. As mentioned, moral rights are not enforceable by law. Legal Rights What are the legal rights? Legal rights are granted to people under a legal system (authority, government). Legal rights are mandated by the laws of the country the individual is subjected to. Legal rights represent positive law. Legal rights derive from the laws of society. They can be found in legal codes. Legal rights are enforceable by law which recognizes and protects it. Example: Right to education. In the Philippines, children have the legal right to education. Situational example. Using our previous example, if your colleague specifically asked you for help through a loan so that he may settle his hospital bill, if he does not pay you back, then you can go to court. Rights Theories Let us discuss some rights theories that encompass moral and legal rights, such as Legal Positivism, the Interest Theory, Natural Law, the Human Rights Doctrine, and the Will Theory. First is legal positivism. Legal positivists argue that only rights that exist are legal rights that exist in the legal system. Jeremy Bentham, a legal philosopher believes that human rights do not exist before it was codified. Under legal positivism moral rights – they are moral claims that can only be espoused within the law. The Human Rights Doctrine. Relies on the philosophical claim that moral order exists and applies to everyone, everywhere, anytime, or the moral universalism. Moral beliefs and concepts are objective, valid, and universal. Human rights cannot be reduced to or exclusively identified with legal rights and vice versa. It is both moral and legal right. The existence of human rights. The Interest Theory by Bentham (1748-1832). If an individual has the right to something (A), then someone else (B) has the duty to provide to A. Violation happens if the duty bearer (B) fails to fulfill his/her duty to A. Also called the “benefit theory” which believes that the foundation of moral rights is everyone’s basic duty to respect the interest of others (life, liberty). Anyone can have (legal or moral) interest-based rights given that the interests of that person have “sufficient reasons” to hold someone else accountable for the fulfillment of these interests. The Will theory by Herbert L.A. Hart (1907-1992). Developed by Hart, a British legal scholar who supports Kant’s argument on that freedom is the most basic right. An individual’s (A’s) right to something means that the individual has control over the free will of another (B), in regard to the A’s right, otherwise they can do as they please. Violation happens if the other person (B) acts in the opposite of the individual’s will in regard to the objective of your own right. Also known as the “choice theory,” this believes that anyone can claim or waive their own rights. The last theory on our list is a natural law. Believes that humans have the right to the law simply because they do. Timeless and immutable, universal, and inalienable. The natural rights are: Right to life, Property, and Liberty. Given these violations of these rights means that you violate someone’s very existence or humanity. If we recognize the existence of natural law then no individual can violate another’s freedom, property, and endanger the other’s life. Law aims to be just and serve its individual subjects. It is a collection of the individual natural rights. The Law As indicated by Frederic Bastiat, "The law has gone farther than this; it has acted contrary to its own motivation. The law has been utilized to demolish its own target: It has been applied to obliterating the equity that it should keep up; to restricting and decimating rights which it’s genuine reason for existing was to regard. The law has put the aggregate power at the removal of the corrupt who wish without hazard, to misuse the individual, freedom, and property of others. It has changed over loot into a right, so as to secure loot. What's more, it has changed over legitimate safeguard into wrongdoing so as to rebuff legal resistance." What makes a decent law? A decent law is key for the presence of a free and well-working society. It secures the life, property, and freedom of each human. Law punishes murder (infringement of right to life). Law punishes robbery (infringement of right to property). Law punishes compulsion (disregards right to opportunity and freedom). Ensures the frail against the oppression of the solid and forestalls conceding benefits to uncommon gatherings to the detriment of others. Let us consider this statement by Frederic Bastiat, "When law and ethical quality negate one another, the resident has the brutal option of either losing his ethical sense or losing his regard for the law." What is a terrible law? Law can likewise be exploited by the individuals who need to live to the detriment of others, in this manner bringing treachery. In a perfect world, what is legitimate ought to be good. In any case, a few laws induce the jobs of casualty and recipient. For instance, enterprises are regularly controlled through licenses and allow. The individuals who are progressively steady get simpler access to these yet little league organizations may experience issues sticking to these. Law is power. It is an instrument of equity that holds together the general public. It can permit people to grow, however, it can likewise bring shamefulness. Let us currently answer the inquiries toward the beginning of this module. Are lawful rights moral? What is lawful might be adverse to the ethical privileges of others Are good rights legitimate? Moral rights are regularly classified as legitimate rights, however not constantly. