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i.e. Tuvalu (7km2), Naura (21km2)
Size is not important but must have a clear
State: a political unit composed of people, well-defined
territory and a set of governing institutions.
Differences between common law and civil law
A government
There must be in existence a government
system in the state.
International law does not prescribe the exact
form of government, except that it must be in
conformity with the right of self-determination of
Common law
Derived from English Law
Refers to case laws
Adversarial (lawyers play
active role)
Based on the rights of the
precedent (first case ever
decided in the court, obeys
doctrine of stare decisis)
Unwritten law
i.e. UK, Australia, Hong
Kong, USA, Canada
Civil law
Derived from Roman Law
Refers to statutes
Inquisitorial (judges play
active role)
Based on the best interest
of the society
Law is codified (decisionmaking must be referred
from the constitutions, acts
or other statutes)
Written law
i.e. Italy, Spain (French),
Constitutive theory: defines a state as a person of
International law if, and only if, it is recognised as
sovereign by other states.
Declarative theory: four criteria must be met
(permanent population, defined territory, a government,
capacity to enter into relations with other states)
Art. 1 of Montevideo Convention on the Rights and
Duties of States 1933)
The convention codified the declarative theory
of statehood as accepted to be as part of
customary international law.
Signed at Montevideo, Uruguay at December
26, 1933.
Signed by 19 states inc. Paraguay, Brazil, US,
Peru, Argentina.
Not matured statehood
Republic of Abkhazia
Near Georgia in Russia.
Cannot achieve independent.
No government.
Against by Israel.
Should be a matured statehood.
Lack of effective control over the claimed
territory (government control – external).
No accurate border.
Governed by military.
Not recognised by international community.
Types of government control
Permanent population
An aggregate of individuals of both sexes who
live together as a community in spite of the fact
that they may be of different races or creeds.
There is no specific rule in the number of
i.e. Naura: 1000 citizens only
Defined territory
Exclusive rights to display activities of the state
within a certain geographical area.
No rule prescribing on the minimum size of the
Capacity to enter into relations with other states
Forms diplomatic ties.
Negotiate agreements.
i.e. Malaysia and Israel does not have
diplomatic relationship.
A government implies capacity to establish and
maintain a legal order in the sense of
constitutional autonomy.
This means that government focus on the
country and its constitution itself.
A government has the ability to act
autonomously on the international level without
being dependent on other states within the
international legal order.
Thus, state of Palestine was not a state due to
lack of effective control over the claimed
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State sovereignty
Ability of a state to be independent and free
from control of another state.
The power of a state to do everything
necessary to govern itself, such as making,
executing and applying laws, imposing an
collecting taxes, making war and peace, and
forming treaties or engaging commerce in with
foreign nations.
Emerged 350 years ago as a result of the
Treaty of Westphalia.
Vested in government or other political agency.
Sovereignty in international law
The legitimate exercise of power and the
interpretation of international law by a state.
Government possess full control over its own
affairs within a territorial or geographical area
or limit.
Challenges to sovereignty
Concepts of sovereignty
The right to command and correlatively the riht
to be obeyed/
The holder of sovereignty possess authority.
Not just mere authority but supreme authority.
A holder of sovereignty derives authority from
some mutually acknowledged source of
i.e. from Natural law, a divine mandate,
hereditary law, constitution, international law.
What makes the constitution of superior to the
i.e. Federal Constitution is a supreme law of
Principle by which a community is to be
Specifies that their membership derives from
their residence within borders.
Types of sovereignty
De jure
“According to the law” (created in respect of
constitutional law).
The legal right to exercise the power.
May happen: de jure sovereign may not be able
to command obedience while someone else,
whose identity may or may not be recognised
by law, is actually obeyed.
De facto
“The ability in fact to do so”.
Government in control.
Although it may not be legally accepted as
Has no legal claim to sovereignty but exercises
necessary force to make and enforce laws.
i.e. Palestine vs Israel, People’s Republic of
China (mainland China) vs Republic of China
The rise of human rights
The emergence of human rights affect
sovereignty because these “agreed upon”
principles set clear limits on the authority of
government to act within their borders.
i.e. in Malaysia, any action taken by
government that is against human rights will be
criticised by people.
Economic globalisation
The growth of multinational organisation has
placed constraints on state ability to direct
development and fashion social, and economic
This is because economic globalisation will
increase flow of communications which allows
vital information to be shared between
individuals and corporations around the world.
The globalisation in economy will promote
some sort like changes in idea of certain way
how economy growth and direction of economy
will be directed by not only government, but
also multinational organisation.
i.e. Michelin, producer of wheel. They control
over the manufacturing and business of rubber
wheel without any intervention of government.
This is because Michelin has full control over
the sources. Thus, sovereignty is affected.
The growth of international organisations/
supranational institutions
Emerges as significant source of authority that
place limit in state sovereignty.
Member states transcend national boundaries
or interests to share in the decision-making and
vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping.
In today’s world no state can openly disregard
global enactments made by such international
organisations, i.e. UN.
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Organisations established not by nation states,
but by certain group of individuals,
businessmen and other societal forces.
Oppose the characteristics of nation states
which have absolute power of their countries
including borders, sovereignty, religious
matters and ethnics.
Does not fulfill the requirement of a state.
But give impact to particular state especially to
the rule-making such as in the country’s
Classifications of Non-state Actors
International Intergovernmental Organisations
International Non-Governmental Organisations
Types of INGOs
Functions of INGOs
Non-state actors that are created by nation
Voluntary organisations of sovereign states.
Established by treaty or other agreements.
Usually have a legislative body which creates
legal acts (decisions, resolutions, directives).
May be classified by scope and by function.
Play significant role by providing means of
cooperation and multiple channels of
communication among states.
i.e. United Nations, IMF, WHO, Organisation of
Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).
Functions of IGOs
Rule making
Agenda setting
Information gathering
Private institutions that are independent of the
Established by certain group of individuals,
businessmen or societal forces.
i.e. Greenpeace, WWF, Amnesty International
Reasons for INGOs’ emergence
Role of government increased.
Government does not respond to the needs of
and demand of the people.
Pressure from government policies.
Communication revolution.
Business and industry
Provide analysis and expertise, serve as early
warning mechanism and help monitor and
implement international agreements.
Alerting global network of supporters to
conditions requiring attention (relief suffering).
Creating emergency response around the
Mobilising pressure from outside states.
Enhance public participation within states by
reminding government delegates that they are
being watched.
