Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare - i.e. Tuvalu (7km2), Naura (21km2) Size is not important but must have a clear territory. State: a political unit composed of people, well-defined territory and a set of governing institutions. 3) - Differences between common law and civil law - A government There must be in existence a government system in the state. International law does not prescribe the exact form of government, except that it must be in conformity with the right of self-determination of people. LAW088 STATEHOOD AND SOVEREIGNTY Common law Derived from English Law Refers to case laws Adversarial (lawyers play active role) Based on the rights of the individual Based on judicial precedent (first case ever decided in the court, obeys doctrine of stare decisis) Unwritten law i.e. UK, Australia, Hong Kong, USA, Canada Civil law Derived from Roman Law Refers to statutes Inquisitorial (judges play active role) Based on the best interest of the society Law is codified (decisionmaking must be referred from the constitutions, acts or other statutes) Written law i.e. Italy, Spain (French), Germany, Austria (German) Constitutive theory: defines a state as a person of International law if, and only if, it is recognised as sovereign by other states. Declarative theory: four criteria must be met (permanent population, defined territory, a government, capacity to enter into relations with other states) Art. 1 of Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States 1933) - - The convention codified the declarative theory of statehood as accepted to be as part of customary international law. Signed at Montevideo, Uruguay at December 26, 1933. Signed by 19 states inc. Paraguay, Brazil, US, Peru, Argentina. 4) - Not matured statehood 1) - Republic of Abkhazia Near Georgia in Russia. Cannot achieve independent. No government. 2) - Palestine Against by Israel. Should be a matured statehood. Lack of effective control over the claimed territory (government control – external). 3) - Israel No accurate border. Governed by military. Not recognised by international community. Types of government control 1) - - 1) - 2) - Permanent population An aggregate of individuals of both sexes who live together as a community in spite of the fact that they may be of different races or creeds. There is no specific rule in the number of population. i.e. Naura: 1000 citizens only Defined territory Exclusive rights to display activities of the state within a certain geographical area. No rule prescribing on the minimum size of the territory. Capacity to enter into relations with other states Forms diplomatic ties. Negotiate agreements. i.e. Malaysia and Israel does not have diplomatic relationship. 2) - - Internally A government implies capacity to establish and maintain a legal order in the sense of constitutional autonomy. This means that government focus on the country and its constitution itself. Externally A government has the ability to act autonomously on the international level without being dependent on other states within the international legal order. Thus, state of Palestine was not a state due to lack of effective control over the claimed territory. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare State sovereignty - - Ability of a state to be independent and free from control of another state. The power of a state to do everything necessary to govern itself, such as making, executing and applying laws, imposing an collecting taxes, making war and peace, and forming treaties or engaging commerce in with foreign nations. Emerged 350 years ago as a result of the Treaty of Westphalia. Vested in government or other political agency. Sovereignty in international law - The legitimate exercise of power and the interpretation of international law by a state. Government possess full control over its own affairs within a territorial or geographical area or limit. 2) - Challenges to sovereignty 1) - - Concepts of sovereignty 1) 2) - 3) - 4) - Authority The right to command and correlatively the riht to be obeyed/ The holder of sovereignty possess authority. Not just mere authority but supreme authority. Legitimacy A holder of sovereignty derives authority from some mutually acknowledged source of legitimacy. i.e. from Natural law, a divine mandate, hereditary law, constitution, international law. Supremacy What makes the constitution of superior to the government. i.e. Federal Constitution is a supreme law of Malaysia. Territoriality Principle by which a community is to be defined. Specifies that their membership derives from their residence within borders. Types of sovereignty 1) - De jure “According to the law” (created in respect of constitutional law). The legal right to exercise the power. May happen: de jure sovereign may not be able to command obedience while someone else, whose identity may or may not be recognised by law, is actually obeyed. De facto “The ability in fact to do so”. Government in control. Although it may not be legally accepted as existing. Has no legal claim to sovereignty but exercises necessary force to make and enforce laws. i.e. Palestine vs Israel, People’s Republic of China (mainland China) vs Republic of China (Taiwan). 