LIFE AND WORK OF RIZAL 1. The Preamble explains that there is a need for a rededication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died for. 1. REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1425 (RIZAL LAW) 3. The third paragraph of the preamble identifies Rizal's novels the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo as an inspiring source of patriotism which shall be inculcated in the mind of the young people especially in their formative and decisive years. House Bill No. 5561 Senate Bill No. 438 (Published in the Official Gazette, vol. 52, No. 6 p. 2971 in June 1956). Also: htpp//www.gov.ph/1956/06/12/republicact-no-1425) It was Claro M. Recto who authored the bill, while Senator Jose P. Laurel, who was then the Chairman of the Committee on Education sponsored the bill in the Senate. Both of them were known for their great sense of Nationalism. 2. The second paragraph of the preamble identifies Rizal as one of those heroes who have devoted their lives and shaped the national character. 4. Finally, the last paragraph of the preambles invokes the power of the state in supervising all educational institution which are required to teach each student’s moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and the duties of citizenship BATAS RIZAL (R.A. NO. 1425) RIZAL LAW Date of Effectivity: Rizal Law (Republic Act No. 1425) was signed/approved into law on June 12, 1956, by President RAMON MAGSAYSAY (to honor not only Jose Rizal but all other heroes). CLARO M. RECTO (the principal proponent of Rizal Bill) was considered the father of Rizal Law. Title of Rizal Law Republic Act No 1425 - "An act to include in the Curricula of all Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities courses on the Life, Works & Writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Tangere and El Filibusterismo, authorizing the printing and distribution thereof and for other purposes". 2. WHY STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO STUDY THE LIFE OF RIZAL AND HIS WORKS? The Rizal Course was created as an act of Congress of the Republic of the Philippines through Republic Act No. 1425 on June 12, 1956. it was approved during the time of President Ramon Magsaysay. The actual title of the Law was: "An Act to Include in the Curricula of all Public and Private Schools, Colleges and Universities Courses in the Life, Works and Writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his Novels, Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, Authorizing the Printing and Distribution Thereof, and for Other Purposes." The title of the law is quite long and very specific. Being specific especially in law is very important to avoid anu misinterpretation. The purpose of the law is enunciated in its preamble. This preamble consists in the paragraphs that begin with the word "Whereas". PURPOSE OF RIZAL LAW (R.A. NO. 1425) IN BRIEF, THE AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF RIZAL LAW (RA 1425) ARE: 1. To rededicate the lives of the youth to ideals of freedom and nationalism. 2. To pay tribute to our national hero for devoting his life and works in shaping the Filipino character. 3. To gain inspiring source of patriotism through Rizal's life, works and writing. 4. To recognize the relevance of Rizal's ideals, thoughts, teaching and life values to present condition in the community, and 5. To develop an understanding and appreciation of the qualities, behavior and character of Dr Jose P. Rizal. The body of Rizal Law consist of six (6) sections. Simply speaking the Law provides for the following: 1) Section I - Requiring all students in the Colleges and Universities, public and private to study the life, of works, and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly mentioning his two (2) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) novels, the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. Section 2 - Requiring all Colleges and Universities, public and private - to have sufficient and unexpurgated copies of the works of Jose Rizal especially his novels Noli and El Fili in their respective libraries. Section 3 - That Rizal's work should be translated to English and other dialects of the Philippines and that these should be published in cheap editions and distributed to the public trough purok organizations and the Barrio Councils in the country. It also stipulates that the publications should be given for free to anyone who wishes to read them. Section 4 - A stipulation that the discussion of Rizal's ideas does not violate the States prohibition regarding the discussion of religious beliefs in the country's public school system and other public learning institutions. Section 5 - That the sum of P300,000 be made available for the publication of Rizal's works in cheap and popular editions. Section 6 - That the law shall takes effect upon its approval. The Law identifies the National Board of Education as its implementer and authorizes it to come up with the implementing rules and regulations (IRR) including that of disciplinary one. That means persons and institution who refuse to implement this law may be punished. The same subsection also provides an exemption for students from reading Rizal's works when these affect their religious beliefs. These students, however, were forbidden from not taking the course at all. THE LAW EXPLAINED: Note: The Rizal bill passed with a clause that gives an exemption for those who feel that reading Rizal's Novels would damage their faith. Thus, the law provides an exemption for students for the reason of religious belief. The student must state in a sworn written statement/affidavit attesting to their brittle faith and apply for an exemption - not from Rizal Course that you still must take - but from reading the Novels of Rizal. There were no recorded instances of students applying for exemption from reading the Novels. In 1994 when President Fidel Valdez Ramos learned that some Colleges and Universities had not implemented the said law (R.A. 1425), He issued Memorandum No. 247 ordering directly the Secretary of the Department of Education Culture and Sports (DECS) and the Chairman of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) to take steps to immediately and fully implement the letter, intent, and spirit of R.A. 1425. 