Gathering information on local conditions
through contacts around the world.
Advantages of Non-state Actors
Helping in solving world crisis
Crisis Yom Kippur War (Security Council
adopted resolution 338 in 1973)
Crisis of Iran 1946 (Security Council adopted
resolution 2.
Solving world hunger (WFP, Stop Hunger Now,
Bread for the World)
Gain more trust from the people
Diplomatic relation
Help in the international trade and diplomatic
i.e. ASEAN – 10 countries participated in
Southeast Asia.
United Nations.
Have more of a grass roots focus
Usually focus on specific issue.
i.e. WFP (food), WWF (wildlife), WHO (health).
Can find problems and solutions faster than the
government since the government has a lot of
matters to take care of.
Assisting the government on issues that they
may have overlooked.
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Disadvantages of non-state actors
Interference of veto power
Permanent members of UN (China, Russia,
France, USA, UK).
i.e. USA has vetoed 32 recommendations
regarding the issue of Israel.
Implication of neutral ground
Principle in ASEAN do not interfere with other
country’s sovereignty.
i.e. ASEAN towards Myanmar.
Cannot solve the problem of Rohingya because
practiced the ASEAN principle.
Domination of power
Price determination.
i.e. OPEC determining and dominating the
price of oil around the world.
Advantages of non-state actors
Specific issues.
Provide the information.
Settle economic issue among them.
Get cooperation through sort of formal
They hold the state sovereignty.
Disadvantages of non-state actors
Plays lesser role in political issue.
State has to give part of their sovereignty.
Inequality among the state members.
The membership is limited.
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Successor of the League of Nations.
Failed to prevent world war.
Founded in 1945 after the 2nd world war by 51
international peace and security, developing
friendly nations, promoting social progress,
better living standards and human rights.
Structure of UN
193 state members.
2 non-member states (Holy See and Palestine).
Non-members receive standing invitation to
participate as observers in the sessions and the
work of the General Assembly and maintaining
permanent observer missions at Headquarters.
Secretariat, General Assembly, Security
Council, ECOSOC (economic and social), ICJ.
Aim and Objectives
To keep peace throughout the world
Agreements on disarmament i.e. the NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) for nuclear weapons.
Declaration on Principles of International Law
concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation
among states.
States shall settle their international disputes by
peaceful means in such a manner that
international peace and security and justice are
not endangered.
To develop friendly relations among nations
Declaration on Principles of International Law
concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation
among States.
States shall refrain in their international
relations from the threat or use of force against
the territorial integrity or political independence
of any state.
The duty of states to co-operate with one
To help nations work together to improve the
lives of poor people, to conquer hunger,
diseases and illiteracy, and to encourage
respect for each other’s rights and freedoms
WFP (world hunger – food assistance branch of
the United Nations).
UN Declaration of Human Rights.
UNESCO (education, scientific, cultural).
To be a centre for harmonising the actions of
nations to achieve these goals.
Acts as the middleman.
Might seem to interfere, but actually
Run day-to-day operation.
Provides administrative task.
Led by Secretary General (who is appointed by
Security Council for five years).
Staffs are only answerable to UN, not to the
country they operate (i.e. UNESCO Malaysia).
General Assembly
Main deliberative organ of UN.
Composed of representatives from all member
Decide and pass important policies.
Consider and make recommendations on the
maintaining internal peace and security,
including disarmament.
Initiate studies and make recommendations to
promote international political cooperation,
human rights, ecosoc, etc.
Elect non-permanent members of the Security
Council and members of other UN councils and
organs, recommend the Security Council,
appoint Secretary General.
Each member has one vote to vote on issues.
Security Council
Five permanent members: China, France, UK,
Russia, USA.
Ten non-permanent members elected for twoyear terms by the General Assembly.
Carries out the aim and objectives of UN.
Responsible for cooperation between states on
economic and social fields.
i.e. raise standard of living.
Located in Hague, Netherlands.
Resolve dispute between states.
Judges elected by General Assembly and
Security Council for period of nine years.
May entertain 1) legal dispute between states
submitted to them, 2) requests for advisory
opinions on legal relations referred to it.
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Contributions of UN
Maintaining international peace and security
There are 16 UN peacekeeping operations
deployed on four continents.
i.e. UN Military Observer Group in India and
Pakistan and UN Mission in Liberia.
Countering terrorism
Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force
(CTITF) was established in order to ensure
coordination and coherence in UN activities on
i.e. I-ACT Mission 2015.
Seeing it as a mean for countries who already
possess nuclear weapons to keep their
weapons and prevent others from developing it.
Biological welfare
Killing people with intentional
diseases – for overpopulation.
States are not bound to bid by the sanctions
provided by UN.
One of UN’s bodies, ICJ, is created to resolve
disputes between states.
However, not all states follow the decision of
the court.
The sanctions provided by UN are not always
States are not legally binded to follow UN’s
Therefore it is not effective because these
countries are also a part of the world.
i.e. Malaysia do not ratify to some of UN’s
Protecting human rights
UN Human Rights Council.
UN Declaration of Human Rights, the first legal
document in protecting universal human rights
and is generally agreed to be the foundation of
international human rights law.
Delivering humanitarian aid
Helping refugees (UNHCR).
WFP sends food aid to Syrian refugees.
Challenges of UN
Keeping human rights
LGBT – everyone has different standards of
human rights due to different cultural and
religious beliefs.
Insufficient funding
Salary of the staffs
Refugee crisis, etc.
Trying to curb the spread of diseases
New diseases keep coming in.
Spread too quickly.
Could get out of control.
Limited supply
Enforcing the law
Veto power.
The threat of nuclear weapon
North Korea withdrew from NPT.
Announced on March 2016 that they’re going to
launch their nuclear soon.
Keeping countries in a treaty
North Korea withdrew from NPT.
10) Outdated structure
15) The permanent members have veto power.
16) Outgrowing number of members, therefore
more states should be able to be permanent
members as well.
17) These other states can only pass non-binding
18) The big five does not seem to have the
intention to give up any power or share it with
more states.
11) Increasing demands
Not enough peacekeeping troops.
States are asked to contribute troops for peacekeeping but it is still not enough.
100 peacekeepers had died last year and
dozens have been taken captive.
Unreliable funding
Funded by voluntary contributions.
Not enough donations.
WFP had to suspend a food voucher program
serving more than 1.7mil Syrian refugees after
the donors failed to meet their commitments.
