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This unit gives you an idea about the Differences between Moral and
Non-Moral Standards, Moral Dilemmas, the four branches of ethics, the
moral agent together with the universal values. It will also help you to
analyze the Six Stages of Moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg.
Learning Objectives:_____________ _________________________________________________
At the end of the unit, I am able to:
1. Determine what the difference between Moral and Non-moral
2. Analyze what is moral dilemma and it’s three levels;
3. Evaluate the six stages of Moral Development;
4. Differentiate the four branches of Ethics; and
5. List down the strength and weaknesses of Filipino
Moral Character.
Setting Up:__________________________________________________________________________
A. Directions: Answer the given question base on your existing knowledge
about the lesson.
1. Recall a personal experience in dealing with problems and analyze how
they are rooted in Filipino qualities. In hindsight, recommend how you could
have done things differently.
B. Directions:Read/watch the given articles by following their links (URL).
You may download them directly by clicking the links. After
reading/watching the articles, let us find out how well do you comprehend
the lesson. State the most important facts you derived from those
materials.Retrieved from Frontlearners.
1. Life of Adolf Hitler: Evolution of Evil
a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dd-gdHis6i4
2. Life of Nelson Mandela
b. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_yA2ZkS-PA
Lesson Proper
Differences Between Moral and Non-Moral Standards
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with
the questions and standards of what is right and what is wrong. It discusses
the different systems of moral values and principles that determine what are
acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. It also involves ideals, moral
obligations and prohibitions that people have to observe, follow and respect.
Ethics came from the Latin word ethos which means character or moral
nature. When you say character or moral nature, the character or moral
nature of a person is greatly affected by his or her personal principles and
experiences by the belief and value system of his or her surroundings.
Non-Moral Standards refer to the rules that affect the choice of a
person but are not linked to moral or ethical considerations, similar with
ethics people use value judgment in dealing with these aspects.
Consequently, they can also affect the way a person develops her moral
principles and guidelines but they do not necessarily have moral
implications. These are the list of Non-Moral Standards, aesthetics, rules in
games, laws, personal experiences and principles, etiquette, recipe or
formula, religion and lastly traditions or norms,
Moral Standards refer to the rules or set of guidelines that affect the
choices of a person and his or her belief system and decision-making process
in problems and situations that beg the question of what is morally right and
wrong. The characteristics of Moral Standards are the following, concern
with the welfare of beings, reliance on reasoning and not on authority,
overriding or hegemonic, impartial, fair and just and lastly special emotions
and vocabulary.
Now let us see and discuss the Characteristics of Moral Standards,
number one is concern with the welfare of beings, in moral standards it
deals with matters that can seriously injure or benefit the welfare of beings
such as in war, child abuse, rape, fraud, murder, and theft while in Nonmoral standards it talks about what is wrong but their concerns do not
necessarily affect one’s life or well-being, number two is reliance on
reasoning and not on authority in Moral standards it is rely on reasoning and
not on authoritative individuals to support and justify their cause while in
Non-Moral perspective it is in the context of law and religion they do not
need to be based on a valid and sound reasoning, number three is
Overriding or Hegemonic the take
precedence over other standards and considerations like non-moral
standards and self-interest, number four is impartial, fair and just it simply
means that there is no exemption to the moral standards, if A is morally right
for a certain person P, then it is morally right for anybody relevantly similar
to P, and lastly number five is special emotions and vocabulary moral
standards are associated with special emotions such as guilt, remorse, and
shame and vocabulary such as right, good, wrong, evil, moral, amoral and
Moral Dilemmas
A moral dilemma is a situation that begs an agent to choose between
two alternatives with equal weight wherein both alternatives are either
good or both are evil, but the agent cannot do both or all actions. In this
situation, no matter what the agent chooses you will be left with a moral
failure but not choosing anything impose greater harm or loss for the agent.
For example, Brian is on a crew ship when a fire broke and the ship must be
abandoned. The lifeboats are carrying more people than they were designed
to carry. The lifeboat he’s in is sitting dangerously low in the water and can
potentially sink if added with more weight.
There are still other people swimming around them begging to be
saved. They are asking him to throw the rope so that they can go up the
lifeboat; however, the boat will sink if more people will come abroad. Now,
should Brian throw the rope to the people or keep the rope so that lifeboat
will not sink. In this dilemma here are some of the conflicts that plagued
Brian throughout the decision-making process, number one is if he will help
who are swimming their boat will sink and all of them die, number two is if
he did not throw the rope then those who are in the water will die and lastly
number three is if he can sacrifice himself and help one person but he is not
willing to sacrifice himself either.
The following are the basic concepts of Moral Dilemma; personal
advocates, society, culture religion, family and friends and lastly are
education and experiences. Now let us proceed to the three levels of moral
dilemma, first you have Individual Dilemma, second you have Organizational
Dilemma and third is Structural Dilemma.
The first level of Moral dilemma starts with the personal and
individual interaction of people with situations in their daily lives. In this
level, conflict arrives when a person is asked to choose between two
important values for him or her for example, choosing between one’s
duties to his or her family one’s love for another person. The second level
is Organizational Dilemma unlike individual dilemma this dilemma is
encountered by institutions, business, or organizations in their decisionmaking process, at this level the dilemmas that the organizations’
experiences usually affect more than one person and they can be part of the
internal group or part of an external stakeholder.
For example, Zee has been in a coma for 8 months she only lives
through support machines and she never showed any sign of improvement
and he never responded to any stimulus given to her. In four other hospitals,
there are four patients who are in need of healthy organs such as kidney,
heart, lungs and liver. They are in a critical stage and in need of transplants
immediately. Patient XTZ is a match for all the patients but removing his
organs will cause him death. However, without his organs, the four patients
will all die. Now, is it okay to kill someone to benefit more people? How do
you choose who to save and who to sacrifice? In the given example aside
the family members, doctors, hospital, sometimes even judges usually help
family members decide for the unconscious patients who cannot observe
their autonomy over’s one body and life. However, decision over this kind of
cases bring up more ethical questions like the following; When do you
consider someone to be dead or still alive? When do families and the
institution stop waiting for a comatose patient to wake up? Who has the
authority to decide over the life of someone who is in the comatose stage? If
the call of duty of the doctor is to save lives, will a recommendation from the
institution conflict with the principle? It is ethical to kill one person to
benefit the many? How do we choose who to save and who to sacrifice? The
last level of dilemmas deals with structural dilemmas that affect a network
of institutions and operative theoretical paradigms like universal care,
juvenile laws, and immigration. Unlike organizational dilemmas, this type of
dilemma can affect a community and even a society at large.
Hence, these are also the most complicated dilemmas that people
face. For example, the issue of undocumented immigration has been widely
discussed in different countries especially since President Donald Trump of
America, openly criticized it and created measures to stop it and even sent
back some immigration to their home countries. However, even if a lot of
American citizens have same sentiments as he does, a growing number of
oppositions claim that it is inhumane to send back immigration from their
homes especially those who moved to America out of circumstances like
extreme poverty, persecution and war, at the same time many immigrants
have families, wives, husbands, and children who will be left once they leave
the country. What do you think about this problem?
Freedom as a Foundation for Moral Acts
People face different moral dilemmas and issues in your everyday
lives. When you listen to the news, you hear about unending debates about
topics like abortion, freedom of expression, and war. Then you start asking
who is right and who is wrong. If you are experiencing this kind of dilemma
you might be one of two things; you have the freedom to engage in a
discussion about an issue, but like most people, you resort to a subjective
and oftentimes biased understanding of an issue.
There are four parts of Ethics, Descriptive Ethics, Normative Ethics,
Meta Ethics and Applied Ethics. First up you have Descriptive Ethics it is the
thing that individuals really accept to be correct or wrong and it thinks about
various moral standards utilized in over a wide span of time. Next is
Normative Ethics it is the thing that individuals should do, a prescriptive
morals and it talks about how individuals can settle on what is ethically right
you have three segments of Normative morals this are Virtue Ethics which is
centers around one's character and kindness, second parts are Deontology it
is obligation morals or all out objective and good absolutism and in
conclusion is, Consequentialism it is centers around the outcomes of an
activity. Meta Ethics it doubts the significance of goodness, morals and
profound quality including how individuals can realize what is valid or
bogus and ultimately is, Applied Ethics it is the utilization of moral
hypotheses in various open and private issues like medication, business and
so on.