3. THE STORY OF THE RIZAL LAW In 1956, legislators seeing the need to promote nationalism and patriotism among the Filipinos, especially the youth, filed the bill. The original bill filed by Claro M. Recto. Senator Jose P. Laurel, the Chairman of the Committee on Education, sponsored the bill. Since its purpose was to promote patriotism and nationalism, the Senators saw no problem legislating it in Congress. It was supposed to be non-controversial considering its intention. However, since the time it was introduced in the Legislature the Rizal Bill encountered formidable opposition. "In the words of Senator Laurel, the bitterness and recrimination that accompanied its enactment was unparalleled in the Congress. Does it mean that the people who opposed it are unnationalistic or unpatriotic? The source to the opposition to the legislation of law that was supposed to promote patriotism and love of country came from the Catholic Church, its allies in Congress, and the media. The original bill that would eventually become the Rizal Law was filed by the Committee on Education in the Philippine Senate as Senate Bill 438 in April 1956. When the bill was first filed, it was supported by all Senators in the upper house, except for three members. SENATE BILL 438 READ: An Act to Make Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo Compulsory Reading in All Public and Private Colleges and Universities and for Other Purposes: Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress Assembled: On April 17, Senator Jose P. Laurel as Chairman of the Committee: The following are the narration of the Story of the Rizal Law by Senator Jose B. Laurel, Jr., Son of the Senator Jose P. Laurel, Former President of the Philippines. Section I. Jose Rizal's Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo are hereby declared compulsory reading matter in all public and private schools, colleges and Universities in the Philippines. Section 2. The works mention in Section 1 of this act shall be in the original editions or in their unexpurgated English and Natural Language versions. Section 3. The Department of Education shall take steps to promulgate rules and regulations for the immediate implementations of the provision of this Act. Section 4. No provision of this Act shall be constructed as prohibiting or limiting the study of the works of other Filipino heroes. Section 5. Any public or private college or university found violating, failing to comply with, or circumventing the provisions of this Act shall be punished accordingly. a. The Head of any public college or university charged with implementing the provisions of this Act, who shall have been found guilty of violating. failing to comply with or circumventing the provisions thereof shall be dismissed immediately from the service and shall be disqualified from teaching in any public or government recognized private school, college. b. Government recognition of any private college or university found violating or circumventing the provision of this Act, shall be immediately withdrawn, and the responsible, head and professor, or professors concerned shall be disqualified from teaching in any Government recognized college or university. Section 6. This Act shall take effect upon its approval. OPPOSITION ON THE BILL: Soon after the introduction in the Senate, the original Rizal bill was called an "attack in the church". The opponents said that the novels painted a negative image of the Catholic Church, and these contain messages that are not suited to the present time. Besides saying that the Novels had messages "not applicable" to the present times, the opponents said that the two novels of Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, and El Filibusterismo contain passages that were to Catholic beliefs and teaching. The church had powerful allies in opposing the Rizal Bill. Thus, the following are the oppositions and the supporters of the said Bill. POWERFUL ALLIES OF THE CHURCH IN OPPOSING THE RIZAL BILL. THESE INCLUDES: 1. Rufino Santos - the Archbishop of Manila, said that the proposed Rizal Bill if, approved, will cause disaffection of the youth against the church. 2. Senator Francisco "Soc" Rodrigo - who held the presidency of the Accion Catolica (Catholic Action), denounced the Rizal Bill. He said that he would read the two novels because his faith in the Catholic Church is strong but, he would not allow his teenage son to read the Noli Me Tangere & El Filibusterismo because these novels will harm his faith. 