Members owed about $3.5bil for regular
operations and peacekeeping.
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Failure to achieve UN’s objectives
Effectiveness of UN
Effective in reducing climate change.
Kyoto Protocol.
Kyoto, Japan in 1997.
Successful efforts on helping the people in
Developed smartphone application: Share The
Meal, which is very successful.
All that it takes is a single click and $0.50 will
be donated to Syrian refugees.
NPT (North Korea, Israel, Pakistan, India)
Sri Lanka; The Safe Zone
Child Sex Abuse Scandal
Veto power of permanent members (one vote
will beat others – i.e. China and Russia vetoed
the attempt to intervene and prevent genocide
in Syria, resulting to 60,000 been killed, with
thousands more displaced).
The Cold War
Veto power
Weaknesses of UN
Failure to act fast
i.e. to curb the spread of diseases.
Too slow until the disease is
widespread and out of control.
Wasting the fund
Divided into different branches and suborganisations, cost a lot of money.
Huge salaries are paid to international staffs.
UN is not a business firm which people can
make money out of.
As a development agency, the fund is
supposed to be channeled to help the poor as
best as they could.
UN must cut the salary of expats in order to
make the available funding to the program’s
operation and development.
Difficult to recruit and retain the right staff
Senior staffs are guaranteed contracts that can
cost an upwards of $300-500k a year.
Yet the bulk of the work falls on lower level staff
who are not guaranteed a salary for more than
a few months at a time.
As a result, each individual response, project
and program must go through long and timeconsuming recruitment processes just to find
the right team.
Need to improve its relations
Have to be more open to working with civil
society as well – local NGOs for example.
Held by the five permanent members (USA,
UK, France, Russia, People’s Republic of
Art. 27 of the UN Charter.
Imbalance of power.
Misuse of power.
However if no veto or permanent seats
anymore, it will boil up rejection from the big
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Refers to the shrinking distance among the
continents, a wider geographic senses of
interconnectedness of important aspects of
human life including religion, migration, war,
finance, trade, diseases, drugs and music.
interconnectedness and interdependence of the
world’s markets and businesses.
Began with the first movement of people out of
Migrants, merchants, etc.
Melaka was the center of globalisation.
Columbus discovered America.
Types of globalisation
Import and export goods.
Intensifies competitiveness between states.
i.e. Apple products are mostly manufactured in
China to save cost (low-skilled labour = cheap
Causes of globalisation
Human desire to explore
To look for other resources, economic security,
curiousity, etc.
Migration to seek better life.
African ancestors migrated because of
geographical problems, i.e. draught, lack of
Improved transportation system, i.e. Air Asia.
Spread of empire/political influence
Cold War – democracy (US) vs communism
Technological advancement
Internet, smartphones.
Growth of media
Global media such as CNN, CNBC, Al-Jazeera
Effects of globalisation
NYSE was the centre of the world’s economic
heartbeat. 9/11 attack had shaken the world
until today.
Sub-prime mortgage crisis – financial crisis in
USA influenced other states because USA is
the largest importer in the world.
World Bank establishment.
organisations composed of states and the
spread of non-state political actors.
War in Iraq affected the USA economy (oil).
Increase in multilateral organisations (IGO) i.e.
UN, EU, Commonwealth, to promote political
USA’s army’s presence in Korean peninsular to
ensure no war will break out between North
and South Korea.
NATO was deployed in many countries to bring
down regime, i.e. Bosnia and Libya.
Use of criminal to achieve objectives (AlQaeda,
prostitution, etc).
Border issues.
Political: the decrease of the importance of the
state. (through creation of sub-states such as
EU, ICC, etc, the state losses power of policymaking and thus sovereignty).
Global environmental problems like crossboundary pollution, over fishing on oceans,
climate changes are solved by discussions.
communication satellites, internet, mobile
phones, etc.
ICC and ICJ movements are launched.
International travel and tourism increases.
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Worldwide sport events such as FIFA World
Cup and Olympic Games.
Global standard applications such as patent,
copyright laws, word trade agreement
increases // supranational recognition: patents
authorised by one country are authorised in
another too.
Immigration between countries increases.
Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural
diffusion takes place.
Increase in the desire to use foreign ideas and
products, adopt new practices and technologies
and be a part of world culture.
Free trade zones are formed having less or no
Improve living standards and reduce poverty
Because of faster economic growth.
i.e. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the
past two decades.
China has reduced the number of rural poor
from 250mil in 1978 to 34mil in 1999.
Cheaper imports make wide range of products
to be accessible to more people.
Through competition, can promote efficiency
and productivity.
Improved wealth through the economic gains of
Led to improved access to health care and
clean water.
Increased life expectancy.
Advantages of globalisation
Faster economic growth
Shown to have consistently grown much faster
than those states that try to protect themselves.
Well-managed economies have grown at rates
that are on average 2.5% higher than states
with economies closed to globalisation.
Improved environmental awareness and
Positive environmental outcomes.
By encouraging the use of more efficient, lesspolluting
economies’ imports of renewable substitutes for
use in place of scarce domestic natural
Improved technology
Dramatically reduced costs and prices
changing the way the world communicates,
learns, does business and treats illnesses.
Decrease in adult illiteracy rates in developing
Resolved international political and economic
institutions like WTO and World Bank that
manage the settlement of government-togovernment disputes.
This have enabled international political and
economic tensions to be resolved based on
“rule of approach” rather than which state has
the greater political and economic power.
International migration
Led to greater recognition of diversity and
respect for cultural identities.
Improves democracy and access to human
Decreases the possibility of war.
Easier and faster transportation.
Free trade between countries increases.
Global mass media connects all the people in
the world (i.e. student exchange program).
As the cultural barriers reduce, the global
village dream becomes more realistic.
The interdependence of the nation-states
Disadvantages of globalisation
Spread of diseases
i.e. HIV, AIDS, swine flu, bird flu.
Spread across borders.
Greater risk of diseases being transported
unintentionally between nations.
Reduce life expectancy
Because of the diseases such as AIDS (in
some parts of Africa).
Introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to
developing countries
Major adverse health and financial costs
Harming the environment
Agricultural, forest, mining and fishing
industries exploit inadequate environmental
codes and corrupt behaviour in
Agricultural seed companies are destroying the
biodiversity of the planet and depriving
subsistence farmers of their livelihood.
Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in
one nation affecting all nations
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Impacts of globalisation on developing countries
Developing countries are able to share the
same economic growth that the developed
countries have.
i.e. World Bank and IMF encourage developing
countries to go through market reforms and
radical changes through large sum of loans.