Thomas Beauchamp and James Childress had Four Principles in
terms of Normative Ethics; these are Respect to Autonomy, Beneficence,
Non- maleficence and Justice. First you have Respect to Autonomy it means
the acknowledgement that every person has the right to make choices to
hold views and to act based on one’s value and beliefs as long as the
person is
conscious and has proper understanding of the matter on hand. Second is
Beneficence it is the promotion of doing as much goodness as possible refers
to the acts of kindness, compassion and generosity. Third is Non-maleficence
it is the avoidance of any unjustifiable and unnecessary harm and lastly is
Justice which means the distribution of resources equally and fairly.
The Moral Agent
Culture is the shared and learned patterns of behaviors, interactions,
symbolisms, and values of a group of people that manifest in your religion,
food, clothing, language, marriage, social habits, music, arts and customs. It
reflects the identity of a particular group of people. There are many cultures
in the world and they can be different from each other.
These differences in cultural patterns create a widely diverse belief
and value systems across the world which makes it harder to develop an
absolute moral guideline for anyone. A principle can be seen critical in the
survival of the people in one culture while it can also be seen negatively and
unacceptable by another culture. Hence, the rise of the concept of cultural
Cultural Relativism is the disposition that sees a general public's way
of life inside the setting of the general public's issues and openings. It
expresses that there is nothing of the sort as general realities in light of the
fact that various perspectives and esteeming. Coming up next are the case
regarding Cultural relativism, first is various social orders have distinctive
good codes, there is no target standard that can be utilized to pass judgment
on one cultural code superior to another, the ethical code of our own general
public has no extraordinary status, it is only one among many, there is no
well- known fact in morals that is there is no ethical certainties that hold for
all individuals consistently, the ethical code of a general public, figures out
what is directly inside that society, that is if the method of a general public
says that a specific activity is correct, at that point that activity is directly in
any event inside that society, and ultimately is it is simple pomposity for you
to attempt to pass judgment on the lead of different people groups. We ought
to receive a disposition of resistance toward the acts of other cultures. For
instance, The Callatian accepted that it was the privilege to eat their dead
while the Greeks consider the thought shocking and wrong. Presently which
good code is correct and which isn't right? Which is the ethical method of
rewarding the dead? Would it be a good idea for us to acknowledge the
reason this is only a matter of sentiment?
There are Advantages and Dangers in Cultural Relativism, cultural
relativism teaches everyone to be more open-minded and respectful of other
cultures. It calls out of discrimination against race, nationality, and culture
and opens more opportunities for everyone. However, the danger with this
arises when we are called to a position to judge a practice that is repressive
and sometimes even harmful towards a group of people. People are more
reluctant to interfere in the customs of other people. For example, in Middle
East women are regarded as second class to men. Laws governing them are
stricter and they have less rights and privileges compared to men. Now, it is
part of their culture to be overly repressive with women that there are even
apps allowing husband and father to monitor their wives and daughter’s
actions and where about.
Cultural reformation like what happened during the time of the
crusades when Western cultures destroyed native cultures under the name
religion and politics are considered wrong because it is wrong to see one
culture as inferior to another, hence, promoting cultural preservation at the
same time. Cultural relativism always uses the context of the culture as a
premise. An action is considered right if its right under the context of the
person’s culture even if it is wrong in another’s culture.
Cultural relativism pushes people to look beyond their own cultures
and be less xenocentric and ethnocentric as they can see the similarities and
differences of the culture. As James Rachel (2004) said, this points out that it
is a mistake to overestimate the amount of differences between cultures, not
every moral rule can vary from society to society. However, it makes it
harder to define exactly a culture because cultures can overlap with each
other and have similarities. Although it is possible to find a unique practice
but cultural relativism makes identification of cultures more fluid than
In summary, adopting the attitude of cultural relativism teaches a
person how to be tolerant and respectful of different cultures. It teaches a
person to be more understanding and to always look for the context of the
moral code or principle being held. However, cultural relativism is not
immune to criticisms. It is difficult to use as an argument in ethics because
it’s premises root from the matter of opinion of a culture. Thus, it is purely
dependent on the cultural standards that the problem or issue belongs to.
According to the article, The Filipino Moral Character has strengths
and weaknesses just like any other culture. It also emphasized the need to
preserve some aspects of the Filipino culture but at the same time highlights
the parts that need improvement. The following are the Strengths of Filipino
Moral Character pakikipag-kapwa tao, family orientation, joy and humor,
flexibility, adaptability, and creativity, hard work and industry, faith and
religiosity, ability to survive. The following are the weaknesses of the
Filipino Moral Character extreme personalism, extreme family-centeredness,
lack of discipline, passivity and lack of initiative, colonial mentality kanyakanya syndrome.
In order to understand how you can develop virtue as a habit, you
need to understand these three topics; Universal Values, Moral Character,
and Moral Development.
Universal Values you often hear about character building but do you
really understand the meaning of it? How can you say that a trait is virtuous?
And most importantly, how can we really make sure that as you develop
your character you are also developing your moral compass? Character
building often talks about universal values. Universal values are values that
have the same worth or level of importance across cultures and ethical
principles. In principle, these universal values are conducts that every
rational person wants to follow. The following are the common universal
values; Integrity, Peace, Freedom, Human Dignity, Social Progress, Equal
rights, Responsibility, Compassion, Loyalty, Innovativeness, and
Intuitiveness. Have you ever wondered why you have to apply these
common universal values in our lives? Imagine a world without a concept of
respect for human life. What kind of world do you have? How do you feel
about it? Would you like to live in this kind of world? Now imagine a world
where people respect and love each other. What can you observe in this
world? Imagine being in a relationship with a partner who always lies to you,
how do you feel about this kind of relationship? Would you prefer it if both
of you are honest with each other? Do you think you can be honest all the
The thought experiments showed us how an application of a
particular value system can affect the sense of security of the people
involved. A world without respect for human life can result in a chaotic
environment where people are always afraid of their own lives or
possessions. On the other hand, a relationship that is not based on honesty
does not really differentiate it from a relationship with a stranger where we
cannot fully trust the person. So why do you need to have universal values?
In Nicomachean Ethics, Aristotle wrote that virtue is both intellectual and
moral for it requires time and experience to be developed and can only come
as a result of habit. The excellence of character is defining by the
combination of qualities that make an individual the sort of ethically
admirable person (Howiak. 2005). In the article “A Short List of Universal
Values”, Richard Kinnier, Jerry Kernes and Therese Dautheribes (2000)
said that the call for a list of universal values is becoming more urgent
because of the future of human survival may depend on it.
According to Kinnier, 2000, a standard of agreed-upon rules might
serve to recover worldwide communication and cooperation. “Ringer
contended that without some all-inclusive principles you are left with no real
way to denounce savagery, physical torment, mutilation, spouse beating, kid
misuse, subjection, murder or annihilation, on the off chance that they are a
piece of ongoing practice and social customs of a gathering.” (Kinnier et
al,2000). In a lecture by UN secretary- General Kofi-Annan (2003) in
Germany he said why do you need to have universal values? Now you can
conclude that universal values are important for the survival of human
species because it pushes people to protect themselves by protecting and
not inflicting harm to other people. Respect, care, and compassion for other
people to create a more peaceful and cooperative environment. On the other
hand, greed, gluttony, anger, and selfishness push people to create
disagreement and conflict among people.
Moral Character, look back at your childhood which parts and
elements of your lives do you think to have the most impact on your current
belief system and moral character? The relationship of a person’s
individual acts and moral character is circular which means that one affects
the other. Your individual acts become your habits which molds your moral
character. Meanwhile, your moral character is manifested in your decisions,
attitudes and acts.