3. Congressman Mariano J. Cuenco - In the House of Representatives, Congressman Cuenco led the opposition to the Rizal Bill. His privileged speech contained views, opinion, theories attacking the dogmas, beliefs, and practices of the church. According to Mariano J Cuenco, Quoting the passage of the Noli Me Tangere, Rizal wrote: God cannot pardon a crime simply because we confess it to a priest. Cuenco also said that Rizal proclaimed that early Christians believed there was no purgatory. Its existence was proclaimed in the Church Council of Florence in 1439. He further said that Rizal's ideas are from Zoroastrianism. 4. Fr. Jesus Cavanna said that the novels contained more anti-church statements rather than nationalistic statements. He purportedly claimed in one of the symposiums that the Novels of Rizal were already belonged to the past & would misrepresent current church conditions. 5. Senator Decoroso Rosales believed that approval of the bill would lead to the closure of Catholic Schools all throughout the country. (He believed that the approval of the bill would affect the number of Catholics in the Philippines). 6. Jesus Paredes another commentator stated that the novels contained objectionable materials and the Catholic have the right not to read them in order not to endanger their faith (endanger their salvation). 7. Other Catholic Organizations, who were composed of Conservative Catholics, such as the Accion Catolica, Knights of Columbus, Congregation of the Mission and the Catholic Teachers Guild, priests and nuns, many of whom were foreigners attended hearing in Congress Their actions were clearly an interference of the church on the policy-making power of the States. PROPONENTS/DEFENDERS OF THE RIZAL LAW 1. Senator Claro M. Recto, one of the vocal defenders of the bill in the senate was portrayed as anti-American leftist and fellow traveler (word for communist sympathizer) who advocated to the removal of US bases and the abandonment of Special relations to the United States. Contrary to his accusation against him, Recto was advocating a nationalist change for the Philippines instead of the neocolonial subservience to the Americans. Senator Recto for his part remained uncompromising reminding Senator Rodrigo of the long period of domination of the church in the history of the Philippines which continues to this day. If bishop made good of their threat (to close down Catholic School, Colleges and Universities), Recto proposed that the State should take over and implement a nonsectarian educational system with a nationalist agenda. 2. Senator Jose P Laurel, Sr., who was then the Chairman of Committee on Education sponsored the bill in the Senate. 3. Mayor Arsenio Lacson, another prominent supporter, while attending the mass walked out the church when the priest began reading a circular from Archbishop Santos denouncing the Rizal Bill. Mayor Arsenio H. Lacson of Manila spoke up, denouncing those who oppose the Rizal Bill as "enemies that threaten the very foundation of freedom". This new breed of Filipinos" would on one hand, deny to the State the right to prescribe the books to be read in school, on the other hand, dictate to the State what books should not be read by the people. 4. Fr. Horacio de la Costa, S.J, a Jesuit scholar and historian, was the lone voice within the Catholic Church which supported Rizal Bill. He said that Rizal's works only exposed abuses within the church. He said that the abuses were committed by individual clergymen and should not be treated as reflective of the entire clergy. 6. These include groups such as the Veteranos de la Revolucion Filipina who were composed of revolutionary war veterans, the Alagad ni Rizal, the Knights of the Grand Order of Rizal and the Freemasons. After the standoff which lasted for a month, a substitute bill was filed. The bill was authored by Senator Laurel, and it incorporated the Proposals of Senators Roseller Lim and Emmanuel Pelaez. The bill was a compromised bill compared to the original bill as it contained a provision allowing to seek exemption from reading Rizal's works but not from taking the course. The substitute bill also provides funds for the publication and distribution of Rizal's work in the countryside, and On June 12, 1956, Republic Act No. 1425, popularly known was the Rizal Law was passed/approved. 4. HERO; ITS MEANING: HERO defined as a person who, in the opinion of others, has heroic qualities or has performed heroic act and is regarded as a model or ideal. Hero - a man of distinguished courage or ability, admired for his brave deeds or noble qualities. Hero - a person of distinguished valor or enterprise in danger, or fortitude in suffering. HERO - a man honored after death by public worship because of exceptional service to mankind. QUALITIES OF A HERO: (IN GENERAL) 1. Sacrifice - forfeiture of something highly valued for the sake of one considered to have a greater value. 2. Determination - a firmness of purpose or resolve. 3. Loyalty - feeling of allegiance. 4. Dedication - self-devotion. 5. Valor courage exhibited in war and cannot be applied to single combat. 6. Intrepidity - is firm, unshaken courage. 7. Selfless - unselfish concern for the welfare of others. 8. Gallantry - adventurous courage, which courts danger with a high and cheerful spirit. 9. Perseverance determination. - is a persistent 10. Fortitude - has often been "passive courage" and consist in the habit encountering danger and enduring pain with a steadfast and unbroken spirit. 11. Bravery - daring and impetuous courage, one who has the reward continually in view, and displays his courage in daring acts. 12. Courage - firmness of the spirit and "mettle" of the soul to stare at danger and trouble right in the eye. Or stand to signify the valor it takes to overcome adversities and adversaries.