Developing countries have taken the step to
open their market by remoring tariffs and
freeing up their economies.
Allows developed countries to invest in
developing countries, which in a way helps to
create job opportunities.
Increases the inequality between the rich and
the poor.
The benefit that globalisation brings is not
universal as the rich are getting richer and the
poor are getting poorer.
i.e. Africa, which is among the developing
countries, still holds the highest poverty rate.
Acts as a catalyst to jobs that require higher
This demand will allow people to gain higher
When demand of highly-educated people
increases, the government will somehow be
pushed by the citizens to provide better
This will cause the education of developing
countries to improve.
Causing globalised competition which forces
many professional, skilled workers who are
highly qualified and educated to migrate to
developed countries because they would want
to benefit from the higher wage rate and the
greater lifestyle prospects that developed
countries offer.
Leads to decreased skill labour in developing
The improvement of living standards and life
expectancy of people in developing countries.
Means increased fortune of the country.
With more fortunes, poor nations are able to
supply good health care services and better
sanitation to their people.
Indirectly helps to spread new diseases to
these countries.
Due to the increase of the number of travelers
that are travelling between countries, which
indirectly causes diseases to spread.
i.e. H1N1, various influenzas.
Forms of globalisation
Economic (free trade, open market)
Financial (consolidate of banks, global
operation, new technologies, universality of
Political (role of regional organisations)
Military (network around the globe)
Cultural spread (World Cup, K-Pop)
Environmental (working together to resolve
problems, water, air pollution)
Criminal (drug and human trafficking)
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Human: A member of the homo sapiens species; a man,
woman, or child; a person.
Rights: Things to which you are entitled or allowed;
freedoms that are guaranteed.
Human rights: The rights you have simply because you
are human.
History and origins
Mooted by Cyrus the Great (600BC).
All slaves were freed and everyone has the
freedom of religion, regardless of the race.
It evolved throughout the human history.
Romans refer it as natural rights.
Many tried to uphold human rights, but failed
(i.e. World War, tyranny around the world).
Finally, after WW2 ended, United Nations was
formed in 1945 which among its objectives is to
protect human rights.
UN Declaration of Human Rights – adopted in
1948 which affirms its objective.
Situations that violate human rights
Why are basic human rights violated and suggest
UDHR 1948
Drafted by representatives of all regions in the
world and encompassed of all legal traditions.
Formally adopted in 1948.
The most universal human rights document in
Equality, freedom of religion, freedom of
Types of rights
Civil rights: Personal liberties, such as freedom
of speech, thought and religion.
Political rights: Right to vote, voice political
opinions and participate in political process.
Social rights: Right to healthcare, education
and other social benefits.
Human rights claims that dominate global politics
Accusations that government are abusing
individuals (crime of genocide).
Demands by ethnic, racial and religious
communities for autonomy or independence.
Claims in what is generally regarded as private
life, including rights and obligations within
families, and the demands for equality by
minority groups within unconventional lifestyle.
Demand by governments for protection against
powerful governments and non-state actors, as
well as the right to economic development.
The rights to adequate food, housing,
employment and cultural life are denied.
War crime.
Define human rights (the rights you have
simply because you are a human)
The rights you are entitled to (freedom of
speech, freedom of religion, rights to
education, etc – give examples)
Whose responsibility is it to protect human
rights – the state
Who violated human rights – also the state
Reasons why are these rights violated – the
government itself has broken down/civil war/
there’s no government/ corruption/ greedy over
power/ abuse of power – the police became
more autocratic i.e. detention without….. / the
state of economy/ discrimination –
discriminatory practices of the state
because of race/religion – Africa, the blacks
are the majority but they cannot take the same
bus etc/ government doesn’t want to hold
elections, violate rights to vote as a citizen
Your solutions and recommendations to curb
these violations – impose sanctions
(sanctions imposed to North Korea recently,
because they threatened to launch their nuclear
weapons- no country can sell or trade with
North Korea at the moment), humanitarian
intervention- of NSA, UN can expel, UN can
suspend membership, bringing the violators
of human rights to the International Criminal
Court, demonstration- attract the attention of
other countries, bring a case to agencies
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Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their
home and seek refuge elsewhere.
United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of
An international convention that defines who is
a refugee, sets out the rights of the individuals
who are granted asylum, sets out the
responsibilities of nations that grant asylum and
sets out which people do not qualify as
refugees, such as war criminals.
The right to move freely within a country.
Free exercise of religion and religious
Free access to the courts, including legal
Access to elementary education.
Access to public relief and assistance.
Protection provided by social security.
Protection of intellectual property, i.e.
inventions and trade names.
Protection of literary, artistic and scientific work.
How to address the problem of refugees
Asylum seeker: A person who is seeking protection as a
refugee and is still waiting to have his or her claim
Legal status of refugees
Refugees are legally entitled to receive the
protection of 147 countries that have
participated in the convention.
Refugees are allowed to enter and temporarily
stay in these countries.
There is a distinction between the legal status
of refugee and Internally Displaced Person
Refugees are those who are forced to leave
their own countries while IDPs are those who
have been force to leave their residents but
have remained in their own countries.
Stateless people (illegal immigrant) are those
who have no nationality. They can also be
categorised as refugees but only if they fit the
convention’s criteria.
However, people who leave their homes
because of extreme poverty, famine, or
environmental factors do not qualify as
Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan.
Refugees rights under the International Law
The right to belong to trade unions.
The right to belong to other non-political nonprofit organisations.
The right to engage in wage-earning
The right to own property.
The right to practice a profession.
The right to self-employment.
Access to housing.
Access to higher education. // most favourable
The right to choose their place of residence.
Local integration
Granting refugees a permanent right to stay in
the host country.
However, the government of the host country
would be unwilling.
Where refugees have integrated locally in
Africa, they often do so through informal “selfsettlement”, with no firm legal status.
Resettlement in a third country
Participant countries agree to take a certain
number of refugees each year.
However, the number could be as small as nine
countries offer meaning quotes.
Nine government currently host the bulk of the
refugees who are annually resettled in new
countries (USA, Canada, Finland, Australia,
Sweden, Norway, New Zealand, Denmark,
Repatriation to the country of origin
Legally, it must only occur when the returnees’
safety can be guaranteed.