Lawrence Kohlberg developed the Six Stages of Moral Development
that hopes to understand how moral reasoning changes as a person grows
old and matures. The following are the Six Stages of Moral Development by
Lawrence Kohlberg;
Level 1 Pre-Conventional Morality age 9 years old and below, in this
level the primary focus of an individual is the self, people don’t have a
personal code of Morality yet, they follow the standards and rules that adults
teach to them, the Moral codes are mostly dependent on the avoidance of
punishment, under this level is the Stage 1 and Stage 2 of Moral
Development. Stage 1 is Obedience and Punishment Orientation in this stage
right and wrong is determined by punishment and authority, the physical
and mental consequences of action indicate the goodness or badness of
behavior, and Moral rightness is equivalent to obedience. Stage 2 is
Individualism and
Exchange start to learn about individuality and satisfaction of one’s
desire, moral rightness is equivalent to the idea of giving and take, the
principle of equality and resolution of conflicts.
Level 2 Conventional Morality under adolescence to middle age,
people start to internalize the moral standards of the groups they belong to
and reasoning is usually based on the norms of their groups, under this level
is the Stage 3 and Stage 4 of Moral Development. Stage 3 is Good
Interpersonal Relationship the right and wrong is determined by the
approval of others and conformity to norms, good behavior is determined by
praise, peer pressure is also prominent at this stage and deviance and
indifference are treated as sins and Moral rightness is equivalent to
“conformity and acceptance”. Stage 4 Maintaining the Social Order a person
becomes more aware of laws and societal norms and wants to be a good
Level 3 Post-Conventional Morality under adults, and not everyone
reaches this level, individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles and
moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice, under this level is
the Stage 5 and Stage 6 of Moral Development. Stage 5 Social Contract and
Individual Rights you understand that even if norms and laws exist they
might not be always morally right, you learn how to use logic, abstract
thinking, and moral principles to determine what is right and wrong. Stage 6
the Universal Principles you develop your own ethical guidelines and the
willingness to defend it even if it means going against the majority of the
people, you believe that a person is not mean but an end and a very few
numbers of people have reached this level.
Assessing Learning_______________________________________________________________
Activity 1
Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being
described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided
before the number.
1. These are moral dilemmas that are experienced and resolved
on the individual level.
2. It speaks of code or system of behavior in regards to standards
of right or wrong behavior.
3. Type of dilemmas involved situations in which a difficult
choice has to be made between two courses of action, either of which entails
transgressing a moral principle.
4. The branch of philosophy that studies morality or the rightness
or wrong of human conduct.
5. These tell us what is or is not allowed in a particular context or
6. These are rules that are unrelated to moral or ethical
7. Only they can possess or practice values such as love, honor,
social relationships, forgiveness, compassion, and altruism.
8. These refer to cases involving network or institutions and
operative theoretical paradigms.
9. These refer to ethical cases encountered and resolved by social
10. This cannot be said to be moral for it has no freedom or
choice but to work according to what is commanded based on its built-in
11. Ethics is considered as a normative study of human actions
for it is concerned with norms of human conduct.
12. Rules generate a stable system that provides justice, in which
even the richest and most powerful have limitations on what they can do.
13. Non-normal standards are not the only rules or principles in
society, but they take precedence over other considerations, including
aesthetic, prudential, and even legal ones.
14. Morality requires and allows choice, which means the right to
choose even differently from our fellows.
15. Most philosophers hold that unlike animals, human beings
possess some traits that make it possible for them to be moral.
16. Dealing with human actions and reasons for action, ethics is
also concerned with character.
17. The word ‘ethics’ is derived from Latin ethos, which means
‘character’, or, in plural, ‘manners’.
18. Moral dilemmas arise even in professional work.
19. Copyright and patents help protect people’s intellectual
20. Basic examples of moral standards include rules of etiquette,
fashion standards, rules in games, and various house rules.
Activity 2
Directions: Answer the given question base on your existing
knowledge about the lesson.
1. Pick four from the following topics and identify four arguments, two for in
favor and two for opposing. In two paragraphs, write down your own
opinion about the chosen topic.
universal health care
free education
lowering of the age for juvenile law
animal rights
the Facebook dilemma
Activity 3
Directions:Answer the following questions concisely.
1. Differentiate the three levels of Moral Dilemma. Site an example.
2. Think of personal dilemma that you’ve encountered before and write down
the details.
3. What is moral dilemma? Cite an example.
Activity 4
Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being
described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided
before the number.
1. These are moral dilemmas that are experienced and resolved
on the individual level.
2. It speaks of code or system of behavior in regards to standards
of right or wrong behavior.
3. Type of dilemmas involved situations in which a difficult
choice has to be made between two courses of action, either of which entails
transgressing a moral principle.
4. The branch of philosophy that studies morality or the rightness
or wrong of human conduct.
5. These tell us what is or is not allowed in a particular context or
6. These are rules that are unrelated to moral or ethical
7. Only they can possess or practice values such as love, honor,
social relationships, forgiveness, compassion, and altruism.
8. These refer to cases involving network or institutions and
operative theoretical paradigms.
9. These refer to ethical cases encountered and resolved by social
10. This cannot be said to be moral for it has no freedom or
choice but to work according to what is commanded based on its built-in
Activity 5
Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being
described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided
before the number.
1. What people actually believes to be right or wrong.
2. It discusses how people can decide on what is morally
3. It questions the meaning of goodness, ethics and morality
including how people can know what is true or false.
4. It is the application of ethical theories in different public and
private matters.
5. It focuses on one’s character and benevolence
6. It focuses on the consequences of an action.
7. It is the acknowledgement that every person has the right to
make choices and to hold views.
8. It refers to the acts of kindness, compassion and generosity.
9. It is the avoidance of any unjustifiable and unnecessary harm.
10. It is the distribution of resources equally and fairly.
11. It is the capacity to see the interconnectedness of things
and the logic behind the processes involved.
12. It is the principle of detaching oneself from any form of
bias and prejudice in order to come up with an objective.
13. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with questions and
standards of what is right and what is wrong.
14. It determines what is acceptable and unacceptable
15. It is the absence of necessity, coercion or constraint in
choice or action.
Activity 6
Directions:Elaborate the Thomas Beauchamp and James Childress “The
Four Principles”, site an example.
1.Respect for Autonomy
Activity 7
Directions:Differentiate the Four Branches of Ethics and site an example.
1. Descriptive Ethics
2. Normative Ethics
3. Meta Ethics
4. Applied Ethics
Activity 8
Directions:Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being
described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided
before the number.
1. It is shared and learned patterned of behaviors, interactions
and values of a group of people.
2. It is the attitude that views a society’s culture within the
context of the society’s problems and opportunities.
3. Filipino people regard others with dignity and respect.
4. Filipinos possess a genuine and deep love for family.
5. Filipinos have fun and cheerful approach to the ups and
downs of life.
6. It is the tendency that every Filipino has to be superficial
and even somewhat flighty.
7. It is the acknowledgement that every person has the right to
make choices and to hold views.
8. Filipinos lacks of patriotism and active awareness.
9. This manifest
interpretations to actions.
in the
to give
10. Filipinos will take two or three jobs in order to feed their
Activity 9
Directions: State the Filipino Moral Character Strengths and Weaknesses.
Activity 10
Directions: Answer the questions concisely.
1. Elaborate Cultural Relativism Advantages and Dangers by siting more
a. Cultural Relativism Advantages
b. Cultural Relativism Dangers
Activity 11
Directions: Answer the following questions concisely.
1. Plot the stages of your life according to the six stages of moral
development of Lawrence Kohlberg’. Include personal illustrations
and identify where you are now in your moral development.
2. Summarize the Three (3) levels of Moral Development including the
six (6) stages of Lawrence Kohlberg’s Moral Development.
UNIT II: Determinants of Morality
This unit will explain morality or immorality of human actions. And
also expound the definition of moral dilemmas and distinguishes the
different responses between the reason and feelings. This unit also discusses
the analysis of your feelings in moral personal practices.
