Life and Works of DR. JOSE RIZAL SOC SCI 4 S.Y. 2020-2021 DAVAO DEL SUR STATE COLLEGE (DSSC) MODULE 1 Lesson 1-5 LESSON 1 Introduction to The Study of History Learning outcomes At the end of this lesson, students shall be able to: • Define and know the scope of history; • Identify the sources and dimensions of history in general; and • Discuss the concept of historical documentation and historical imagination Welcome to the “New Normal” form in teaching and learning process. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the scope of history, its sources, historical documentation, methodology, various dimensions, and its relevance. This will only take up few minutes of your time. Hereafter is an activity that will tickle your mind about you and your role in history. ACTIVITY Instruction: Select at least 2 items from the list that can be found inside your house (the oldest issue) and take a selfie with it. Kindly attach the photos of the chosen item in a separate page. 1. 2. 3. 4. Old Clock Old Coin or paper money Old jewelry Letter since 5-10 years ago 5. Old calendar ANALYSIS • Provide some of your thoughts on History and of it as branch of social science. • Enumerate the two sources of History. • Explicate each of the following: Historical Documentation, Methodology, Imagination, Dimensions, and Relevance. ABSTRACTION Meaning and Scope of History The word history comes from the Latin word, “historia” which means an “inquiry” or “investigation”. Historians tend to study history based on the past where they are looking for the evidence of an event or even civilization. The study of history became one of the oldest disciplines in liberal arts. History is defined as “the branch of social science which deals with the study of the past in relation to the present and the future”. Based on this definition, there are 3 important elements of history: a.) as branch of social science, b.) study of the past, c.) relation to the present and future. It is very important to examine the 3, as stated. 1. Branch of Social Science – Science is defined as “the study of facts based on observation and experimentation”. Sciences are divided into 3: physical, natural and social sciences. Our main concern is on social sciences where history belongs. 2. Study of the past – peoples, event, places and even civilizations are one of the main concerns in the studying history. Therefore, we will study the past, regarding Rizal’s Life, works and writings that all happened in the 19th century Philippines. 3. Relation to the present and the future – History is the study of the past in relation to the present and the future. For instance, even if Rizal belonged to the 19 th century, his life, works and even his thoughts are relevant until today. His first novel, Noli Me Tangere talks about the “social cancer” like corruption, vices, and wrong beliefs that are still existing up to this time. Sources of History: 1. Primary Sources – these are the physical evidence in history such as artifacts, relics, remains, fossils and even oral tradition. 2. Secondary Sources: a.) Published Materials – such as newspapers, magazines, journals, encyclopedia, pamphlets, handouts, books, circulars and other materials which are published either in hard and soft copies; b.) Unpublished materials – such as letters, biographies, autobiography, theses and dissertations and other papers written by a scholar. Historical Documentation According to Teodoro Agoncillo (the late nationalist historian), “no documents, no history…” which had given the “documentary evidences” more weight rather than “sabi-sabi” or hearsays. Historical documentation is very important for biography in the sense that the person was existing during his time. Records like letters, birth and death certificates, voice recordings, paintings and even court records show the “primary evidence” in writing history. Historical Methodology The process of writing historical details is called “historiography.” It narrates history in a proper way according to the time, space and depth. Writing history depends on the scope of the writer’s research and his critical analysis in using the available sources and references. What is “historical imagination”? The concept of historical imagination is when the reader puts himself in the picture or writing history using one’s imagination. For example, reading biographies puts you in the same person in order for that person to come alive. Using historical imagination is also a part of learning history in which “internal and external criticism” should be applied. Furthermore, by employing historical imagination, we make the story come alive. Dimensions of History 1. Place/Geographical Dimension – the location of event(s) is really important. For example, in the battle of Waterloo which Napoleon fought against the Perussian, he missed to consider the climate of the country which was winter. Most likely, the climate was the biggest factor why he lost the historic, Napoleonic War. 2. Time/Chronological Dimension – in history, time element is very important. It is the barometer of historical events. Dating might be considered as a great factor to distinguish time such as the period when Rizal was born. Generally speaking, in history, there are 3 important datings: Ancient, Medieval and the Modern Period. The Ancient Period is described as the geological time scale up to man’s existence and its civilization. The Medieval Period or Age of Faith was when man learned how to value faith and education. The Modern Period is described as the period when man discovered and learned the essence of technology as well as to harmonize his works with environment. Relevance in Studying History The study of history has a great significance and relevance to the modern era since this is the foundation of the nation’s national identity. The study of Philippine History gives more emphasis in how Filipinos fought during those times of struggles such as the Propaganda Movement (1892 – 1896) which influenced by several “paisanos” in Europe (Rizal, Del Pilar and Lopez – Jaena). APPLICATION Trace the history where Rizal experience quarantine in an epidemic or pandemic. CONGRATULATIONS! You finished the lesson 1! I hope you enjoyed and learned in this lesson. Kindly proceed to Lesson 2. LESSON 2 Rizal Law and Rizal’s Early Biographers Learning outcomes At the end of the lesson, the students shall be able to: • Discuss the concept of historical documentation and historical imagination; • Identify the issues on Rizal Law which can be a dissertational course for the students who are not aware of the relevance of the course in relation to their field of expertise; • Expand the relevance of the law in the nation building of a true Filipino; • Identify “who’s who” in Rizal’s life especially in his biography; • Discuss how the writing of history can change the image of the country; and • Explain the relevance of the course in general to the daily life of the Filipinos nowadays. Welcome to the 2nd lesson of this module! In this lesson, you will be introduced to the Rizal law and its analysis, the K-12 law, biography and