In practice, UNHCR promotes and facilitates
voluntary repatriation through various means:
organising “go-and-see” visits, compiling
updated information on the country, engaging
in peace and reconciliation activities, promoting
housing and property restitution, providing
return assistance and legal aid to returnees.
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A systematic mass murder of an ethnic,
religious, or national group based on
discriminatory preconceptions.
United Nations Convention on the Prevention of the
Crime of Genocide (CPPCG)
Examples of genocide
Armenian genocide, 1915
During WW1 by Ottoman empire.
Many Armenians ran for shelter around Europe
(Armenian Diaspora) because of it.
Many Armenians were rooted out from their
home and were forced to march in the Syrian
desert and many died.
To date, Turkey refused to acknowledge this
event as genocide. Instead, they claim that the
Armenians were victims of widespread chaos
and governmental breakdown as the Ottoman
empire collapsed before modern Turkey was
Raphael Lemkin, who introduced the term
‘genocide’ presented his essay entitled “Crime
of Barbarity” to the League of Nations.
However, it was rejected.
However, his genocide idea was accepted as
an offence against the international law and his
idea formed basis of Nuremberg Trial.
Finally, in 1948, the General Assembly adopted
“Convention on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide”.
Art 1: Genocide is a crime under the international law.
Art 2: Genocide means killing an ethnic with the intention
to destroy it.
Art 3: UN to enforce the convention in order to prevent
future genocide.
Why CPPCG is not effective?
Rwandan genocide, 1994
Occurred in Rwanda, a poor African country.
Rwanda consisted of majority of Hutu and a
small group of Tutsi tribe.
A group of Tutsi rebel invaded the capital of
Rwanda and shot down a plane that carried the
president, who is a Hutu.
As a retaliation, the Hutus committed masskillings of the Tutsis.
Bosnian genocide
Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish)
empire until 1978 and then of the AustroHungarian empire until WW1.
After the war, Serbs and Bosniaks were looking
for independence.
The Serbs, who were led by Slobodan
Milosevic, cried for Serbs nationalism.
They considered the Bosnian who were mainly
Muslim as intruders and wanted to clean the
Serbian land from the Bosnian.
There are countries that do not invoke to
Khmer Rouge in Cambodia: in power, Khmer
Rouge carried out a radical program that
included isolating the country from all foreign
influences, closing major facilities such as
schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing
banks and currency, outlawing all religions,
confiscating all public properties and relocating
people from urban areas to collective farms
where forced labour was widespread. The
purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians
into “Old People” through agricultural labour.
The regime killed 1.7mil people in Cambodia as
no one invoked to the convention even after it
has been established.
No machinery to govern the CPPCG
A permanent body is inexistent and should be
made to monitor the implementation of the
convention, and require states to issue reports
on their compliance with the convention.
This would make it more effective.
Only a small number of countries ratified to
It had the status of 146 parties.
Only 41 countries signed the convention.
It is only about 21% which is not even half.
Countries that have signed: Australia, Belgium,
Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Philippines,
Russia and others.
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A politico-economic union of 28 member states
that are primarily located in Europe.
Operates through a system of supranational
decisions by member states.
Consists of European Parliament, Council of
European Union, European Commission, Court
of Justice of European Union, European
Central Bank and Court of Auditors.
Art 1-4 of the Constitution
Art 1-5 of the Constitution
To introduce European citizenship. (protection
of fundamental human rights and freedoms)
To ensure freedom, security and justice (cooperation in the field of justice and home
To promote economic and social progress (help
people earn enough money and get treated
To develop Europe as an area of freedom,
security and justice (help Europeans to live in
safety, without the threat of war)
To maintain and build on established EU laws
(make laws that protect people’s rights in the
member countries)
To speak for EU on the international scene (by
working as a group the EU hopes that Europe
will be listened to more by other countries)
To bring its member states closer together with
respect of human rights and democracy
(common style of passport, common rules
about fair trading with each other, common
agreements about law enforcement, and other
To promote peace, the Union's values and the
well-being of its people
Guarantees the free movement of persons,
goods, services and capital within the Union
and strictly prohibits any discrimination on
grounds of nationality.
Stated the obligation to respect the national
identities and the fundamental political and
constitutional structures of the member states.
Art 1-6 of the Constitution
Lays down the principle of the primacy of the
law of EU over the law of member states. This
principle has been recognised to be the basic
principle and a key aspect of the functioning of
the Union.
Article 1-7 of the Constitution
Confers on the EU legal personality. Following
the merger of the European Community and
the EU, the new Union will therefore have the
right to conclude international agreements.
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Four main developments of EU
From economic to political union
What began as a purely economic union has
evolved into an organisation spanning policy
areas, from development aid to environment. A
name change from the EEC to the European
Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this.
The EU is based on the rule of law: everything
that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily
and democratically agreed by all member
countries. These binding agreements set out
the EU's goals in its many areas of activity.
Mobility, growth, stability and a single currency
The EU has delivered half a century of peace,
stability and prosperity, helped raise living
standards, and launched a single European
currency, the euro.
Thanks to the abolition of border controls
between EU countries, people can travel freely
throughout most of the continent. And it's
become much easier to live and work abroad in
The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main
economic engine, enabling most goods,
services, money and people to move freely.
Another key objective is to develop this huge
resource to ensure that Europeans can draw
the maximum benefit from it.
Human rights and equality
One of the EU’s main goals is to promote
human rights both internally and around the
world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy,
equality, the rule of law and respect for human
rights: these are the core values of the EU.
Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon,
the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings
all these rights together in a single document.
The EU's institutions are legally bound to
uphold them, as are EU governments
whenever they apply EU law.
Transparent and democratic institutions
As it continues to grow, the EU remains
focused on making its governing institutions
more transparent and democratic. More powers
are being given to the directly elected
parliaments are being given a greater role,
working alongside the European institutions. In
turn, European citizens have an everincreasing number of channels for taking part in
the political process.
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Definition: Deterioration of the environment through
depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, and
also the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of
Any change or disturbance to the environment
perceived to be deleterious or undesirable.
Land disturbance
Happens when there are numerous weedy
plant species.
i.e. Garlic mustard grow on the land.
These plants can assume control over nature,
eliminating the local greenery.
The result is territory with a solitary
predominant plant which does not give
satisfactory food assets to all the environmental
Pollution, in whatever form, whether it is air,
water, land or noise, is harmful for the
Air pollution pollutes the air we breathe,
causing health issues.
Water pollution degrades the quality of water
that we use for drinking purposes.