Learning Objectives
At the end of the unit, I am able to:
1. Learn how and when the actions are good or bad;
2. Remember immediate responses to moral dilemmas;
3. Distinguish between the responses based on reason and those
based on feelings;
4. Seize and analyze their feelings in personal moral experiences;
5. Compare reasonable and emotional reactions.
Setting Up
Directions:Read the text below and answer the following questions.
“MANILA, Philippines – the free legal assistance group
(Flag) said on Thursday, April 4, that initial drug war documents
showed a lack of effort to investigate the killings committed under
mantle of Oplan Tokhang. “Investigation leaves much to be desired.
While all cases indicate that investigations are ongoing, it appears
that not much effort has been places into identifying and arresting the
assailants, based on the length of time devoted to investigating the
case, “said FLAG’s Ted Te in a news conference on Thursday with
Flag Chairman and opposition senatorial Candidate Chel Diokno.”
(Lian Buan, 2019)
1. How well do you feel after reading the news clip? Do you feel upset, angry,
sad or indifferent?
Lesson Proper
According to the Catholic Dictionary, there are factors in human conduct
that determine whether it is good or bad. There are three such determinants
of morality, namely the act itself, the intention, and the circumstances. These
three answer the questions of the badness or the goodness of the human
By act itself is meant what the free will chooses to do--in thought, word, or
deed-or chooses not to do. Be end or intention is meant the purpose for
which the act is willed, which may be the act itself (as one of loving God) or
some other purpose for which a person acts (as reading to learn). In either
case, the end is the motive or the reason why an action is performed. By
circumstances are meant all the elements that surround a human action and
affect its morality without belonging to its essence. A convenient listing of
these circumstances is to ask: who? where? how? how much? by what
means? how often?
Some circumstances so affect the morality of an action as to change its
species, as stealing a consecrated object becomes sacrilege and lying under
oath is perjury. Other circumstances change the degree of goodness or
badness of an act. In bad acts they are called aggravating circumstances, as
the amount of money a person steals.
To be morally good, a human act must agree with the norm of morality on all
three counts: in its nature or act, its intention, and its circumstances.
Departure from any of these makes the action morally wrong.
Feelings and moral decision-making
Do you believe that it is completely wrong to follow our emotions or
feelings in response to moral dilemmas? What are the hazards of letting our
feelings cloud our decisions? What about the dangers of following merely
logical reasoning without affecting our feelings?
So, why do we have feelings? “Human creatures are the most selfconscious animals” which allow them to develop “basic emotional
responses” and generate more rational methods to help them survive. This
is the difference between humans and animals. (Simons, I., 2009) In
accordance with the Philosophy Professor Jordi Valverdu, The Role of our
Emotions is for survival and innate social responsibilities. In accordance
with Dr. Simons and Professor Valverdu, the role of our emotions is
primarily for the survival of the species. This helps us and be on the most
level of the food chain for hundreds of years. Let’s look at some examples
Back in the days when our ancestors live in the desert without the
protective gear that we are experiencing right now, their primary tool for
their survival in their bodies “fight or flight” mode. In this mode, their
bodies prepare tense, their muscles tighten, their lips dry and their
consciousness became alert. This response is triggered by “fear” which
people feel when they sense potential threat or a hazard. Our ancestors
benefited a lot from using their emotions and feelings in surviving from
Sangers. For instance, our bodies automatically shift to a fight mode when
we feel afraid which is then triggered by a sense of danger around us. Hence,
feel is not always a bad thing for humans.
Charles Darwin was one of the people to research into human feelings or
emotional responses. According to him, aside from survival, we also use our
feelings to communicate with one another. In the preceding example, fear is
a helpful tool to keep us from getting hurt in the past. Now, how about our
other emotions?
According to Charles Darwin, there are three principles to consider
in understanding the emotions as a response to an experience. These are the
principle of functional habits, the principle of antagonistic-thesis, and the
principle of involvement of the enthused nervous system. The Principle of
Functional Habits states that emotional responses are useful expressive
habits based on experience. They are functional. Examples of this are the
lifting of eyebrows when stunned, the gnarling of teeth when furious, and
sneer when enrage. While the Principle of Antagonistic-Thesis entails that
the purpose of these emotional responses is for communication clarity. It is
the opposite of serviceable habits. The gaping mouth shows wonder or lack
of understanding and the shrugging of shoulders indicates passive
expressions are examples of this principle. Lastly, the Principle of
Involvement of the Enthused Nervous System which says that the nervous
system needs to discharge excess energy. The amusement is a quasiconvulsive motion that
explodes an overflow of nervous energy that was induced by either
physical/psychological tension.
Charles Darwin has an interesting understanding of humans which he
explained through his 3 principles such as: Principle of Functional Habits,
Principle of Antagonistic-Thesis, and Principle of Involvement of the
Enthused Nervous System. We might agree nor do not agree with Darwin
but his explanation is fascinating due to its focus on the biological state of
the human bodies when expressing different emotions.
Darwin’s 3 Principles – Difficulties
So, can we rely solely on our emotions when making decisions? The
answer is regrettably NO. By now, we have already comprehended the
positive impact of feelings and emotional responses for our survival. Much
today, having some emotions is good as they give us motivation and
curiosity. However, excess of these feelings can cloud our minds from being
able to decide properly, particularly if you are under extreme happiness,
sadness, or fear. An example of this is that the rage’s irritability makes us
feel discontented. These feelings also hinder us from hearing other’s
opinions and thoughts. Anger can also lead to rush decisions. Excessive
confidence can make us lazy in evaluating our opinions. Extreme grief can
stop living our lives to the most complete and appreciating what we have in
life. Unnecessary optimism can make us less cautious with the hazards
associated with our decisions. Obsessions or irrational fears cause people to
experience extreme fear about a situation, living creature, place, or an object
that even without reason.
Requirements of morality
The reason is the capacity to see the interconnectedness of things
and the logic behind the processes involved. With reason, one looks for the
causes and effects of actions and provides supports for a hypothesis.
Impartiality is the principle of detaching oneself from any form of
bias and prejudice in order to come up with an objective criterion that is free
from unfair and unequal treatment of one type of person to another.
So, should we completely refrain from listening to our feelings? The
answer is NO.We should learn how to balance our feelings and rational mind.
Our feelings let us get in touch with our humanity. It helps us in empathizing
with other people and thinking about how a certain action would most
probably affect them. On the other hand, reason and impartiality make us
see things clearer as it pushes us to be objective and detach ourselves from
our selfish desires.
Assessing Learning
Activity 12
Directions: Read the given articles by following the links (URL). You may
download them directly by clicking the links.
When is Impartiality is Morally Appropriate by Brad Hooker.
a. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/289934847_Wh
Impartiality: Its Nature and Application by Ellen Marie Maccarone.
a. http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0006632/maccarone_e.pdf
After reading the articles, let us find out how well you comprehend the
lesson. State the most important facts you derived from those materials and
list down at least 10 Definition of Terms.
Impartiality is Morally Appropriate by Brad Hooker
Impartiality: Its Nature and Application by Ellen Marie Maccarone
Activity 13
Name: _____________________________
Directions:Answer the following questions.
Give any situation concerning Reasoning, elaborate your answer?
Give any situation concerning Impartiality, elaborate your answer?
The difference between Impartiality and Reasoning?
UNIT III. VIRTUE ETHICS__________________________________________________________
This unit provides you a vibrant understanding of virtue ethics and
the highlights of the biography of the proponents. The criticism of virtue
ethics is also provided in this unit as well as the ways on how to manifest
these virtue ethics in your life.
Learning Objectives:
At the end of the unit, I am able to:
1. Articulate what virtue ethics is;
2. Critique virtue ethics; and
3. Make use of virtue ethics.
Setting Up
Directions: Rate your level of happiness in each given situation from 1-10.
The highest happiness rate is 10 and 1 is the lowest. Write your answer in
the column before the given situation.