2) - - - - 3) - - The rise of human rights The emergence of human rights affect sovereignty because these “agreed upon” principles set clear limits on the authority of government to act within their borders. i.e. in Malaysia, any action taken by government that is against human rights will be criticised by people. Economic globalisation The growth of multinational organisation has placed constraints on state ability to direct development and fashion social, and economic policy. This is because economic globalisation will increase flow of communications which allows vital information to be shared between individuals and corporations around the world. The globalisation in economy will promote some sort like changes in idea of certain way how economy growth and direction of economy will be directed by not only government, but also multinational organisation. i.e. Michelin, producer of wheel. They control over the manufacturing and business of rubber wheel without any intervention of government. This is because Michelin has full control over the sources. Thus, sovereignty is affected. The growth of international organisations/ supranational institutions Emerges as significant source of authority that place limit in state sovereignty. Member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in the decision-making and vote on issues pertaining to the wider grouping. In today’s world no state can openly disregard global enactments made by such international organisations, i.e. UN. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare NON-STATE AS LEGAL ACTORS - - - Organisations established not by nation states, but by certain group of individuals, businessmen and other societal forces. Oppose the characteristics of nation states which have absolute power of their countries including borders, sovereignty, religious matters and ethnics. Does not fulfill the requirement of a state. But give impact to particular state especially to the rule-making such as in the country’s administration. Classifications of Non-state Actors 1) 2) International Intergovernmental Organisations (IGOs) International Non-Governmental Organisations (IGOs) Types of INGOs - Functions of INGOs - - IGOs - - Non-state actors that are created by nation states. Voluntary organisations of sovereign states. Established by treaty or other agreements. Usually have a legislative body which creates legal acts (decisions, resolutions, directives). May be classified by scope and by function. Play significant role by providing means of cooperation and multiple channels of communication among states. i.e. United Nations, IMF, WHO, Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Functions of IGOs - Rule making Agenda setting Information gathering INGOs - Private institutions that are independent of the government. Established by certain group of individuals, businessmen or societal forces. i.e. Greenpeace, WWF, Amnesty International Reasons for INGOs’ emergence - Role of government increased. Government does not respond to the needs of and demand of the people. Pressure from government policies. Communication revolution. Transnational Government-organised Business and industry Donor-dominated Provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanism and help monitor and implement international agreements. Alerting global network of supporters to conditions requiring attention (relief suffering). Creating emergency response around the world. Mobilising pressure from outside states. Enhance public participation within states by reminding government delegates that they are being watched. Gathering information on local conditions through contacts around the world. Advantages of Non-state Actors 1) - Helping in solving world crisis Crisis Yom Kippur War (Security Council adopted resolution 338 in 1973) Crisis of Iran 1946 (Security Council adopted resolution 2. Solving world hunger (WFP, Stop Hunger Now, Bread for the World) 2) Gain more trust from the people 3) - Diplomatic relation Help in the international trade and diplomatic ties. i.e. ASEAN – 10 countries participated in Southeast Asia. United Nations. 4) - - Have more of a grass roots focus Usually focus on specific issue. i.e. WFP (food), WWF (wildlife), WHO (health). Can find problems and solutions faster than the government since the government has a lot of matters to take care of. Assisting the government on issues that they may have overlooked. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Disadvantages of non-state actors 1) - 2) - 3) - Interference of veto power Permanent members of UN (China, Russia, France, USA, UK). i.e. USA has vetoed 32 recommendations regarding the issue of Israel. Implication of neutral ground Principle in ASEAN do not interfere with other country’s sovereignty. i.e. ASEAN towards Myanmar. Cannot solve the problem of Rohingya because practiced the ASEAN principle. Domination of power Price determination. i.e. OPEC determining and dominating the price of oil around the world. @ Advantages of non-state actors - Specific issues. Provide the information. Settle economic issue among them. Get cooperation through sort of formal structure. They hold the state sovereignty. Disadvantages of non-state actors - Plays lesser role in political issue. State has to give part of their sovereignty. Inequality among the state members. The membership is limited. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare UNITED NATIONS - Successor of the League of Nations. Failed to prevent world war. Founded in 1945 after the 2nd world war by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly nations, promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights. Structure of UN - - 193 state members. 2 non-member states (Holy See and Palestine). Non-members receive standing invitation to participate as observers in the sessions and the work of the General Assembly and maintaining permanent observer missions at Headquarters. Secretariat, General Assembly, Security Council, ECOSOC (economic and social), ICJ. Aim and Objectives 1) - - 2) - - - 3) - To keep peace throughout the world Agreements on disarmament i.e. the NonProliferation Treaty (NPT) for nuclear weapons. Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among states. States shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered. To develop friendly relations among nations Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation among States. States shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state. The duty of states to co-operate with one another. To help nations work together to improve the lives of poor people, to conquer hunger, diseases and illiteracy, and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms WFP (world hunger – food assistance branch of the United Nations). UN Declaration of Human Rights. UNESCO (education, scientific, cultural). 1) - 2) - - - 3) - 4) - To be a centre for harmonising the actions of nations to achieve these goals. Acts as the middleman. Might seem to interfere, but actually paternalistic. 4) 4) Secretariat Run day-to-day operation. Provides administrative task. Led by Secretary General (who is appointed by Security Council for five years). Staffs are only answerable to UN, not to the country they operate (i.e. UNESCO Malaysia). General Assembly Main deliberative organ of UN. Composed of representatives from all member states. Decide and pass important policies. Consider and make recommendations on the general principles of cooperation for maintaining internal peace and security, including disarmament. Initiate studies and make recommendations to promote international political cooperation, human rights, ecosoc, etc. Elect non-permanent members of the Security Council and members of other UN councils and organs, recommend the Security Council, appoint Secretary General. Each member has one vote to vote on issues. Security Council Five permanent members: China, France, UK, Russia, USA. Ten non-permanent members elected for twoyear terms by the General Assembly. Carries out the aim and objectives of UN. ECOSOC Responsible for cooperation between states on economic and social fields. i.e. raise standard of living. ICJ Located in Hague, Netherlands. Resolve dispute between states. Judges elected by General Assembly and Security Council for period of nine years. May entertain 1) legal dispute between states submitted to them, 2) requests for advisory opinions on legal relations referred to it. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Contributions of UN 1) - 2) - - Maintaining international peace and security There are 16 UN peacekeeping operations deployed on four continents. i.e. UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan and UN Mission in Liberia. Countering terrorism Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF) was established in order to ensure coordination and coherence in UN activities on counter-terrorism. i.e. I-ACT Mission 2015. 7) Seeing it as a mean for countries who already possess nuclear weapons to keep their weapons and prevent others from developing it. 8) 8) Biological welfare Killing people with intentional diseases – for overpopulation. 9) States are not bound to bid by the sanctions provided by UN. One of UN’s bodies, ICJ, is created to resolve disputes between states. However, not all states follow the decision of the court. The sanctions provided by UN are not always followed. States are not legally binded to follow UN’s decisions. Therefore it is not effective because these countries are also a part of the world. i.e. Malaysia do not ratify to some of UN’s treaties. 