Land pollution results in degradation of the
Earth’s surface as a result of human activities.
Noise pollution can cause irrepairable damage
to our ears.
i.e. Bunus River in KL is polluted and filled with
Cutting down trees to make way for more
homes and industries.
Overpopulation results in more demand for
food, clothes and shelter. Human beings need
more space to provide homes and to grow food
for millions of people.
i.e. Decreased population of Orang Utan due to
Rapid population growth puts strain on natural
resources which results in degradation of the
Loss of biodiversity
Important to maintain the balance of
It combats pollution, restores nutrients, protect
water sources and stabilise climates.
Ozone layer depletion
Ozone layer is responsible for protecting the
Earth from harmful UV rays.
As it will deplete, it will emit harmful radiations
back to the Earth, causing possibility of skin
cancer and rising temperature of the Earth.
Impact on human health
Areas exposed to toxic air pollutants can cause
respiratory problem such as pneumonia and
Millions of people are known to have died due
to indirect effects of air pollution.
Impact the economy
In terms of restoration of green cover, cleaning
up of landfills and protection of endangered
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(International Level)
Implementing more environment protection
treaties and obeying to them
i.e. Kyoto Protocol.
Adopted in 1997.
Became a binding treaty in 2005.
192 countries were party to the treaty at the
time it was signed, along with European Union.
The main objectives include to reduce
greenhouse effect.
Rio Declaration (informally known as Earth
Consisted of 27 principles intended to guide
future sustainable development around the
7th principle stated that states shall cooperate in
a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
protect and restore the health and integrity of
the Earth’s ecosystem.
Protects and regulates the development of
resources in participating countries.
Role of INGOs
i.e. Greenpeace and WWF.
Greenpeace is an INGO focusing on protecting
the environment.
WWF is an INGO focusing on protecting the
wildlife and biodiversity conservation.
More INGOs like this should be created.
The already-existing INGOs should organise
environmental awareness programs.
June 5 – World Environment Day.
These INGOs could also do a public protest on
excessive development.
(National Level)
Government should impose punishments
Prohibit the contamination of lake, rivers and
Punish those who illegally cut down the trees in
the forest or cause pollution.
Wrong-doers should be sued under public
nuisance in tort for noise pollution.
Advertising campaign on various media i.e. TV
and internet on environmental awareness.
Can be done by NGOs.
Help promote the idea and can influence
people to protect and love the environment.
conservation among people and put ideas into
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Definition: An undesirable condition where the number
of existing human population exceeds the carrying
capacity. // Excessive population within an area that
lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment.
Migration issues (immigration)
Lack of family planning (early marriage –
increases the chance of producing more
children, use of birth control)
Cultural thing (to have many children)
More income (for poor people)
Reduced mortality rate (decline in the death
Technology advancement (create better
medical facilities, saved more lives, increase
birth rate)
Lack of education
Pollution (more people use transportations that
cause air pollution)
Depletion of resources (only limited amount of
food and water can be produced at a time,
which is insufficient for the people)
Rise in unemployment (inadequate number of
jobs to cater large number of people)
High cost of living (demand exceeds supply)
Health issues (ageing, HIV, spread of diseases)
Providing better education (sex education,
contraceptive methods)
Government policy (i.e. limit foreign workers,
one child policy – i.e. China, tax exemptions,
strict migration laws)
Reducing birth rate (abortion, abstinence,
contraception, government policy)
UN Population Fund (prepare and study the
effects of population, assist government to
initiate a reproductive education)
Millennium Development Goals (prepare
blueprint for reducing poverty and improving
lives agreed to by all countries and all leading
development institutions)
Biological welfare (intentional spread of new
Emigration (bring people out of the country)
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Definition: The unlawful use of force or violence against
persons or property to intimidate or coerce the
government, the civilian population or any segment
thereof in furtherance of a political or social objectives.
Types of terrorism
Domestic terrorism
Occurs within borders of a state.
Usually happen when someone is dissatisfied
with the government, other groups or policies.
Launched by killing and bombing at
government offices.
i.e. Latin American – Shinning Path, Tupac
Amaru (one incident involved Malaysian
Ambassador in Peru)
Nationalist terrorism
Terrorism that is motivated by nationalism,
usually with strong nationalist ideas and goals.
Sometimes they want to establish an
independent state, or take control of a certain
region and sometimes to overthrow the
government of a country or to accomplish the
abolition of an entire political system to replace
it with another.
A form of terrorism which participants attempt
to form an independent state against what they
consider an occupying, imperial or otherwise
illegitimate state.
Provisional Irish Republican Army, Gerakan
Acheh Merdeka
Religious terrorism
Irresponsible act by certain group of people by
using violence in the name of religion.
They misinterpret the word of God in order to
achieve their political interest.
They believe that everyone is sinner and they
were the chose one to finish God’s work.
Always linked to Islam but exists in other
religions too.
i.e. ISIS, Al-Qaeda, KKK.
State terrorism
The terror act used by the state to suppress
Use of violence to coerce or intimidate and to
create fear among the citizens.
This was a popular tactic to command respect
and fear among its people during WW1 and
i.e. Germany (Nazi), Russia (Stalinist), Iraq,
North Korea, Uganda.
Three levels: intimidation (use of force to
discourage opposition and dissent by exploiting
the police and army force), coerced conversion
(forcing the citizen to change their behaviours,
usually after a revolution, i.e. Soviet Union,
China), genocide (systematic killing. i.e. Pol
Pot, Idi Amin – Uganda).
Global terrorism
Include activities by domestic, nationalist,
religious and state terrorists.
Each terrorist attack are inter-linked with each
So far, Al-Qaeda is known for its wellconnected network around the globe, financially
and manpower.
i.e. A terrorist leader in Yemen, may direct a
bombing in the Philippines or USA.
Causes of terrorism
Groups opposing the current state of affairs
may engage in terrorism as a principal method
of expression and not as a last resort.
The unfair treatment of the government may
lead to oppression.
Financial gain
To sheer financial gain.
Hostage taking – to earn ransom money rather
than to achieve political goal.
Suicide bombers in Palestine – the family will
receive financial reward.
The believe that violence is an effective tool for
Choose violence after long deliberation – felt
like they had no choice.
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Religious extremist
Considered as the main driver to terrorism.
i.e. ISIS, Taliban, KKK.
Radical Christian killers have been involved in
abortion clinic bombings and militia actions in
the USA.
Clash of civilization
Cultural and religious differences between
civilisations worldwide.