You have bought a new IPhone 11 Pro Max.
You have bought a new house and a lot.
You are drinking alcohol with friends.
You have bought a new car.
You have just won a competition.
You are having a party with your family.
You have a new boyfriend/girlfriend.
You are having a party with your friends.
You have bought new clothes.
You have graduated from college.
Lesson Proper
Virtue ethics
Virtue ethics is a moral structure wherein hypotheses underline the
purpose and significance of one's character and virtue so as to evaluate the
integrity of their actions. It focuses on the improvement of an individual's
general righteous character or greatness. (Kraut, R, 2018) According to
Aristotle, a virtuous individual is the one who is routinely checking his
conduct and correcting them accurately. For the Greeks, virtue is equal to
Aristotle or Artistoteles lived in Greece sometime in 384 and 322
BCE. He contemplated reasoning under Plato in the Academy and built The
Lyceum, his own school. He is considered as perhaps the best philosopher in
old Philosophy.
In Aristotle's theory of ethics, he centered on discussing excellence
and character or “what makes a human life good or worth living” working
in his book and moral hypothesis which he called Nicomachaean Ethics
which he named after his child Nicomachus. Telos is a Greek expression that
signifies "last reason". It additionally implies reason, objective, end or
genuine last capacity of an object. (Hurthouse, 1999)
According to Aristotle everything that a man has a capacity or
action, the great and the well is thought to live in the capacity.
From the word telos come the principle of teleology which is the
ethical theory that considers reason to be the "end" and one's obligation and
good commitment depend on what is the acceptable or attractive result.
Teleology is additionally known to be a consequentialist theory. Aristotle
was not the person who created teleology but rather his form is the most
acclaimed record of this ethical theory.
For instance, Millen needs to purchase another cellphone regardless
of whether her cellphone is as yet working. Do you think her choice to
purchase another cellphone is right if we will utilize the standards of
Telos: The function Argument
Aristotle accepted that all things have purposes, objectives, or ends
which must be accomplished to its benefit. He considered this contention the
capacity argument. Aristotle likewise underlines the need to realize one's
actual function to have the option to accomplish goodness or greatness. He
called this intellectual virtue.
Telos: The Golden Mean
Aristotle states in Nicomachean Ethics that virtue is a mean. It is a
condition of clarification and apprehension from pain and pleasure. An
excellent character is the one that is continually and effectively cleaning up
the soul from closing out or slaving from pain and pleasure.
Photo taken from Frontlearners.com
Here are the similar perspectives on men's constant propensities
and their classes under the rule of golden mean.
Good Temper
Good humor
How about we check this guide to comprehend the ramifications of
following Aristotle's the golden mean. In the area of satisfying others, we
consider agreeableness to be an ethical demonstration yet its lacking
rendition, being quarrelsome, and its outrageous adaptation, ingratiation are
both seen as grievous by individuals. It is hard to manage factious
individuals while you'll never become more acquainted with the genuine
individual behind charmed man. (Sachs, 2002)
Virtue ethics St. Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas was born in Roccasecca, Italy between 1224 and
1226. At the point when he kicked the bucket, he was consecrated as the
benefactor holy person of educators, hence as a rule being designated "The
Universal Teacher." His two notable works of art are Summa Theologiae and
Summa Contra Gentiles. The two works of Aquinas on his comprehension of
the Latin philosophy.
In spite of Aquinas in Christianity, he didn't prevent from attempting
to reconcile religion and science. He immovably accepts that confidence and
reason can live one next to the other and not restricted to one another.
Hence, his laborers primarily spin in getting Christianity and the regular law
under the focal points of reason and oppose obdurate getting faith. (Chenu,
There four types of law that oversee the universe as indicated by
Aquinas. These are Eternal Law, Divine Law, Human Law, and Natural Law.
Eternal law is indistinguishable from the brain of God. It is everlasting
however confused by the human brain. Divine law is the law that originated
from the disclosure of God to people written in the Old and New Testaments.
Human Law is the law that is formulated by a human explanation as
indicated by geological, social, and historical conditions. Natural law is the
law that administers everything in nature and the establishment of
pragmatic thinking human law. In any case, in this exercise, we will just
concentrate on natural law.
Virtue Ethics: Natural Law
Let’s focus our lesson on natural law. Aquinas' moral theory
rotates in the possibility of the "Natural Law.” For him, the natural law
isn't particular from divine fortune however in fact pieces of it since it
causes us to see how God really made the universe and ordered it. According
to him what is good is to be done and evil is to be avoided.
All in all, what is the meaning of natural law? For Aquinas, natural
law is our natural comprehension and tendency to do certain things
normally, for example, safeguarding or ensuring one's life, teaching our kids,
keeping our opportunity, working for the benefit of all of the community,
looking for God, and avoiding obliviousness. In this way, we should apply
these standards in a judicious way with a steady impression of our desire to
prosper as people and that piece of nature is that we likewise have carnal
impulses that we should screen.
Along these lines, how might we become virtuous according to St.
Thomas Aquinas? Human nature is normally disposed of being a rational,
free, social, and physical being. We should consistently seek after what is
beneficial for us. On the off chance that something will stop us from
prospering as individuals, it isn't right to look for it. To realize what is
acceptable and terrible for us, we should consistently think about our
essential needs and comprehend the natural law.
Natural law likewise has three moral principles which are essential
to know to comprehend the fundamental principles of Aquinas’ virtue
ethics. Aquinas contended that there are three general qualities that manage
our ethical information where each and every individual who has
accomplished primary education can comprehend.He said that these
qualities are pertinent consistently at all times, places, and circumstances.
They are principles that can be learned through the reflection of one's very
own encounters by analyzing them with human explanation, aside from
Natural Law: Three Universal Values
Here are the three universal moral principles as indicated by
Aquinas. First is, all-inclusive standards are consistent with each individual
who has arrived at the time of reason as a general rule. It's the guideline of
personality and non-logical inconsistency. The model for the main good
standard is you should consistently do great and keep away from evil.
Second is, all-inclusive rules that with certain reflections can be reached
from the main standards. Its model is, we ought to reimburse the beneficial
things done to us. On account of our parents, we can't reimburse their
penances really; consequently, we should regard and love them consistently.
In conclusion, widespread rules that are not handily seen by individuals so a
savvy educator must assistance clarify it. Furthermore, the best model for
this is we ought to be beneficent to those out of luck.
Presently we should move to another point given by Thomas
Aquinas in his moral hypothesis. In this inquiry, he was asking how we can
achieve happiness in which he addressed that we can accomplish joy once
we have recognized and achieved our ultimate objective from different
methods. He accepted that we generally set different ultimate objectives
throughout everyday life except we additionally have an extreme end which
is bliss, itself.
A definitive ultimate objective is a finish all things considered and
won't be utilized as a way to some further closures. For instance, secondary
school students concentrate hard to get passing marks at school. Having
passing marks is critical to get ready for school. Once in school, studies mean
to secure as much information as possible to get passing marks and graduate
on schedule. A decent scholastic foundation will at that point influence in
getting a decent line of work. A great job implies steady and good pay. Riches
carry a feeling of monetary opportunity to an individual to do exercises that
will satisfy the person in question.
In the example, we can see that there is part of objectives referenced
yet every one of these objectives were as yet not the finish of the activity,
rather, they were then used to help accomplish another objective until one
arrived at the last and extreme ultimate objective which is to be happy.
All in all, is it conceivable to have numerous goals? The appropriate
response is no. For Aquinas, there is just extreme ultimate objective which is
happiness in light of the fact that a definitive ultimate objective is something
we look for the wellbeing of its own and is altogether fulfilling the entirety of
one's wants.
In his work, Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas characterized
righteousness as a "propensity" that causes an individual to play out his
capacity, activity, or development appropriately. He introduced numerous
sorts of ethics in his book that characterize human goodness;
notwithstanding, he recognized four explicit temperances that arranges us
to carry on with ethically great lives. He called this the Cardinal Virtues.
These are prudence, temperance, courage, and justice.