autobiography, and writing historical accounts. This will only take up few minutes of your time. Hereafter is an activity that will tickle your mind about you and your role in history. ACTIVITY Instruction: Make a “blog” or account regarding the history of life in the 19th century. You will start with the description of those times from political, economic and social events. Make a report regarding this activity. ANALYSIS • Provide your ideas about the congruence of Rizal Law and K-12 Law. • Explain the importance of biography and autobiography. ABSTRACTION The Rizal Law (R.A No. 1425) One of the important legislation to boost Filipino nationalism is the Rizal Law or Republic Act No. 1425 which highlights the following: 1. The study of Rizal’s Life, Works and Writings can support and foster the cause of nationalism for Filipinos especially the youths; 2. The inclusion of the works of Rizal in the College Curriculum particularly the study of his novelsNoli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo are necessary to have a better understanding of 19th century Philippines; 3. The inclusion also of other works of Rizal such as his letters, paintings, travels can promote the cause of nationalism; 4. Funding of the law in order to give supplemental copies of the novels to public libraries; and 5. The implementation of the law. Although this law is not declaring that Rizal is a national hero, it can be a positive step towards enshrining him and other national heroes of the country. Analysis on Rizal Law Students often wonder why they have to study Rizal course. What is its relevance to their course or their field of expertise? There are several answers to this question: 1. The adoption and implementation of R.A No. 1425 which clearly states that the study of Jose Rizal’s Life Works and Writings must be taught in all public and private Schools, Colleges and Universities; 2. The study of Rizal’s work particularly his two important novels- Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo and other works (poems, diaries, essays) as well as their translations in Filipino and English should be implemented and funded by the government as provided for in the law; 3. The law also mandates the study of Rizal’s life, works and writings in the secondary levels specifically the Noli Me Tangere on the 3rd year level and El Filibusterismo in 4th year level. This forms part of the Filipino curriculum where the medium of instruction is Filipino; 4. The Rizal course offers a wide range of thoughts on how Rizal and other heroes (Marcelo H. Del Pilar, Andres Bonifacio and Apolinario Mabini and others) fought for freedom for the sake of the country’s survival against the “evil emperialism” of foreign invaders. Rizal Law and the K-12 Law The study of Rizal is still part of the K-12 Law and the new General Education Curriculum in the sense that Rizal course is mandatory to college students with a view to develop their historical thinking and national awareness. The study of Rizal may also give reflections on the events of the past that formed part of the Philippine History and to awaken the minds of the modern Filipinos who are popularly called “millennials”. Biography and Autobiography The words “biography” and “autobiography” are sometimes used by readers interchangeably. When somebody writes your life from challenges to triumphs that is called, biography. Therefore, the writings on Rizal’s life are divided into two-those that were written by others and those that were penned by Rizal himself. The biographies of Rizal are one of the main secondary sources of Rizalian History, Rizal’s autobiography was written on his “epistolario Rizalinos” which was compiled by Teodoro Kalaw. Writing Historical Accounts Writing historical accounts is considered as one of the prime tasks of a historian. The coined word is PEP for people, event, places which means that the story must have these three important components. In Rizal’s biography for example, the people (noted personalities) became the characters of his novel, Noli Me Tangere. The events that took place at that time as well as the 1872 mutiny became one of the root causes of Rizal’s nationalism which led him to write his second novel, El Filibusterismo. He dedicated El Fili to Gomburza, the martyrs of Filipino secularization. Rizal also noted in his travels the notable places that he clearly and poetically described. Early Biographers of Dr. Jose Rizal There are several biographers who attempted to write the life and works of Jose Rizal; several of them considered as authentic as well as very fluent in terms of historical details and analysis. Though there are several textbook writers who wrote the life history of Rizal, below are prominent writers who wrote about the life of the great Filipino national hero. Account of Wenceslao Retana Wenceslao Retana is known to be one of Rizal’s contemporaries who was critical of Rizal’s nationalistic fervor. Retana, in the newspaper “La Epoca”, attacked Rizal and the latter challenged Retana to a fist fight. On the other hand, Retana apologized to Rizal and the two became friends. Retana admired Rizal for being a gentleman. In the eyes of Retana then, Spain was “wrong” when they executed Rizal (Medina, 1998). Retana believed that Rizal’s execution was proof of the injustices committed by Spain towards Filipinos. That fateful event led to the 1896 Philippine revolution. The writer, Medina states why Retana’s accounts about Rizal must be read: “In my opinion, what makes Retana most deserving of being read today is as a creditable witness of the historical moment that has had the greatest impact on the Filipino consciousness, and how Rizal transformed himself into its symbol. He gives witness as one who embodied and was able to clearly state the meanings that the mentality of those times ascribed to those events. Thus, I believe, he is able to transmit to Filipinos a hundred years hence a vision that is both moving and explicative in a culturally accurate mannerhe succeeds in transporting us to that compelling time, so that we may gain insights that a conventional academic approach cannot give. Given the distancing that our North American colonization produced in the Filipinol psyche vis a vis the mythical figure of Rizal and the legendary time he lived and died in, the Retana biography’s availability today, translated and explained with cultural sensitivity, after the long forgetting of both work and its creator’s fascinating figure, is an important cultural event during our Centennial year.” Therefore, observation at par really helped wherein Retana’s personality became one of the main figures in Philippine history. Account of Carlos Quirino One of the great biographers of Dr. Jose Rizal wrote Rizal’s biography because of a “writing contest”. He answered to the invitation to several writers at that time to write about Rizal’s life. The work of Carlos Quirino entitled, “The Great Malayan” won the 3rd prize. However, President Manuel Quezon awarded the monetary reward which was equivalent to the 1st prize of the contest. It was one of the classical best in Rizal’s