Chapter 1
Background of the Study
In our education process today, students’ online performance in the
school takes the highest percentage in the grades of learners. And one
determined problem behind this is the poor performance of students which
is caused by many uncountable reasons. One reason that has been found
out is the poor values of students wherein according to Ng and Renshaw
(2002, 2003) they found out that personal values influence achievement
of students.
The personal value is where an individual will show his/her egos,
dislikes and preferences to fulfil or prioritize his/her needs. As to what
Perry (2013) said” value is interpreted as an importance that is derivative
of interest, needs, and wills of individual”. This is where students will show
their choices and decisions that are influenced by their values.
So if
students apply good values in their choices then it will have positive effect
to their performance. Same applies to negative values, wherein poor
performances of students are the results of the choices and decisions that
are influenced by their negative values.
And in our society, our world is becoming smaller rapidly and it is
possible for people belonging to different languages, religions, races,
cultures and values to come together. “In today’s society, a student spends
an average of ten thousand hours on video games and talking on a mobile
phone, receives and sends two hundred thousand e-mail messages before
reaching higher education”, (Yapici, 2016). Young people in today’s
generation are advance in technology where it diminishes their social
interaction in the society. Spending much time to gadgets than school
activities is prominent among students and because of this their
performance in school is being affected.
According to Bobowi (2011) on her conducted study, “Personality
and parent’s values are the predictors of student values”. Values possess
by parents is what being adapted by children. For example, a child who
saw his mother smoking cigarette may do the same when he grows up.
This result to poor performance of students if parents how negative values.
In relation to this, school, as the second home of learners must integrate
values in their learning.
Values can be taught and learned. As Peque (2001) and Pantaleon
(2002) showed that student’s behaviour and positive traits were enhanced
as a result of their values education lessons. Department of Education
programmed values education as a subject and mandated to be taught
among public schools. Private’s schools integrated values education to
enhance students’ behaviour.
As to DO 41, s. 2003 - Values Education in the Basic Education
Curriculum. May 22, 2003.DO 41, s. 2003. To ensure effective
implementation of Values Education which is one of the emphases of the
restructured Basic Education Curriculum, values education teachers
should be utilized fully to help the other subject area teachers integrate
values development in the subject area they teach. Values have a social
function: commonly held values unite families, tribes, societies, and
nations. They are essential to the democratic way of life, which puts a high
premium on freedom and the rule of law.
After the Revolution of February 1986, the DECS made values
education a primary thrust. The DECS thrust found strong support in the
Philippine Constitution of 1987 in its vision of "a just and humane society,"
which calls for a shared culture and commonly held values such as "truth,
justice, freedom, love, equality and peace."
These findings of study will help schools, departments and all
education stakeholders to understand the importance of inculcating
values. In Values and Teacher Education System, one perspective is that
values have to be inculcated through deliberate effort and not left to
chance. Meaning values has to be taught with embodiment of each to
students through the involvement of both parents and teachers with
concerns providing them with good educations. Through this, the bad
attitudes and behaviors’ of students will be properly and equally
For the researchers, this study will equip them with many insights
and provide them understanding on the different values that are
influential to performance and the findings help to realize that
performance are affected not only by values but of many other factors.
The researchers also believe that this study will be of great
importance to Senior High students where this help them to understand,
be aware and realize the effects of their choices towards values. And also
motivate them to embody good values for they will become a model for the
next generation.
Conceptual Framework
The succeeding part of this research would present some theories
related to some theories, conducted research about Max Scheler’s
Hierarchy of Values, its effect to the student’s academic activities, its
implementation to the Senior High School students and studies which
ground the development of the study.
This study is anchored to the following Max Scheler’s Hierarchy of
Values: (a) Pleasure Values which is the pleasant against the unpleasant
or the agreeable against the disagreeable; sensual feelings and experiences
of pleasure or pain (b) Vital Values that pertains to the well-being either of
the individual or of the community; health; values of vital feeling. (c)
Spiritual Values, it is the values of independent of the whole sphere of the
body and of the environment; grasped in spiritual acts of preferring. Lastly,
Values of the holy it appears only in regard to objects intentionally given
as “absolute objects”.
There are many studies in other countries indicating that
spirituality has a positive impact upon students’ academic performance.
Students who take the time to commit to spiritual activities enhance their
ability to excel academically.
One study on the relationship between trust in God and academic
achievement of girl middle school of Yazd City, Iranfound that there is a
significant positive relationship between trust in God and academic
achievements (AlirezaBakhshayesh, 2011). Hodge (2007) discovered that
students participating in spiritual activities do not gain lower academic
scores for missing their classes. Instead, it seems that participating in this
program enhances their academic achievements.
(Walker & Dixon, 2002) found that spiritual beliefs and religious
participation were positively related to academic performance. Students
who participated in religious activities and/or had spiritual beliefs had
better academic performance. Jeynes (2002) also found that religious
schooling and religious commitment both had a positive impact on the
academic performance of students and also on their school-related
behaviour. Students who were committed to their religion were wellbehaved in school and had better academic performance.
Barmola (2016) studied the spirituality and motivation among
Senior High students. The present study specially aimed to know the role
of spirituality in motivation among Senior High students. Motivation are
of two categories; intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic is that motivation which
gives mostly internal satisfaction without having any desire of external
awards. On the other hand, extrinsic is driven by external rewards. It is
explored in the current study by statistical measure Pearson rho. Positive
and highly significant correlation is found between spirituality and
motivation of Senior High students. Therefore, it may be concluded that
students who are spiritual may be more motivated than non-spiritual. And
on the other hand students who are motivated could be more spiritual
than students with low motivation.
One of the studies conducted by Byrd, Hageman and Isle (2007) and
it was evolved that intrinsic religiousness could not only be the lone
predictor in satisfaction, purpose and self-efficacy of life but also in the
subjective wellbeing of the individual. In view of career decision making
among people it was found that people having strong spiritual bond with
almighty and religiousness may just enhance their ability to make decision
but also ready to explore different career options (Duffya and Blustein,
Morality usually comes in mind when someone talks about
religiosity and spirituality. Morality could be a significant factor in
motivation in the process of implanting ethical principles. Very common
issue in the process of examination in schools and Senior High is cheating.
Why is this? Though there are many rules and regulations to control it
even if it is found difficult to control. Can be there any mean to reduce it
internally among students. It can be explored in view of spirituality or
religiosity. With reference to cheating behaviour, a study found that
religiosity of the students has reduced the cheating behaviour in exams
(Rettinger and Jordan, 2005)