The first virtue under Cardinal Virtues is prudence. Reasonability is
the righteousness of scholarly fitness or capacity to do certain things
mentally and sanely. For instance, Aria needs to go to the sleep gathering of
her cousin yet she has a test the following day. She begins to figure out how
she will have the option to go to the sleeping party but then breeze through
her test the following day. She thought of cheating yet it isn't right. She
likewise thought of reading for not many hours and heading off to the
sleeping party with her books and notes. She picked the subsequent choice
and arranged her timetable in like manner.
The second virtue is temperance. Restraint is the temperance of
refining our methods of making the most of our real wants. It guides us to
follow a control like balance, accommodation, quietude, forbearance, and
celibacy. For instance, swearing off drinking liquor, eating exorbitantly,
engaging in sexual relations, and living extravagantly is temperate for
Aquinas. Being modest, tame, and mercy are additionally viewed as ethical
on the grounds that these show control of one's passionate responses.
Courage is the virtue of limiting feelings of trepidation while figuring
out how to bear preposterous hunger for wild activities. Fearlessness
realizes when to battle and when to fly. In the event that you have
fearlessness, you likewise have continuance, certainty, heavenliness,
persistence, and diligence. For instance, facing a challenge to go after that
position you are sitting tight for quite a long time is a type of mental
fortitude yet skydiving without legitimate hardware for the adrenaline surge
is a type of foolishness.
The last cardinal excellence is, justice that different from the three, is
centered on going people to productive members of society. Equity is the
ethicalness that administers our connection with others and the state. This
righteousness administers our relationship with others not at all like
different excellences referenced. The reason for this prudence is to cause
individuals to turn out to be productive members of society. The two kinds
of equity are commutative and distributive. Commutative is justice between
individual residents. While distributive is equity as the aggregate activities of
the individuals from the state.
Kant and Rights Theorists: Goodwill and Categorical Imperative
Immanuel Kant is a German Philosopher (1724-1804) whose way of
thinking on the goodwill and categorical imperative is established in
utilizing an individual's capacity to reason. We have four learning results to
accomplish before the finish of the theme, Kant, and Rights Theorists. We
will accomplish these learning results through talks and class exercises. We
will use contextual analyses, book articles, and different references for this
point. We will have a test and a case examination as an appraisal.
Kant's way of thinking addresses the inquiries: what would i be able
to know? The heavenly confidence which isolates what we can experience
versus what we can't comprehend; we can just know about things we can
understand; what would it be a good idea for me to do? Which intends to act
sanely in agreement to an all-inclusive good law; what may I trust? That
spirits are godlike, there is God and that world is planned as per standards of
Kant accepts that the feeling of profound quality of people doesn't
really originate from an incomparable power of God. So as to decide directly
from wrong, we need to utilize reason. As indicated by him, profound quality
and religion ought to be isolated on the grounds that people have various
religions, that we will have various answers and reasons for our ethical
A maxim serves as a premise or rule on how and why we act. It is like
an unwritten guideline book which humans attribute to. For instance, on the
off chance that we need cash, we buckle down.
These are two sorts of saying. First is the abstract or the theoretical
goal. This typically benefits an individual. Second is the target or the
absolute objective. This depends on the reason.
Duty and Goodwill
How carry out proverbs identify with obligation and generosity?
Duty is an objective maxim “irrespective of all objects desire.” This
obligation of man is to follow the unmitigated goal (target adage). The
inability to do so implies that one is silly, represents his/her own pleasure,
and abuses reason.
Kant likewise contends that the inspirations of people for their
activities go past joy, and that we practice reason above impulse. According
to Sjöstedt-H, (2007) the capacity of the reason isn't delight or bliss,
however, to create a will that is acceptable in itself.
Cooperative attitude is in this manner about after obligations
without respect for joy or wants. It is "showed in representing the purpose
of obligation" (Sjöstedt-H, 2007). For instance, you experience an old who is
encountering trouble going across the road where you are in. Regardless of
whether you are in a surge, you step in to assist (of obligation, and not for
What are the goals? A basic is an order. Models are the signages like
keep off the grass or don't hinder the driveway. There are two sorts of
objectives: hypothetical and categorical.
Hypothetical imperatives are restrictive orders dependent on your
applicable want. Models; In case you have to float through the test, you have
to inspect (If you would prefer not to pass, at that point the order isn't
pertinent to you). In the event that you need to join the class, at that point
join! (In case you're not enthused about joining, by then don't join).
The categorical imperative is an all-inclusive moral guideline that is
unqualified, objective, and soundly essential. For instance, the guidance,
"While conforming, offer an approach to people with handicaps." Even in the
event that you need to advance beyond the line to spare time, you may
decide not to do as such. Let us talk about the clear cut basic in the following
Categorical Imperative
Kant discussed The Categorical Imperative (CI) which acknowledges
that there is a unique standard of moral quality. This is an instance of
deontological moral speculation (deon is Greek for obligation), which says
that how we judge our exercises as either right or wrong isn't dependent
upon the outcomes, anyway on whether our exercises fulfill our
commitment. CI chooses our commitment.
In order to separate the even-minded clarification, Kant agrees that
normal administrators (a man using insightfulness and reason) are required
to insist to instrumental guidelines. Thus, the non-instrumental rule of CI is
fundamental to a sound being which "must be viewed as self-sufficient, or
free, in the feeling of being the creator of the law that ties it."
To further understand CI, let us look at some of its formulations.
Formula 1: The Universality principle. According to Kant, a man must act just
as indicated by the adage which you can simultaneously will that it should
turn into an all-inclusive law without logical inconsistency.
Example: While at checkout in the grocery store, you noticed that the
bagger accidentally placed items in your bag even if you have not purchased
them. Is it morally okay for you to do this?
Analysis: If you approve of the maxim (in the example, your maxim is
taking something you have not paid for or simply stealing), then you are
universalizing it, meaning everyone should always do the maxim (stealing)
you approve of.
Formula 2: The formula of Humanity: According to Kant, “Act so that you
treat humanity, whether in your own person or in that of the other, always
as an end, and never as a mere means.”
Example: Lina runs to Ana’s house. Lina’s husband arrives a few
minutes later, looking for his wife. Ana lied and told him Lina wasn’t
inside. Lina, however, decided to slip through the back door and
unfortunately bumped through her husband on her way out. Upon the
encounter, the man assaulted his wife.
Analysis: Ana is considered responsible for Lina’s assault because
her lie has caused it. If Ana told the truth, the responsibility of the assault
would fall on the husband. Ana violated the moral law about lying, but she
did it with the intent of protecting Lina.
Morality and the Categorical Imperative
How does morality relate to the Categorical Imperative? CI
emphasizes basic respect for the humanity of others. According to Kant,
“moral law is a truth of reason, and hence that all rational creatures are
bound by the same moral law” (Jankowiak, n.d.). CI serves as the basis
and justification of morality because morality governs us, and we cannot
excuse ourselves from it. Thus, violating CI results in immoral actions.
Other philosophers such as Hobbes, Locke, and Aquinas also believe
in the importance of having standards of rationality as a basis for morality.
Hobbes point out, however, that “these standards were either
instrumental principles of rationality for satisfying one’s desires.” Locke
and Aquinas, on the other hand, argue that these standards are “external
rational principles that are discoverable by reason” Johnson and Cureton,
The Moral Worth of Persons
Given the CI, what makes someone a good person? According to
Kant, the moral worth is evaluated through people, and not actions (a person
is morally worth vs lacks moral worth).
Motivation – what caused you to do the action determines whether
you are good or bad. You are morally worthy if your actions are motivated
by morality. You lack moral worthiness if your actions are motivated by
emotion or desire.
Let us look at this example from Sjöstedt-H (2007), “Imagine that I
win the lottery and I’m wondering what to do with the money. I search for
what might be the most amusing to do with it: purchase a yacht, travel in top
of the line far and wide, get that knee activity, and so forth. I conclude that
what might be extremely fun is to give the cash to a good cause and to
appreciate that exceptional inclination you get from satisfying individuals, so
I part with all my lottery cash.”