biography- in pocketbook size. Based on that work, Quirino described Rizal as an “ordinary person” with a great love for his country, his compatriots and for the search of truth. His analysis of Rizal then was the “product of his times”. Account of Rafael Palma One of the important biographers of Rizal was Rafael Palma. His work, Biografia de Rizal (Biography of Rizal) was one of the greatest and finest biographies of the national hero. Compared with Quirino’s writing, Palma’s writing can be considered as the primary source in history as it is more serious and academic. Account of Austin Coates Austin Coates (1922-1997) is known for his detailed work on Rizal’s biography entitled, Rizal, Philippine Nationalist and Martyr which was published in 1968 by Oxford University Press. Though it is lacking in academic standards, Coates discussed Jose Rizal as one of the greatest patriot ever generated in his times which is no other than 19th century. Also, he wrote Rizal’s biography from the eyes of a foreigner whose details and authenticity cannot be found in the local college textbooks. Account of Leon Maria Guerrero One of the most readable biographies of Rizal was the work of Leon Ma. Guerrero which is entitled, The First Filipino. Leon Ma. Guerrero (1853-1935) was one of the popular writers of Rizal’s biography. In his introductory statements, he described the 2 types of Spain; one was great and the other was evil. The evil side of Spain was where Rizal moulded his nationalism. Guerrero also described other events of the 19th century that may not be appreciated by the individual who does not know or has not read the history of Spain in the Philippines. Furthermore, his book is one of the best source and rich in Rizaliana historiography, one of the finest after Palma’s work. Account of Ambeth Ocampo One of the modern historians is no other than Ambeth Ocampo who discussed history in a “telling to a friend” approach. His journalistic pattern of writing earned him the title of the best modern historian in our time. His work on Rizal’s biography is entitled, “Rizal Without an Overcoat”. With the same style of Quirino’s writings, he makes or even remakes Rizal as an ordinary Filipino. He exposed Rizal as person with big ambitions for his countrymen. He believed that education was the best weapon to expel the evil Spanish tyranny. Ambeth Ocampo,being one of the contemporary historians shares his thoughts regarding the most “updated” details in history-from the physical evidences to historical analyses, being trained as a scholar. Reading Ambeth’s works as well as listening to his several lectures in Ateneo and Ayala Museum can be a great historical experience. APPLICATION 1. Why should we study the Life and Works of Rizal? Expand the relevance of the law in the nation building of a true Filipino. Explain the relevance of the course in general to the daily life of the Filipinos nowadays 2. Choose one biographer that could discuss the life of Rizal and how his/her writing of history can change the image of the country. CONGRATULATIONS! You finished the lesson 2! I hope you enjoyed and learned in this lesson. Kindly proceed to Lesson 3. LESSON 3 The Philippines in the 19th Century Learning outcomes At the end of the lesson, the students shall be able to: • Describe what was the political, economic and social life of the Philippines during the 19th century; • Discuss why Rizal was the product of his times; • What were the institutions being imposed by Spain in the Philippines during the 19 th century; • Elaborate on the life of the Filipinos during that time; and • Give the importance and relevance of how nationalism was molded in the heart and mind of our national hero. Welcome to the third lesson of this module! You will be scholarly introduced on the situation of the World in the 19th Century, how the Philippines is doing during the 19th century, and the qualities on why Jose Rizal was considered as a cardinal product of his time. Hereafter is an activity that will help you discover Dr. Jose Rizal’s qualities, and how these qualities correlate to yours. To appreciate and understand the life of Dr. Jose Rizal, it necessary to know the historical background of the world and of the Philippines during his times. The 19th century when he lived was a century of ferment caused by the blowing winds of history. In Asia, Europe, and the Americas, events surged inexorably like sea tides, significantly affecting the lives and fortunes of mankind ACTIVITY Make a tabulation of the qualities of Rizal into: Divine Intervention, Family Orientation, Environmental Factor and Education. Describe also your own personality using the same tabulation. ANALYSIS • Describe the situation of the World during the 19th Century. • Describe the situation of the Philippines During the 19th Century. • Why do Filipinos consider Rizal as a product of his time? ABSTRACTION The World during the 19th Century The 19th century is known to be the Age of Enlighten in Philippine history which can be described as a colorful part of our history. There were several events that took shape that had impact in the Philippine soil. Among these were the ff.: a.) United States of America - according to the diary of Rizal was too impressive in the sense of their rapid industrialization that time and Rizal commented that America will be the next superpower after Spain. The racial issue hampered its racial discrimination in the mainland as described in the book, Uncle Tom’s Cabin written by Harriet Beecher Stowe where negroes are subject to slavery by the “whites”. When President Lincoln became the president, several reforms took pace such as the “emancipation of slaves” in response to the racial issue and enfranchising them as well as awarding them either American citizenship. When Rizal was born on June 19, 1861, the American Civil War (1861-65) was raging furiously in the US over the issue of Negro Slavery. This titanic conflict, which erupted on April 12, 1861, compelled President Abraham Lincoln to issue his famous Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1863 freeing negro slaves. b.) England – One of the most powerful nations that colonized America was England. Under the reign of Queen Victoria (1873 – 1901), England was transformed into a conqueror and the continent of Africa was their main target. Several reforms were the Reform Bill of 18677 where voting rights to the labors were extended, the Education Act of 1870 where free education was awarded to all British and in 1871 Unions were organized as part of the worker’s rights and privileges. c.) Italy – Italy is known for its magnificent churches and plazas became one of the tourism spots until now. The reign of King Victor Immanuel II worked for the unification of Italy. Before its unification the country was ruled by several kingdoms. For example, Giuseppe Garibaldi commanded his troops to subjugate other kingdom thus, making Italy into one sovereign country. However, one city was separated, the Vatican City which became a state within the sovereign territory in Italy that was proclaimed under Lateran Treaty 1929. d.) Germany – Germany