The clash of belief between the West and the
Muslims in the East – led to controversial
concept – create new world order.
Methods of terrorism
Launching attack
By using explosive device to inflict damage to
the target.
Using suicide bombers who chose to sacrifice
their lives.
Vehicles borne devices, i.e. HSBC Bank in
Using modern welfare method, i.e. biological
and chemical attacks such as nuclear attack.
i.e. poisonous gas attack on Tokyo subway in
Assassination and kidnapping
Of diplomats, government officials or citizens of
a nation.
Hold them as hostage until the government
fulfill their demand.
i.e. assassination of JFK (President US) and
Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan PM).
Airplanes, buses, and any other vehicle.
Take control over the vehicle and held
passengers hostage and threaten to kill them –
blow up or crash the plane.
i.e. 1977 MAS hijacked en route Penang to KL
– attempted hijacking and 9/11 tragedy
Goals of terrorism
Social and political justice
Self-determination (create new states)
Racial superiority
Foreign policy
Demoralised government
Ways to overcome terrorism
Set up a proper procedure to stop them
Identify and understand their strategies – how
do they attack us – the possible target.
Constant patrol by the security guard, system
to check for harmful item – metal detector.
Get the citizens to be involved
To report anything that is out of place or
Give the authorities thousands of eyes and
ears to watch for suspicious behaviour.
Control media power
They want to make news – they learn how to
exploit the media to propagate the their
Need to reduce the utility gained from such
behaviour – prevent from receiving credit from
such act.
Positive incentive to actual and prospective
terrorist not to engage in violent act.
Positive sanction.
Interaction between groups tends to reduce
extremist views – avoid segregation.
Be sensitive and tolerant although we are
different by religions, races, languages and etc.
To identify and protect all nuclear materials so
that they do not fall into the hands of terrorists
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Why men go to war?
Thirst for power
To expand their territorial limit
To spread political ideology
How it ended?
Causes of WW1
Competing powers between powerful countries
in the Europe. Germany and Britain were
competing to have the most powerful navy in
the world.
Tension ran high in the Europe.
The European countries scrambled around the
globe including Africa to colonise as many
continent as they can.
Nationalism – desire for self-rule.
Hostility among countries, i.e. France,
Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian
empire and Russia.
The Schlieffen Plan 1914
Germany believed war with Russia was
extremely likely. If war broke out, Germany
assume France would also attack as it was an
ally of Russia and keen to revenge its defeat in
the Franco-Prussian war.
If this happens, Germany would face a war on
two fronts. Germany wanted to avoid this at all
So, Germany instructed the Germany Army
Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, to draft a
plan on how to avoid going into war against
these two countries.
Assassination which led to WW1
Assassination of Archduke Franz in Sarajevo
by Gavrilo Philip, a Bosnian-Serb.
This led to retaliation by the Austria-Hungarian
government against the Serbian government.
This had triggered the chain reaction which led
to WW1.
When Russia began to mobilise due to its
alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on
Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war
to include all those involved in the mutual
defense alliances.
Countries that were involved in WW1: Including
Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Russia,
America, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria.
Before WW1 officially ended, there were many
treaties signed between the warring countries.
11 November 1918: Germany signed an
armistice with the allies – the official date of the
end of WW1.
Signing the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June
Effects of WW1
Basically hundreds of thousands to millions of
soldiers were killed.
Four empires were wiped out: German, AustroHungarian, Ottoman, Russian.
Starvation and famine.
Economic impact to the affected countries.
Spread of diseases.
Establishment of League of Nations – to avoid
future wars.
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After WW1 and WW2 ended, there were two
main superpowers: USA and USSR.
After those wars, Soviet Union emerged
stronger in terms of military, together with USA.
Germany and Japan were defeated which led
to the Soviet expansion in the West, East and
During WW2, USA and Soviet Union fought
together as allies against the Axis powers.
However, the relationship between the two
nations was a tense one. Americans had long
been wary of the Soviet communism and
concerned about Russian leader Joseph
Stalin’s tyrannical, blood-thirsty rule of his own
After the war ended, the Americans became
wary of the Soviet expansion plan which they
feared the Soviet will take over the world one
Cuban missile crisis
The most dangerous confrontation during the
Cold War.
Started when Nikita Kruschev, the Soviet
leader, decided to station nuclear weapons in
Cuba, which is 90 miles from USA.
The installation was intended to prevent USA
from invading Cuba after previous attempt
JFK notified Americans about the presence of
the missile, explained his decision to enact a
naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear
that USA was prepared to use military force if
necessary to neutralise this perceived threat to
national security.
The nuclear war was fortunately averted when
the USA agreed to Nikita’s offer to remove the
Cuban missiles in exchange for the USA
promising not to invade Cuba. JFK also
secretly agreed to remove USA missiles from
Differences between democracy and communism
The fall of communism (numerous weaknesses)
Free election
No election/fixed
Richest world power
Poor economic base
Personal freedom
Controlled society
Media freedom
Controlled media/freedom
of expression
Cold War (1940s-1980s) refers to the
relationship between the USA and USSR.
Arm race between USA and the Soviet, i.e. the
American supplied weapons to the Afghan
jihadists to fight against the Soviet army in
Vietnam War was one of the classic example
of democracy vs communism.
The most crucial part of this war is the Cuban
missile crisis.
Concentration on weaponry and nuclear led to
economic problems.
Freedom of expression was stifled and citizens
had to share their wealth with the country.
Only few companies were allowed to run their
businesses and usually politically connected to
the Communist Party.
Lack of economic activities in the Soviet
countries had led to the reform by Mikhail
Gorbachev, the last USSR leader.
Gorbachev abandoned the “Brezhnev Doctrine”
– Soviet’s policy of intervening with military
force, if necessary, to preserve communist rule
in the region.
economic and political restructuring, as well as
“glasnot” – openness.
His reforms resulting in series of strikes
between it failed to rejuvenate the economy.
Factories reduced production and resulting in
the increase (?) of consumer goods.
Government printed more money to solve it but
it led to inflation.
The citizens were dissatisfied and strikes were
planned to protest.
“Glasnot” resulted to nationalism. More
countries demanded to leave USSR and set up
a republic country, which led to more
The fall of Berlin wall in 1989 marked the
collapse of the communism.
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Definition: A competition between two or more parties to
have the best armed forces.
Power rivalry
Military burden sharing
Balance of power
Economies of scale
Authoritarians regime
Why is it a problem?