Based on Kant’s assumptions, the person in the example is not
morally worthy because the motivation was selfish and was based on what
was the “most fun.” The moral worth of the deed could have been achieved
had it been done out of a sense of duty, regardless of the person found it
“fun” or not.
Kant and Rights Theorists: Different Kinds of Rights
Understanding the relationship between legal rights and moral
rights is key to comprehending rights theories. We have four learning
outcomes to achieve by the end of the topic, Kant, and Right Theories. We
will achieve these learning outcomes through lectures and class activities.
We will be utilizing case studies, books, articles, and other references for
this topic. We will be having a quiz and a case analysis as an assessment.
What are Rights?
In the first place, let us characterize rights. The Stanford
Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2016) characterize rights as Rights are
privileges (not) to play out specific activities, or not to be in sure states, or
qualifications that other (not) play out specific activities or not be in sure
Nickel (1992) characterized human rights as "fundamental good
ensure that individuals in all nations and societies supposedly have basically
on the grounds that they are individuals. Calling these ensures "rights"
recommends that they join to people who can conjure them, that they are of
high need, and that consistency with them is required as opposed to
optional. Human rights are oftentimes held to be all-inclusive as in all
individuals have and ought to appreciate them and to be autonomous as in
they exist and are accessible as measures of defense and analysis whether
they are perceived and executed by the lawful framework or authorities of
the nation." (Nickel, 1992:561-2)
Human rights permit each person to have a decent life. It guarantees
that the positive and negative essentials to accomplish these are accessible
and available. A few affirmations show and foundations that secure human
rights are: Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), European
Convention on Human Rights (1954), International Covenant of Civil and
Political Rights (1966), International Bill of Rights, and open specialists or
the legislature that the individual is exposed to.
Be that as it may, human rights don't give us an exhaustive record of
profound quality. (Human rights don't forbid lying which is ethically offbase). "What human rights do principally plan to recognize is the reason for
deciding the shape, substance, and extent of basic, open good standards."
(Fagan, n.d.)
The central idea of rights is normal to law and profound quality. In
this manner, human rights are sure of good certifications. Which carries us
to the accompanying inquiries: Are lawful rights moral? Are good rights
Moral Rights
What are moral rights? Moral rights are rights that are granted to
any human simply because they are human. Everyone has unalienable access
to moral rights. The existence and validity of a moral right do not depend on
the law. Moral rights represent the natural law. Moral rights are grounded in
moral reasons. Moral rights are not enforceable by law.
Example: The Right to privacy. On the off chance that I reserve an
option to protect, at that point you (and others) are committed not to attack
my security. A situational example is when you paid the hospital bill for a
colleague without her consent so that he may be released from the premises
and so that he can come back to work. If your colleague does not pay you
back, you cannot go to court since you voluntarily offered help. As
mentioned, moral rights are not enforceable by law.
Legal Rights
What are the legal rights? Legal rights are granted to people under a
legal system (authority, government). Legal rights are mandated by the laws
of the country the individual is subjected to. Legal rights represent positive
law. Legal rights derive from the laws of society. They can be found in legal
codes. Legal rights are enforceable by law which recognizes and protects it.
Example: Right to education. In the Philippines, children have the
legal right to education. Situational example. Using our previous example, if
your colleague specifically asked you for help through a loan so that he may
settle his hospital bill, if he does not pay you back, then you can go to court.
Rights Theories
Let us discuss some rights theories that encompass moral and legal
rights, such as Legal Positivism, the Interest Theory, Natural Law, the Human
Rights Doctrine, and the Will Theory.
First is legal positivism. Legal positivists argue that only rights that
exist are legal rights that exist in the legal system. Jeremy Bentham, a legal
philosopher believes that human rights do not exist before it was codified.
Under legal positivism moral rights – they are moral claims that can only be
espoused within the law.
The Human Rights Doctrine. Relies on the philosophical claim that
moral order exists and applies to everyone, everywhere, anytime, or the
moral universalism. Moral beliefs and concepts are objective, valid, and
universal. Human rights cannot be reduced to or exclusively identified with
legal rights and vice versa. It is both moral and legal right. The existence of
human rights.
The Interest Theory by Bentham (1748-1832). If an individual has
the right to something (A), then someone else (B) has the duty to provide to
A. Violation happens if the duty bearer (B) fails to fulfill his/her duty to A.
Also called the “benefit theory” which believes that the foundation of
moral rights is everyone’s basic duty to respect the interest of others (life,
liberty). Anyone can have (legal or moral) interest-based rights given that
the interests of that person have “sufficient reasons” to hold someone else
accountable for the fulfillment of these interests.
The Will theory by Herbert L.A. Hart (1907-1992). Developed by
Hart, a British legal scholar who supports Kant’s argument on that freedom
is the most basic right. An individual’s (A’s) right to something means that
the individual has control over the free will of another (B), in regard to the
A’s right, otherwise they can do as they please. Violation happens if the other
person (B) acts in the opposite of the individual’s will in regard to the
objective of your own right. Also known as the “choice theory,” this
believes that anyone can claim or waive their own rights.
The last theory on our list is a natural law. Believes that humans
have the right to the law simply because they do. Timeless and immutable,
universal, and inalienable. The natural rights are: Right to life, Property, and
Liberty. Given these violations of these rights means that you violate
someone’s very existence or humanity. If we recognize the existence of
natural law then no individual can violate another’s freedom, property,
and endanger the other’s life. Law aims to be just and serve its individual
subjects. It is a collection of the individual natural rights.
The Law
As indicated by Frederic Bastiat, "The law has gone farther than this;
it has acted contrary to its own motivation. The law has been utilized to
demolish its own target: It has been applied to obliterating the equity that it
should keep up; to restricting and decimating rights which it’s genuine
reason for existing was to regard. The law has put the aggregate power at the
removal of the corrupt who wish without hazard, to misuse the individual,
freedom, and property of others. It has changed over loot into a right, so as
to secure loot. What's more, it has changed over legitimate safeguard into
wrongdoing so as to rebuff legal resistance."
What makes a decent law? A decent law is key for the presence of a
free and well-working society. It secures the life, property, and freedom of
each human. Law punishes murder (infringement of right to life). Law
punishes robbery (infringement of right to property). Law punishes
compulsion (disregards right to opportunity and freedom). Ensures the frail
against the oppression of the solid and forestalls conceding benefits to
uncommon gatherings to the detriment of others.
Let us consider this statement by Frederic Bastiat, "When law and
ethical quality negate one another, the resident has the brutal option of
either losing his ethical sense or losing his regard for the law."
What is a terrible law? Law can likewise be exploited by the
individuals who need to live to the detriment of others, in this manner
bringing treachery. In a perfect world, what is legitimate ought to be good. In
any case, a few laws induce the jobs of casualty and recipient. For instance,
enterprises are regularly controlled through licenses and allow. The
individuals who are progressively steady get simpler access to these yet
little league organizations may experience issues sticking to these.
Law is power. It is an instrument of equity that holds together the
general public. It can permit people to grow, however, it can likewise bring
Let us currently answer the inquiries toward the beginning of this
module. Are lawful rights moral? What is lawful might be adverse to the
ethical privileges of others Are good rights legitimate? Moral rights are
regularly classified as legitimate rights, however not constantly.
Utilitarianism believes in the principle that happiness is an intrinsic
value that every human aspire for, therefore it drives our morality. We have
three learning outcomes to achieve in this topic. We will have a lecture, class
activity, and case study. We will be utilizing case studies, books, articles, and
other references for this topic. We will be having an individual case analysis
as an assessment.
Basic Principles
Basic Principles of Utilitarianism focuses more attention on the
results or consequences rather than the intent and behavior (a form of
consequentialism). Main Principle: Do what produces the best consequences.
Utilitarianism believes that morality aims to make life better by increasing
happiness and reducing suffering. Good consequences equal good results.
Happiness is equal to pleasure or the absence of pain. Unhappiness is equal
to pain or the absence of pleasure.