was known as Prussia then which was led by the military General Otto von Bismarck. In 1870 Germany attacked France resulting to the military domination of Germany in the region. In 1871 William I was crowned the Emperor of Germany. e.) France – After the French Revolution of 1789, the empire continued its rise to power under Emperor Napoleon III. It was later defeated by Germany in 1871 led by Otto von Bismarck. f.) India – At that time India was governed by the Mogul empire where Sepoy soldiers staged a mutiny and murdered some British commanders of the army. After the mutiny, British authorities hired loyal Indian soldiers to quell the Modul Empire and re-establish once again British colonialism in India. g.) China – is known to be one of the oldest trading partners of the Philippines. In the 19 th century, China was ruled by a dynasty that was led by the family rulers. Manchu Dynasty ruled China when the Taiping Rebellion happened between 1852 up to 1864. China was also fragmented into pieces by the foreign powers particularly managed in whole or in part by Italy, France and Great Britain. Russia also took advantage of China by taking some of the islands after the Sino-Russian War in the early 1900’s or latter part of the 19th century. There were some conflicts also with Mongolia in northern part of Chinese Mainland. The Opium War (1856-1860) became one of the economic and political turmoil of that time where Hong Kong was surrendered to the British under several treaties and agreements. h.) Japan – In 1853 (8 years before Rizal was born), the American Naval Force headed by Matthew Perry wanted to established ports for American ships. Japan signed several treaties with other European countries particularly France, Russia, Holland and Great Britain. This was the first time the westerners entered Japan which has established its Shogunate for a long time. i.) Singapore – Singapore was known for its ports at that time where merchant and passenger ships loaded and unloaded from place to place. It was founded by British Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 and its complete independence was established after its separation from the Federation of Malaya 1965. The Philippines During the 19th Century As stated in the chapter about the Rizaliana batch of biographers, the history of the Philippines during the 19th century, was divided into three institutions namely: a. Political Institutions The Political set-up of the Philippines during those times was headed by the Governor-General. He was appointed by the King of Spain for an “indefinite” period of time as loyalty was one of the major qualifications of the government officials. It was during the time of Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, then appointed by King Philip II of Spain that proportions of Land were awarded. The governor-general performs dual functions – political and ecclesiastical. His political powers include being the chief executive head of the colony – managing the internal affairs of the state as well as the executer of the laws of the land. He was also the chief of Real Audiencia or the Spanish Supreme Court in the Philippines where cases were elevated after the failure of cases in local courts. He was also the commanding officer of the armed forces particularly the navy and army. His ecclesiastical power then was to settle Church matter because there was Union of Church and State. In the 19th century Philippines then the office of the governor-general was the most powerful position in the land next to the King of Spain and the Ministry of the Indies. In order to check the powers of the Gov-Gen. then there were officials being sent by the Kingthe residencia and visitadores. The Residencia are permanent officials who will scrutinize the performance of the out-going Gov-Gen. The incoming Gov.Gen. would be probably coming from the residencia. Visitadores on the other hand will check the performance of the Gov.-Gen and they were temporary and different from the residencia. In the local set-up then, local government was divided into provinces, cities and barangays. The provinces were led by the alcalde-mayor who was the executive of the provinces. Cities were called, Ayuntamiento that were headed by a petty governor known as the “governadorcillo.” The little towns were called pueblos. During the 19th century the barangays were headed by a chief known as the cabeza de barangay and they served as tax collectorsof their constituents. b. Economic Institutions – the encomienda system or the leasehold system became one of the main economic programs of Spain in the Philippines. This system however, was abused by the Spaniards. The 70-30 percentage crop sharing became the most abused practice to uneducated farmers because it was usurious. Anaother form of abuse was the monopoly system or known as bandala system where the Spaniards monopolized the buying and selling of raw materials and middlemen sold them at a higher cost. The Galleon Trade was another economic activity at that time where “boletas” or tickets were used to purchase goods from the ships though there were instances when ships never returned due to typhoons or man-made accidents at sea. c. Social Institution – the social institution which was imposed by Spain in the Philippines was divided into social strata wit; Social Strata in the Philippines during Spanish Period (Source from Choose Philippines Archives) The figure above shows the social strata which puts the principalia (the rich and opulent class) or the peninsulares and insulares at the apex of the triangle. The lower portion of the apex is composed of mixed races (Spaniard, Chinese and Austronesian ancestry). The rising middle class or the ilustrados (composed of the educated class) including Rizal’s family and other propagandists are not presented in the figure. Almost 60% of the population is “indio” which belongs to the lower class and uneducated Filipinos. Religious impositions were very strong that time where Filipinos are subjects under the Spanish friars. Marcelo H. Del Pilar known to be one of the main propagandists coined the term, “frailocracy” which prevailed in the Philippines. Rizal as product of his times Rizal was the product of his times and he was also one of the eyewitnesses of the execution of the triumvirate priests, Gomez, Burgos and Zamora who were executed on February 17, 1872 after the Cavite Mutiny on January 20, 1872 which was led by Sergeant La Madrid. Rizal, being an eyewitness of the execution, reckoned his historical thoughts in his letters as revealed by his early biographers. On the other hand, some points to be considered, to wit; 1. Divine Intervention Rizal’s vast knowledge and social consciousness are God’s gifts to him. As a reformer, he was-versed in letters and language. It is a fact that Jose Rizal possessed a lot of talents and he used his literary and writing ability to fight the Spanish tyranny. He believed that “the pen is mightier than the sword”. 