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism believes in the principle that happiness is an intrinsic value that every human aspire for, therefore it drives our morality. We have three learning outcomes to achieve in this topic. We will have a lecture, class activity, and case study. We will be utilizing case studies, books, articles, and other references for this topic. We will be having an individual case analysis as an assessment. Basic Principles Basic Principles of Utilitarianism focuses more attention on the results or consequences rather than the intent and behavior (a form of consequentialism). Main Principle: Do what produces the best consequences. Utilitarianism believes that morality aims to make life better by increasing happiness and reducing suffering. Good consequences equal good results. Happiness is equal to pleasure or the absence of pain. Unhappiness is equal to pain or the absence of pleasure. Origin In 1789, Jeremy Bentham, a British Philosopher distributed "An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation." Bentham perceived the ethical significance of rights, for example, the opportunity of articulation, ladies' privileges, basic entitlements, separate, cancelation of bondage, the death penalty, and flogging, decriminalization of gay acts, and so forth. The principle was further developed in the 18th century by Bentham and John Stuart Mill to attempt a moral theory that would be good for everybody. The origin could be traced back to Epicurus who said that on the off chance that thou shrivel fulfill a man, include not unto his wealth, yet detract from his wants. Nature of the Theory Utilitarianism believes that happiness is a universally shared value and that every human’s goal is to be happy, and this thrives our morality. It believes that happiness is a balance of pressure over pain. In a way, it can be egalitarian because it accounts for each person’s happiness as equal to anyone else’s. Everyone has equal morality and no individual is more special. We will go through these three questions to further explain the nature of utilitarianism. What is good and what is bad? Whose happiness should be maximized? And which type of consequence should be considered? What is good and what is bad? Jonathan Bentham adapted hedonism into the theory of utilitarianism. Hedonism believes that happiness is the only thing that is good on its own and does not need to produce further value. On the other hand, the lack of it produces unhappiness which is also bad in itself. Whose happiness should be maximized? Supporters of utilitarianism believe that an action is morally permissible if it produces more happiness or pleasure and less suffering than any other alternative action. Individual. Utilitarianism measures morality based on happiness. It is often referred to as egoism which means pursuing something for one’s own good. Example: Suppose you are craving for both cake and ice cream, and you can only get one. Since you need to select only one, you should choose which among the two you crave the most, which will then bring you more happiness. Group The maximum value that a group can benefit from is determined by the total of the interests (benefits and losses) of all its members. Example: Suppose you are buying dessert for a gathering at work. Thirteen out of 20 prefer ice cream, while only 7 (including you) preferred cake. Because you are considering the sum of the interests in your group, you will buy ice cream since it will bring happiness to more people. Everyone affected. Utilitarianism operates on the idea that when considering the benefit from an action, one must look at it through an outsider’s perspective – without bias to own or favored benefit to others. Which type of consequence should be considered? First is the actual consequence. These are actual results produced by the action. This serves as a determining factor of what is right and what is wrong. A person can act morally right by considering the action that can maximize the expected utility (a combination of good and bad effects). Second is the foreseeable consequence. These are the perceived results that may be produced by the action. This serves as a reference for a decision-making procedure. A person can only consider the morally right action depending on what is currently available to him/her at the time of the action. Elements The elements of utilitarianism are the value theory and the theory of right action. Value theory means that the only thing that is intrinsically valuable is happiness or the happiness of suffering. And the theory of right action is the one that produces the most valuable or the most expected value. Frameworks The two frameworks of Utilitarianism are the Act Utilitarianism means choosing the action that produces the greatest good for the greatest number; Evaluates individual action; Pain is pain regardless of whose experiences it is. And Rule Utilitarianism connotes that we ought to act according to moral rules which would produce more utility compared to other moral rules; Evaluates the moral rules then evaluates individual actions if they followed the rule that would produce more utility; Consider cues that will maximize utility for the majority of the time. Critiques of the Theory One. There are situations where we happen to be in. If there are instances where we can make the situation better, we must, even if it means that we must make a little sacrifice. (If you sit and watch something bad happen and refuse to get involved, you are still guilty of the crime). Two. For the value theory, happiness should not be the only available thing in our life. Well-being should also be considered valuable. G.E. Moore also accounts for friendship, knowledge, and the experience