In 1789, Jeremy Bentham, a British Philosopher distributed "An
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation." Bentham perceived
the ethical significance of rights, for example, the opportunity of articulation,
ladies' privileges, basic entitlements, separate, cancelation of bondage, the
death penalty, and flogging, decriminalization of gay acts, and so forth.
The principle was further developed in the 18th century by Bentham
and John Stuart Mill to attempt a moral theory that would be good for
everybody. The origin could be traced back to Epicurus who said that on the
off chance that thou shrivel fulfill a man, include not unto his wealth, yet
detract from his wants.
Nature of the Theory
Utilitarianism believes that happiness is a universally shared value
and that every human’s goal is to be happy, and this thrives our morality.
It believes that happiness is a balance of pressure over pain. In a way, it can
be egalitarian because it accounts for each person’s happiness as equal to
anyone else’s. Everyone has equal morality and no individual is more
We will go through these three questions to further explain the
nature of utilitarianism. What is good and what is bad? Whose happiness
should be maximized? And which type of consequence should be
What is good and what is bad? Jonathan Bentham adapted hedonism
into the theory of utilitarianism. Hedonism believes that happiness is the
only thing that is good on its own and does not need to produce further
value. On the other hand, the lack of it produces unhappiness which is also
bad in itself.
Whose happiness should be maximized? Supporters of utilitarianism
believe that an action is morally permissible if it produces more happiness
or pleasure and less suffering than any other alternative action.
Individual. Utilitarianism measures morality based on happiness. It
is often referred to as egoism which means pursuing something for one’s
own good. Example: Suppose you are craving for both cake and ice cream,
and you
can only get one. Since you need to select only one, you should choose which
among the two you crave the most, which will then bring you more
The maximum value that a group can benefit from is determined by
the total of the interests (benefits and losses) of all its members. Example:
Suppose you are buying dessert for a gathering at work. Thirteen out of 20
prefer ice cream, while only 7 (including you) preferred cake. Because you
are considering the sum of the interests in your group, you will buy ice
cream since it will bring happiness to more people.
Everyone affected. Utilitarianism operates on the idea that when
considering the benefit from an action, one must look at it through an
outsider’s perspective – without bias to own or favored benefit to others.
Which type of consequence should be considered? First is the actual
consequence. These are actual results produced by the action. This serves as
a determining factor of what is right and what is wrong. A person can act
morally right by considering the action that can maximize the expected
utility (a combination of good and bad effects).
Second is the foreseeable consequence. These are the perceived
results that may be produced by the action. This serves as a reference for a
decision-making procedure. A person can only consider the morally right
action depending on what is currently available to him/her at the time of the
The elements of utilitarianism are the value theory and the theory of
right action. Value theory means that the only thing that is intrinsically
valuable is happiness or the happiness of suffering. And the theory of right
action is the one that produces the most valuable or the most expected value.
The two frameworks of Utilitarianism are the Act Utilitarianism
means choosing the action that produces the greatest good for the greatest
number; Evaluates individual action; Pain is pain regardless of whose
experiences it is. And Rule Utilitarianism connotes that we ought to act
according to moral rules which would produce more utility compared to
other moral rules; Evaluates the moral rules then evaluates individual
actions if they followed the rule that would produce more utility; Consider
cues that will maximize utility for the majority of the time.
Critiques of the Theory
One. There are situations where we happen to be in. If there are
instances where we can make the situation better, we must, even if it means
that we must make a little sacrifice. (If you sit and watch something bad
happen and refuse to get involved, you are still guilty of the crime).
Two. For the value theory, happiness should not be the only available
thing in our life. Well-being should also be considered valuable. G.E. Moore
also accounts for friendship, knowledge, and the experience of beauty as
intrinsically valuable in one’s life, apart from happiness.
Three. For the theory of right action, since it takes into consideration
the act that will cause more happiness, the alternative is considered less
valuable, what is less valuable is transitive. People have a right not to have
their interest sacrificed for the greater good.
Four. The prevention of suffering should be prioritized over the
increase in happiness. Modern utilitarianists addressed this and labeled it as
“negative” utilitarianism.
Five. Utilitarianism focuses on the total amount of good
(pleasure/happiness) produced not on how it is distributed across people.
Six. The Diminishing Margin Utility of Wealth – the more resources
we have, the less impact it gives. For example, if a poor man receives 1000
pesos, it will make him very happy. If a rich businessman, receives 1000
pesos it will have less impact on him.
Impacts of Utilitarianism
Impact on Law. The principles of utilitarianism became useful in
terms of punishment for an individual which aims to separate him from
society or reform him. This accounts for the greater good of most people if
the criminal is put away.
Impact on Politics. Utilitarianism is useful in asserting the best action
for a society based on the utility of an individual and the authority of the
government. It takes into consideration the importance of assessment of
consequences which requires evidence. Utilitarianism advocates for a
system where the interest of the larger society matches the government’s
intent. It gives power to individuals to judge the best consequence for
Impact on Economics. In the theory of economic value, the cost of
labor in production is paid more attention compared to the commodity;
Welfare economics; In terms of policies, early utilitarians believe that the
economy could prosper on its own. Modern utilitarians believe that
government intervention is important to ensure further good (that no
abuses are committed).
Assessing Learning
Activity 14
Directions. Read the following statements carefully. Identify what is being
described in the statement and write your answers on the space provided
before the number.
1. This refers to an excellence of moral or intellectual character.
2. The theory that is central to Plato’s philosophy.
3. This has been regarded as the Ethics of Aristotle since the
beginning of the Christian Era.
4. According to Aquinas, these virtues are concerned directly
with God and provide us with true knowledge and desire of
God and of His will.
5. The philosopher who believes that all actions are directed
towards ends and that happiness is the final end.
6. For Aristotle, this is a state of character manifested in choice
and action, resting in the golden mean, resolved by the
prescription that a wise person would determine.
7. Aristotle regards this as that kind of moral knowledge which
guides us to what is appropriate in conjunction with moral
8. This is the mean between gluttony (excess) and extreme
frugality (deficiency).
9. In this dialogue written by Plato, Socrates indicates that
pleasure and pain fail to provide an objective standard for
determining moral from immoral since they do not exist apart
from one another, while good and evil do.
_10. Aristotle considers this as the summun-bonum–the greatest
good of all human life.
Activity 15
Direction: Enumerate the following items given inside the box below.
1-3 Basic Moral Virtues (Aristotle)
4-5 Two kinds of virtues (Aristotle)
Activity 16
Direction: Answer or explain the following items below.
1. Explain the Greek word or belief “telos”.
2. Explain the quotation of Aristotle, “For all things that have a function or
activity, the good and the well is thought to reside in the function”.
3. Explain The Golden Mean.
Activity 17
Directions: Differentiate the Four Types of Laws of St. Thomas Aquinas and
give examples.
Eternal Law
Divine Law
Human Law
Natural Law
Activity 18
Directions: Watch the given video by following the links (URL). You may
download them directly by clicking the links.
Natural Law Theory: Crash Course Philosophy
a. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r_UfYY7aWKo
After watching the video, let us find out how well you comprehend the lesson.
State the most important facts you derived from the materials.
Activity 19
Name: _____________________________
Directions: Answer the following questions concisely.
1. How can we achieve happiness?
2. How can we become virtuous?
3. Based on Same-sex marriage topic, write at least 2 pages of comparative
report of Aristotelian’s Nicomachean Ethics and St, Thomas Natural Law.
Answer whether Aristotle and Aquinas allow same-sex marriage? Explain
why will they promote or against the idea.
Activity 20
Direction: Answer or explain the following items below.
1. What are the importance of Human Rights? Site an example.
2. What are the difference between Moral Rights and Legal Rights? Site
an example.
Activity 21
Direction: Answer or explain the following items below.
1. Explain the Basic Principles of Utilitarianism.
2. Elaborate the Impact of Utilitarianism in Law, Politics, Economics.
Site an examples.
3. Explain the nature of Utilitarianism?