2. Environmental Awareness The 19th century was the Age of Enlightenment and Rizal was the product of that time. His environment might be one of the very reason why he fought the Spanish authorities as he was surrounded by several names who became his advisers and mentors. He witnessed the execution of the triumvirate priests (GomBurZa) at a young age of 11 which awakened his awareness of the social injustices of the Spanish authorities. He believed that “tyranny” has no room in a free society which he envisioned for the country. 3. Educational Factors Rizal became a young professional who gained his expertise in Ateneo (as surveyor), University of Santo Tomas (as a medical student) and in Universidad Central de Madrid (continuing his medical studies). His expertise became in demand as a barrio doctor serving his less privileged compatriots. His literary knowledge and observations in the Philippines and his travels abroad were his inspirations when he wrote his two novels- Noli Me Tengere and El Filibusterismo. 4. Family Orientation The Mercado family along with other “middle class families” were Rizal’s first teachers. Belonging to the ilustrado class, Rizal was sent abroad to continue his medical studies though there were some objections from his mother. His family was his source of strength in his flight for social justice from evil society of that time. Paciano, his brother was his closest adviser and supporter during his stay in Europe. Rizal’s family has influenced him a lot in inculcating and developing nationalism in hi consciousness. APPLICATION Below are political, economic, social life, and institution of the Philippines during the 19th century that were imposed by Spain. Elaborate the lives of the Filipinos during that time and give a conclusion about the importance and relevance of how nationalism was molded in the heart and mind of our national hero and to us. 1. Instability of Colonial Administration 2. Corrupt officialdom 3. No Philippine representation in the Spanish Cortes 4. Human rights are denied to Filipinos 5. No equality before the law 6. Maladministration of justice 7. Racial discrimination 8. Frailocracy 9. Forced Labor 10. Haciendas owned by the friars 11. Guardia Civil CONGRATULATIONS! You finished the lesson 3! Kabalo ko gihangak ka ani nga lesson but I hope you enjoyed and learned in this lesson. Kindly proceed to Lesson 4. Isa pa, laban lang! LESSON 4 Rizal’s Life: Family, Childhood and Early Education At the end of the lesson, the students shall be able to: • Analyze Rizal’s family, childhood and early education. • Evaluate the people and events and their influence on Rizal’s early life. Welcome to the 4th lesson of this module! In this lesson, you will be introduced to the Mercado clan (family tree), part of Jose Rizal’s ancestry, the national hero is born, justifications for being a national hero, his early childhood and education, and the story of the moth. This will only take up few minutes of your time. Hereafter is an activity that will tickle your mind about you and your role in history. ACTIVITY Make a short diary about your childhood memories. You may choose family pictures in support of your memoir. BE CREATIVE. ANALYSIS • Compare and contrast the childhood life during those times with our times. Describe those differences as well as the relevance of ones’ childhood to ones’ adulthood. • Describe the Rizal family and compare it with the modern Filipino family. ABSTRACTION The Mercado Clan (Family Tree) Families during those times were big as compared to families nowadays. The advent of birth control as well as the reproductive health law will consequently control the population for the sake of the future of the next generation. This one of the major priorities of government. Geographically, the Mercado’s house then was located at the foot of Mt. Makiling (known to be an inactive volcano). Their house was simple but maybe elegant during those times. The house was surrounded by fruit bearing trees or “punong kahoy” in Tagalog that are almost gone at present where only modern houses and condominiums are visible. The Mercado family was big, comprises of their parents and their eleven childrens, as illustrated in the family tree below. PART OF JOSE RIZAL’S ANCESTRY The National Hero is Born It was on June 19, 1861 when the th 7 child of the Mercados was born. Based on the reckonings of Zaide, Rizal’s mother almost died when she delivered her seventh child. There was a full moon which brings several “omens” or “kasabihan” in Tagalog. Some stories were either invented or documented about certain premonitions on Jose’s birth. Justifications for being a National Hero There are several questions regarding Rizal’s heroism. According to the report made by the National Heroes Committee (under the Executive Order no. 75), these are the elements to qualify as a national hero in verbatim; 1. Heroes are those who have a concept of nation and thereafter aspire and struggle for the nation’s freedom. 2. Heroes are those who define and contribute to a system or life of freedom and order for a nation. 3. Heroes are those who contribute to the quality of life and destiny of a nation. 4. A hero is part of the people’s expression. 5. A hero thinks of the future, especially the future generations. 6. The choice of a hero involves not only the recounting of an episode or events in history, but of the entire process that made this particular person a hero. These qualities are present in Rizal’s life and works as well as his endeavor to free the country against the evil Spanish tyranny. Republic Act No. 1425 was a very convincing proof that Rizal deserves to be the national hero; therefore, his ideas and works shall be included in the High School and College Curriculum. There are some challenges to Rizal’s title stating that Bonifacio was better deserving to be the national hero and perhaps the “first president”. However, without doubt, Bonifacio was the hero of the “Revolution of 1892-1898”. Despite that, certain arguments can be considered in the following statements: 1. Andres Bonifacio can be a national hero but it is highly questionable that he could have been the “First President”; 2. There is no clear recognition coming from the Filipinos at that time as well as from the “Americans” that the government of the Katipunan was the government of “all” Philippine Islands; 3. That “Bayang Katagalugan” which insist that the scope was the whole islands in the Philippines or the “8 Tagalog speaking provinces” rose arms against Spain; 4. There are no clear election results showing that Aguinaldo overwhelmingly won during the Tejeros Convention; where Andres Bonifacio was elected as the “Director of Interior”. Due to the insults hurled at Bonifacio by Daniel Tirona, then he (Bonifacio) nullified the convention; and 5. The death of Andres Bonifacio in the hands of Aguinaldo was a shame in the history of the Filipino people. His death showed that he was a victim in the hands of fellow Filipinos while Rizal’s death was a clamor against the Spanish evil justice system. THE RIZAL FAMILY Below, is the diagram of Rizal’s family: The accounts by Zaide (1999) and Lopez and Paras (2010) discussed the members of the Rizal’s family. 