of beauty as intrinsically valuable in one’s life, apart from happiness. Three. For the theory of right action, since it takes into consideration the act that will cause more happiness, the alternative is considered less valuable, what is less valuable is transitive. People have a right not to have their interest sacrificed for the greater good. Four. The prevention of suffering should be prioritized over the increase in happiness. Modern utilitarianists addressed this and labeled it as “negative” utilitarianism. Five. Utilitarianism focuses on the total amount of good (pleasure/happiness) produced not on how it is distributed across people. Six. The Diminishing Margin Utility of Wealth – the more resources we have, the less impact it gives. For example, if a poor man receives 1000 pesos, it will make him very happy. If a rich businessman, receives 1000 pesos it will have less impact on him. Impacts of Utilitarianism Impact on Law. The principles of utilitarianism became useful in terms of punishment for an individual which aims to separate him from society or reform him. This accounts for the greater good of most people if the criminal is put away. Impact on Politics. Utilitarianism is useful in asserting the best action for a society based on the utility of an individual and the authority of the government. It takes into consideration the importance of assessment of consequences which requires evidence. Utilitarianism advocates for a system where the interest of the larger society matches the government’s intent. It gives power to individuals to judge the best consequence for him/herself. Impact on Economics. In the theory of economic value, the cost of labor in production is paid more attention compared to the commodity; Welfare economics; In terms of policies, early utilitarians believe that the economy could prosper on its own. Modern utilitarians believe that government intervention is important to ensure further good (that no abuses are committed). Assessing Learning Activity 14 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ _ Directions. Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided before the number. 1. This refers to an excellence of moral or intellectual character. 2. The theory that is central to Plato’s philosophy. 3. This has been regarded as the Ethics of Aristotle since the beginning of the Christian Era. 4. According to Aquinas, these virtues are concerned directly with God and provide us with true knowledge and desire of God and of His will. 5. The philosopher who believes that all actions are directed towards ends and that happiness is the final end. 6. For Aristotle, this is a state of character manifested in choice and action, resting in the golden mean, resolved by the prescription that a wise person would determine. 7. Aristotle regards this as that kind of moral knowledge which guides us to what is appropriate in conjunction with moral value. 8. This is the mean between gluttony (excess) and extreme frugality (deficiency). 9. In this dialogue written by Plato, Socrates indicates that pleasure and pain fail to provide an objective standard for determining moral from immoral since they do not exist apart from one another, while good and evil do. _10. Aristotle considers this as the summun-bonum–the greatest good of all human life. Activity 15 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ _ Direction: Enumerate the following items given inside the box below. 1-3 Basic Moral Virtues (Aristotle) 4-5 Two kinds of virtues (Aristotle) Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 16 _ Score: Date: _ Direction: Answer or explain the following items below. 1. Explain the Greek word or belief “telos”. _ 2. Explain the quotation of Aristotle, “For all things that have a function or activity, the good and the well is thought to reside in the function”. __ 3. Explain The Golden Mean. Activity 17 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ _ Directions: Differentiate the Four Types of Laws of St. Thomas Aquinas and give examples. Eternal Law _ Divine Law _ Human Law Natural Law Activity 18 Name: Course/Year/Section: _ Score: Date: _ _ Directions: Watch the given video by following the links (URL). You may download them directly by clicking the links. Natural Law Theory: Crash Course Philosophy a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_UfYY7aWKo After watching the video, let us find out how well you comprehend the lesson. State the most important facts you derived from the materials. NATURAL LAW THEORY: CRASH COURSE PHILOSOPHY Activity 19 Name: _____________________________ ____________________ Score: Directions: Answer the following questions concisely. 1. How can we achieve happiness? _ 2. How can we become virtuous? _ 3. Based on Same-sex marriage topic, write at least 2 pages of comparative report of Aristotelian’s Nicomachean Ethics and St, Thomas Natural Law. Answer whether Aristotle and Aquinas allow same-sex marriage? Explain why will they promote or against the idea. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 20 _ Score: Date: _ Direction: Answer or explain the following items below. 1. What are the importance of Human Rights? Site an example. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the difference between Moral Rights and Legal Rights? Site an example. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Name: Course/Year/Section: Activity 21 Score: Date: _ _ Direction: Answer or explain the following items below. 1. Explain the Basic Principles of Utilitarianism. _ _ _ 2. Elaborate the Impact of Utilitarianism in Law, Politics, Economics. Site an examples. Law _ Politics Economics __ 3. Explain the nature of Utilitarianism?