Proliferation of nuclear weapons among
superpowers is very worrying.
China, USA, France, India, Pakistan, North
Korea, Israel’s tendency to develop nuclear
weapon is very dangerous to the world society.
Known as MAD – Mutual Assured Destruction
(deter other countries from attacking, preemptive in nature).
Non-proliferation regimes
The superpowers agreed to slow down the
nuclear development.
United Nations Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
– to prevent further spread of nuclear weapons.
Limited Test Ban Treaty – signed by JFK to
prevent nuclear test in the atmosphere.
Geneva Protocol – prohibiting the use of
chemical and biological weapons.
Problems in enforcing arm control agreements
Difficult – they rely on the desire of participants
to abide by terms of agreement.
When a nation no longer desire to abide by the
terms, they might withdraw from the treaty (i.e.
North Korea from NPT)
Disadvantages of withdrawing from arm control
To openly defy an agreement, is often seen in a
bad light politically and can carry diplomatic
If one remains in an agreement, competitors
who are also participatory may be held to the
limitation of the terms, while withdrawal release
your opponents to make the same
developments you are making, limiting the
advantages of the development.
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4) Climate change
Definition of biodiversity: the variety of life in the world
or in a particular habitat or ecosystem.
Importance of biodiversity
Variety of food for humans.
80% of human food supply comes from 20
kinds of plants.
Human health
The shortage of drinking water is expected to
create a major global crisis.
Biodiversity plays an important role in drug
discovery and medicinal resources.
Medicines from nature account for usage
by 80% of the world’s population.
Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity.
Each species, no matter how small, all have
an important role to play.
i.e. A larger number of plant species means a
greater variety of crops.
Greater species diversity ensures natural
sustainability for all life forms.
Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and
recover from a variety of disasters.
Biological sources provide many industrial
i.e. fiber, oil, dyes, rubber, water, timber, paper
and food.
Biodiversity enhances recreational activities
i.e. bird watching, fishing, trekking etc.
It inspires musicians and artists.
Causes of biodiversity loss
Effects of biodiversity loss
1) Introduction
genetically modified organisms
Species originating from a particular area,
introduced into new natural environments can
lead to different forms of imbalance in the
ecological equilibrium.
Cutting down trees.
Illegal deforestation.
In excessive amount that is detrimental to the
i.e. Air, water, noise.
Human activity influences the natural
Producing negative, direct or indirect, effects
that alter the flow of energy, the chemical and
physical constitution of the environment and
abundance of the species.
Heating of the Earth’s surface affects
biodiversity because it endangers all the
species that adapted to the cold due to the
latitude (the Polar species) or the altitude
(mountain species).
Overexploitation of resources
Excessive activities connected with capturing
and harvesting a renewable natural resource in
a particular area.
i.e. hunting, fishing, farming.
The resource itself may become exhausted, i.e.
the case of sardines, herrings, cod, tuna and
many other species that man captures without
leaving enough time for the organisms to
Changes the way the whole ecosystem
Reduced plant diversity.
Because they grew less, they also took up less
carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
This shows that loss of biodiversity might
increase the effects of climate change by
reducing the ability of ecosystems to absorb
carbon dioxide.
Impacts human health and well-being
A balanced diet depends on the availability of a
wide variety of foods which in turn depends on
the conservation of biodiversity.
i.e. food pyramid (carbohydrate, protein, etc.)
Increase the spread of many wildlife pathogens
to humans.
Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions
of people face a future where food supplies are
more vulnerable to pests and disease, and
where fresh water is in irregular or short supply.
Leads to natural disaster
i.e. Because of the loss of mangroves and
coral reefs, which are excellent natural
buffers against floods and storms, coastal
communities have increasingly suffered from
severe floods.
Harms the social relations
Many cultures attach spiritual, aesthetic,
ecosystems or their components.
The loss or damage to these components can
harm social relations, both by reducing the
bonding value of shared experience as well as
by causing resentment toward groups that profit
from their damage.
Loss of freedom of choice
The notion of having choices available
irrespective of whether any of them will be
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actually picked is an essential constituent of the
freedom aspect of well-being.
Affects the production of basic materials
Biodiversity provides various goods.
i.e. plants and animals – that individuals need
in order to earn an income and secure
sustainable livelihoods.
In addition to agriculture,
contributes to a range of other sectors,
cosmetics, and fisheries.
Losses of biodiversity, such as the collapse of
the Newfoundland cod fishery can impose
substantial costs at local and national level.
Flora and fauna extinction
Amphibians are particularly sensitive to
changes in environment.
i.e. The Golden Toad (Costa Rica)
Other animals, i.e. reptile green vine snake.
Loss of vegetable species.
Solutions to curb biodiversity loss
Protecting areas
Create protected areas where human activity is
i.e. reserved forests, such as Hutan Simpan
To prevent deforestation and overexploitation
of resources.
Preventing species introductions
Preventing from the start is better than fixing.
Invasive species, which can wreak havoc when
introduced to the ecosystem.
Informing and educating
To promote awareness.
Education is a powerful tool.
Educate people about the effects of biodiversity
Educate the people about the benefits of
This will encourage people to be more
conscious of the environment.
The more people know about biodiversity loss,
the more they will be prepared to help slow it.
Ecological restoration and reclaimation
Short-term conservation: means protecting
species/habitats in immediate danger. It is a
quick way to stop biodiversity from decresing
Long-term conservation means purchasing land
and protecting it from harm. By preserving the
land, we will be preserving all of the species
that live there.
Make human-occupied land more wildlifefriendly
We humans take up a lot of space, and that
isn't going to change.
However, it is very easy for farmers and cities
to make their land more habitable for wildlife.
Keeping hedges alive as a can serve as a
habitat for birds and bats.
Enact and enforce laws
Pass legislation that protects ecosystems.
Imposing stiff penalties for violations.
To prevent further habitat destruction.
Keep permanent funds for biodiversity
Provide a back-up in case of emergency.
Alternative livelihoods
i.e. poor farmers around the world are forced to
use destructive methods to clear land in order
to grow crops to support their families.
Poor fishermen must sometimes throw
explosives into the sea near coral reefs or take
important reef species out of their environments
in order to sell them to aquariums.
The solution to these threats is to create
programs that help develop sustainable and
alternate livelihoods to such people so that they
can feed their families without having to destroy
the environment.
i.e. fishermen in poor villages who are forced to
destroy coral reef ecosystems could be given
jobs in fishing.