1. Francisco Mercado (1818-1898) Father of Jose Rizal who was the youngest of 13 offsprings of Juan and Cirila Mercado. Born in Biñan, Laguna on April 18, 1818; studied in San Jose College, Manila; and died in Manila. He was one of the tenants of Dominican lands in Kalamba. 2. Teodora Alonso (1827-1913) She was the first mentor and the teacher of young Jose Rizal. Mother of Jose Rizal who was the second child of Lorenzo Alonso and Brijida de Quintos. She studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa. She was a businessminded woman, corteous, religious, hard-working and wellread. She was born in Santa Cruz, Manila on November 14, 1827 and died in 1913 in Manila. 3. Saturnina Rizal (1850-1913) Eldest child of the Rizal-Alonso marriage. Married Manuel Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas. One of the correspondents of Rizal when he was in Europe was Saturnina’s husband. 4. Paciano Rizal (1851-1930) Only brother of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studies at San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer and later a general of the Philippine Revolution after his brother was executed at the Bagumbayan (1896). An avid supporter of his younger brother when he (Jose) was abroad. 5. Narcisa Rizal (1852-1939) The third child of Mercado’s family who became a teacher and musician. She married Antonio Lopez, a teacher from Morong, Bataan. 6. Olympia Rizal (1855-1887) The fourth child who married Silvestre Ubaldo with whom she bore children. She died when Jose Rizal was in Europe. 7. Lucia Rizal (1857-1919) The fifth child who married Mariano Herbosa. Her husband was denied a Christian burial because he was associated with Rizal and was believed to have anti-friar sentiments. 8. Maria Rizal (1859-1945) The sixth child who got married to Daniel Faustino of Binyang, Laguna with whom she bore 5 children. 9. Jose Rizal (1861-1896) The second son and the seventh child. The foremost national hero and martyr recognized by most Filipinos up to present. He died as a martyr by Spanish firing squad on December 30, 1896 at 7:03 a.m. 10. Concepcion Rizal (1862-1865) the eighth child. Died at the age of three. She was the first sorrow of Rizal according to accounts of Zaide. 11. Josefa Rizal (1865-1945) The ninth child who was nicknamed “Panggoy”. Died at the age of 80. 12. Trinidad Rizal (1868-1951) The 10th child who died last in Rizal’s family. She was entrusted by Rizal with his untitled poem (maybe on a piece of paper) inside the alcohol lamp. 13. Soledad Rizal (1870-1929) The youngest child who got married to Pantaleon Quinter and the couple had 5 children. His Early Childhood and Education Jose was a young boy with a “thirst for knowledge”. He was first taught at home. Then he was sent to Binyang in June 1869 at a young age of 8. His maestro there was Justiniano Aquino Cruz who developed his knowledge of the Spanish language. An excerpt from Rizal’s diary read as quoted; Maestro: Do you know Spanish? Jose: A little senyor. Maestro: Do you know Latin? Jose: A little sir. With that pronouncement, the teacher admired Rizal’s humility as a student. His motivation was to give Rizal a lot of oppurtunities to learn more subject areas. Juancho, was another maestro who taught Rizal in painting and the very reason why Rizal excelled also in drawing as well as sketches. His learning experience in Binyang was very productive. He was also involved in a duel with Pedro where he won in the fist-fight though he was smaller than pedro. This maybe was a mere symbolical image of Rizal (as an Indio) who challenged the Spanish authorities later in his life. His accounts described himself as a simple and faithful Catholic. The Story of the Moth The first education of young Jose was at home. Having Donya Teodora as his “first teacher”, the young Jose was being prepared for his formal schooling. One night, young Jose’s mother read him the Story of the Moth. According to the story: One night, all the family, except my mother and myself, went to bed early. Why, I do not know, but we two remained sitting alone. The candles had already been put out. They had been blown out in their globes by means of a curved tube of tin. That tube seemed to me the finest and most wonderful plaything Figure 1. Rizal’s sketch when he was still a young boy. in the world. The room was dimly lighted by a single light of coconut oil. In all Filipino homes such a light burns through the night. It goes out just a day-break to awaken people by its spluttering. My mother was teaching me to read in a Spanish reader called “The Children’s Friend” (El Amigo de los Ninos). This was quite a rare book and an old copy. It had lost its cover and my sister had cleverly made a new one. She had fastened a sheet of thick blue paper over the back and then covered it with a piece of cloth. This night my mother became impatient with hearing me read so poorly. I did not understand Spanish and so I could not read with expression. She took the book from me. First she scolded me for drawing funny pictures on its pages. Then she told me to listen and she began to read. When her sight was good, she read very well. She could recite well, and she understood verse-making, too. Many times during Christmas vacations, my mother corrected my poetical compositions, and she always made valuable criticisms. I listened to her; full of childish enthusiasm. I marveled at the nice-sounding phrases which she read from those some pages. The phrases she read so easily stopped me at every breath. Perhaps I grew tired of listening to sounds that had no meaning for me. Perhaps I lacked self-control. Anyway, I paid little attention to reading. I was watching the cheerful flame. About it, some little moths were circling in playful fights. By chance, too, I yawned. My mother soon noticed that I was not interested. She stopped reading. Then she said to me: “I am going to read you a very pretty story. Now pay attention.” On hearing the word “story” I at once opened my eyes wide. The word “story” promised something new and wonderful. I watched my mother while she turned the leaves of the book, as if she were looking for something. Then I settled down to listen. I was full of curiosity and wonder. I had never dreamed that there were stories in the old book which I read without understanding. My mother began to read me the fable of the young moth and the old one. She translated it into Tagalog a little at a time. My attention increased from the first sentence. I looked toward the light and fixed my gaze on the moths which were circling around it. The story could not have been better timed. My mother repeated the warning of the old moth. She dwelt upon it and directed it to me. I heard her, but it is a curious thing that the light seemed to me each time more beautiful, the flame more attractive. I really envied the fortune of the insects. They frolicked so joyously in its enchanting splendor that the ones which had fallen and been drowned in the oil did not cause me and my dread. My mother kept on reading and I listened breathlessly. The fate of the two insects interested me greatly. The flame rolled its golden tongue to one side and a moth which this movement had singed fell into the oil, fluttered for a time and then became quiet. That became for me a great event. A curious change came over me which I have always noticed in myself whenever anything has stirred my feelings. The flame and the moth seemed to go further away and my mother’s words sounded strange and uncanny. I did not when she ended the fable. All my attention was fixed on the face of the insect. I watched it with my whole soul… It had died a martyr to its illusions. As she put me to bed, my mother said: “See that you do not behave like the young moth. Don’t be disobedient, or you may get burnt as it did.” I do not know whether I answered or not… The story revealed to me things until then unknown. Moths no longer were, for me, insignificant insects. Moths talked; they know to warn. They advised just like my mother. The light seemed to me more beautiful. It had grown more dazzling and more attractive. I knew why the moths circled the flame. The Story of the Moth is in Rizal’s diary describing his childhood study under the tutorship of his mother. In hindsight, the story is significant as it was like a prophecy of what can happen to Rizal when he gets near the “light”. The young moth symbolizes Rizal as a youth and the old moth was his mother and the light signifying “education”. Later in Rizal’s life, as he was nearing his death, he realized that “if you know more… then they will cut your head.” APPLICATION 1. How will you describe the family, childhood, and early education of Rizal? 2. Research about the relationship and influence of Rizal’s brothers and sisters to him. CONGRATULATIONS! You finished the lesson 4! I hope you enjoyed and learned in this lesson. Kindly proceed to the last lesson of Module 1! Isa na lang gyud. LESSON 5 Rizal’s Life: Higher Education and Life Abroad At the end of the lesson, the students shall be able to: • Explain the principle of assimilation advocated by the Propaganda Movement. • Appraise Rizal’s relationship with other Propagandists. Welcome to the 5th and final lesson in this module! In this lesson, you will be introduced to Rizal’s formal schooling at Ateneo, the Atenean education system, how Rizal became “Sobresaliente, Rizal and the Cavite mutiny of 1872, the execution of the triumvirate priests, injustices to Rizal’s mother and Rizal’s “disillusionment”. This will only take up few minutes of your time. Hereafter is an activity that will tickle your mind about you and your role in history. ACTIVITY Conduct an interview with any of your family member (preferably your grandmother/father) and ask if what they know about Rizal’s life. Summarize and form it into paragraphs. ANALYSIS • Discuss why Rizal changed his surname from Mercado to Rizal. What is the meaning of his surname as well as its relevance to his personality? • Explicate the symbolism of GomBurZa’s execution. ABSTRACTION His Formal Schooling at Ateneo His formal schooling begun on June 10, 1872 when he passed the entrance exams in Colegio de San Juan de Letran. Though he passed with flying colors, his family already decided to send him to the Ateneo Municipal (formerly Escuela Pia- a charity school for boys) for the obvious reason of avoiding a confrontation of young Jose with the Dominicans who were much hated because of their land lease policies as well as the tragic incident where Donya Teodora was accused of a crime that she never committed. When Rizal was in Ateneo, he was very much interested in reading and some of his readings inspired Rizal to write his first novel, Noli Me Tangere. Some of the notable books he read were; a. The Count of Monte Cristo- was written by Alexander Dumas where he tackled the social justice of the society at that time. Its main character, Edmond Dantes led the struggle for his people which consequently made him the Count of Monte Cristo, which may be a destiny for those who are good to others. b. Universal History- was written by Cesar Cantu, an Italian historian of World History. Rizal voraciously read the book which opened his awareness world history and the world around him. c. Travels in the Philippines- was written by Feodor Jagor who traveled to the Philippines from 18591860. After reading the works of Jagor, Rizal realized the weaknesses of Spain and he predicted that Filipinos will raise arms against them thereafter. Atenean Education System The Atenean educational system was one of the best training for boys second to Letran that time. Moreover, the educational system of Ateneo was quite competitive. Based on the reckonings then, the students were divided into two groups; • • Roman Empire- consisting of internos (boarders); red banner Carthaginian Empire- composed of the externos (non-boarders); blue banner The levels of the 2 groups were divided into 5, namely; • • • • • Emperor- the best student in each “empire” Tribune-the second best Decurion-the third best Centurion-the fourth best Stand-bearer-the fifth best After a couple of months, Rizal showed that he excelled in philosophy, arts and sciences which was the “core curriculum” of Ateneo at that time. Rizal became “Sobresaliente” After his stint in Ateneo, Jose Rizal was honored as “sobresaliente” or an “excellent” student. Aside from his academic studies, young Jose was very active in “extra-curricular activities” such as being a member of the Marian Congregation, cultivating his masterpieces under Father Sanchez, painting classes under Agustin Saez, sculpture under Romualdo de Jesus and Father Lleonart who was impressed with Rizal’s achievements. Jose gave him an image of the Virgin Mary (which was sculpted in “batikuling” wood for his masterpiece). His grades are based on the following entries, to wit; Bachillerato En Artes (Bachelor of Arts) 1872-1873 Latin 1 (Excellent) Spanish 1 (Excellent) Greek 1 (Excellent) 1873-1874 Spanish 2 (Excellent) Greek 2 (Excellent) Universal Geography (Excellent) 1874-1875 Latin 3 (Excellent) Spanish 3 (Excellent) Universal History (Excellent) History of Spain and the Philippines (Excellent) Arithmetic and Algebra (Excellent) 1875-1876 Rhetoric and Poetry (Excellent) French (Excellent) Geometry and Trigonometry (Excellent) 1876-1877 Philosophy 1 (Excellent) Philosophy 2 (Excellent) Mineralogy and Chemistry (Excellent) Physics (Excellent) Botany and Zoology (Excellent) Rizal was successful in gaining excellent ratings in Ateneo. He won several awards aside from “sobresaliente”. Moreover, aside from the academics, young Jose wrote his masterpieces. Among them was the poem below: Un Recuerdo a Mi Pueblo (In Memory of my Town) This poem was written by Rizal when he was 15 in 1876 where he reminisced his provincial life in Binyang). When I remember the days That saw my early childhood Spent on the green shores Of a murmurous lagoon; When I remember the coolness, Delicious and refreshing, That on my face I felt As I heard Favonious croon; When I behold the white lily Swell to the wind’s impulsion, And that tempestuous element Meekly asleep on the sand; When I inhale the dear Intoxicating essence The flowers exude when dawn Is smiling on the land; Sadly, sadly I recall Your visage, precious childhood, Which an affectionate mother Made beautiful and bright; I recall a simple town, My comfort, joy and cradle, Beside a balmy lake, The seat of my delight. Ah, yes, my awkward foot Explored your somber woodlands, And on the banks of your rivers In frolic I took part. I prayed in your rustic temple, A child, with a child’s devotion; And your unsullied breeze Exhilarated my heart. The Creator I saw in the grandeur Of your age-old forests; Upon your bosom, sorrows Were ever unknown to me; While at your azure skies I gazed, neither love nor tenderness Failed me, for in nature Lay my felicity. Tender childhood, beautiful town, Rich fountain of rejoicing And of harmonious music That drove away all pain: Return to this heart of mine, Return my gracious hours, Return as the birds return, When flowers spring again! But O goodbye! May the Spirit Of God, a loving gift-giver, Keep watch eternally over Your peace, your joy, your sleep! For you, my fervent prayers; For you, my constant desire To learn; and I pray heaven Your innocence to keep! Rizal and the Cavite Mutiny of 1872 It was on January 20, 1872, when a group of mutineers rose arms in one of the shipyards in Kabite (believed to be in Fort San Felipe) wherein they instigated the beginning of a rising revolution which was led by Sgt. La Madrid. The main cause of mutiny probably was due to “polo y servicios” or forced labor and “buiz” or taxes. In the latter days, all 200 soldiers were tried, executed and some were banished to Mindanao island. Some of the supporters were also tried and executed by the Spanish authorities. The event was to suppress “secularization” which was voiced out by the Filipino priests at that time. The Execution of the Triumvirate Priests The Cavite Mutiny is best described by the execution of the three priests- Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora. They were responsible for the “Filipinization of parishes” or simply called, Secularization. The execution of the 3 priests on February 17, 1872 became the catalyst for the Filipinos to raise arms. Rizal was 11 years old that time and was one of the “eyewitnesses” of the execution of the 3 priests by “garrote” in Luneta. According to the late historian,Teodoro Agoncillo the year 1872 was the “beginning of Philippine History, that the real history was written by nationalists. On the other hand, Schumacher (1997) described the manipulation of the Spaniards of the parishes that were fighting for Filipinization by some Filipino priests; among them were GomBurZa. Injustices to Rizal’s Mother Another challenge for Rizal was when his mother, Donya Teodora together with Senyor Alberto, were accused by the latter’s wife of connivance to poison her. As a result of the “hearsay” from Senyor Alberto’s wife, Donya Teodora was arrested. Though the mayor forced her to admit her guilt, she did not do so and so she was imprisoned for almost 2 years. After reaching the Real Audiencia (the Spanish Supreme Court), the ease was dismissed so Donya Teodora was released from prison. Unfortunately, the Rizal family were deeply hurt and the damage done was very hard to accept. Rizal and his “Disillusionment” The events of 1872 where the triumvirate martyrs were executed in Luneta by “garrote” have opened the eyes of many leading to a “political turmoil”. Rizal was 11 years of age when he saw the clamor of his countrymen for justice and truth from the evil Castillan Empire. The events that took place as stated- the death of GomBurZa, the persecution of his mother and the injustices committed by the friars in Kalamba’s tenancy were the trigger points of young Jose to fight the Spaniards up to his last breath which ended at the Luneta execution. APPLICATION 1. After the Cavite Mutiny and The Execution of the 3 martyrdom priests, what did Rizal and scholars do? 2. Who are the members of the Propaganda Movement? What is their relationship with Rizal? 3. Explain the principle of assimilation advocated by the Propaganda Movement. CONGRATULATIONS! You made it until the end of this module! ☺ We hope you learned a lot and you’ll be more eager to learn new lessons for the next lessons! Keep up the good work! Aim high! God bless! MODULE ASSESSMENT TEST I. Identify at least 1 person who has made some remarkable contributions to your community. List down his/her qualities and major contributions. In a Venn Diagram, plot the qualities of Dr. Jose Rizal and the person you have identified. On the non-intersecting circles plot his/her unique qualities and plot the qualities they have in common with Rizal on the middle. TEST II. Reflection: Do you want to be Dr. Jose Rizal in this Modern World? Why or Why not. MODULE SUMMARY This module tackles History as the study of the past and how it is very much related to the present and the future events. History can also be repeated in the same person, event and place. Documents are one of the reliable sources of history according to Teodoro Agoncillo. Therefore, the sources of history are primary and secondary. History has two dimensions namely: Geographical and Chronological. Therefore, the study of history gives a wide range of thoughts wherein the past links the present and the future sequence of events. Discussed in this module is the relevance of RA No. 1425 or the Rizal Law which emphasizes the relevance of the law to foster Filipino Nationalism. The module also described the 19th Century Philippines. In politics, the centralized government was introduced where the Governor-General had the sole power to executive, legislative, and judicial power. In economics, the Philippines adopted the ‘encomienda system’ as its economic policy. Moreover, friar corporations enriched themselves especially the landlords. The social atmosphere was based on the social stratification from the principals to the lowest indios. We also discussed the early childhood of Rizal, his first education from his mother. Rizal’s childhood is the same as that of ordinary children. His education in Binan as well as his tutorial education prepared him for his studies at the Ateneo Municipal. Rizal excelled his formal schooling at the Ateneo Municipal. He also observed well the ateneans treated Filipino students that time which was a lot better than the Thomasian training. While schooling in Ateneo, he was beset by problems and agonies like the injustice done to his mother and the 1872 execution of the famous GomBurZa because they were accused of conspiracy in the Cavite Mutiny. Rizal’s success in Ateneo became one of the main achievement of his life. REFERENCES 1. Galicia, R.D., Solmerano, E.T.M. & Palencia, M.M. (2018). The life and works of Jose Rizal. Manila: Fastbooks Educational Supply. 2. Jaime-Francisco, V. (2015). Jose P. Rizal: A college textbook on Jose Rizal’s life and writing. Manila: Mindshapers Co., Inc. 3. Valenzuela, E. &Calayag, E. (2019). Rizal’s Life and Works: Towards Social Awareness and Nationalism 4. Zaide, G.F. &Zaide, S.M. (1999). Jose Rizal: Life, Works and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientist and National hero. Quezon City: All-Nations Pub. Co., Inc.