9) 10) 11) 3) - 4) - Protecting human rights UN Human Rights Council. UN Declaration of Human Rights, the first legal document in protecting universal human rights and is generally agreed to be the foundation of international human rights law. Delivering humanitarian aid Helping refugees (UNHCR). WFP sends food aid to Syrian refugees. Challenges of UN 1) - Keeping human rights LGBT – everyone has different standards of human rights due to different cultural and religious beliefs. 2) - Insufficient funding Salary of the staffs Donation Refugee crisis, etc. 3) - Trying to curb the spread of diseases New diseases keep coming in. Spread too quickly. Could get out of control. 4) Limited supply 5) - Enforcing the law Veto power. 6) 5) The threat of nuclear weapon North Korea withdrew from NPT. Announced on March 2016 that they’re going to launch their nuclear soon. 7) 6) Keeping countries in a treaty North Korea withdrew from NPT. 12) 13) 14) spread of 10) Outdated structure 15) The permanent members have veto power. 16) Outgrowing number of members, therefore more states should be able to be permanent members as well. 17) These other states can only pass non-binding resolutions. 18) The big five does not seem to have the intention to give up any power or share it with more states. 11) Increasing demands Not enough peacekeeping troops. States are asked to contribute troops for peacekeeping but it is still not enough. 100 peacekeepers had died last year and dozens have been taken captive. 12) - - Unreliable funding Funded by voluntary contributions. Not enough donations. WFP had to suspend a food voucher program serving more than 1.7mil Syrian refugees after the donors failed to meet their commitments. Members owed about $3.5bil for regular operations and peacekeeping. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Failure to achieve UN’s objectives Effectiveness of UN 1) - Effective in reducing climate change. Kyoto Protocol. Kyoto, Japan in 1997. 2) Successful efforts on helping the people in need WFP. Developed smartphone application: Share The Meal, which is very successful. All that it takes is a single click and $0.50 will be donated to Syrian refugees. - 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Terrorism NPT (North Korea, Israel, Pakistan, India) Sri Lanka; The Safe Zone Child Sex Abuse Scandal Veto power of permanent members (one vote will beat others – i.e. China and Russia vetoed the attempt to intervene and prevent genocide in Syria, resulting to 60,000 been killed, with thousands more displaced). The Cold War Veto power Weaknesses of UN 1) - Failure to act fast i.e. to curb the spread of diseases. Too slow until the disease is widespread and out of control. 2) - Wasting the fund Divided into different branches and suborganisations, cost a lot of money. Huge salaries are paid to international staffs. UN is not a business firm which people can make money out of. As a development agency, the fund is supposed to be channeled to help the poor as best as they could. UN must cut the salary of expats in order to make the available funding to the program’s operation and development. - - 3) - - 4) - already Difficult to recruit and retain the right staff Senior staffs are guaranteed contracts that can cost an upwards of $300-500k a year. Yet the bulk of the work falls on lower level staff who are not guaranteed a salary for more than a few months at a time. As a result, each individual response, project and program must go through long and timeconsuming recruitment processes just to find the right team. Need to improve its relations Have to be more open to working with civil society as well – local NGOs for example. - Held by the five permanent members (USA, UK, France, Russia, People’s Republic of China). Art. 27 of the UN Charter. Imbalance of power. Misuse of power. Ineffective. However if no veto or permanent seats anymore, it will boil up rejection from the big five. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GLOBALISATION - - - Refers to the shrinking distance among the continents, a wider geographic senses of vulnerability, and a worldwide interconnectedness of important aspects of human life including religion, migration, war, finance, trade, diseases, drugs and music. The process of increasing the interconnectedness and interdependence of the world’s markets and businesses. Began with the first movement of people out of Africa. Migrants, merchants, etc. Melaka was the center of globalisation. Columbus discovered America. Types of globalisation 1) - 2) - - 3) - - 4) - - 5) - - Economic Import and export goods. Intensifies competitiveness between states. i.e. Apple products are mostly manufactured in China to save cost (low-skilled labour = cheap cost). Causes of globalisation 1) - Human desire to explore To look for other resources, economic security, curiousity, etc. Migration to seek better life. African ancestors migrated because of geographical problems, i.e. draught, lack of food. 2) - Transportation Improved transportation system, i.e. Air Asia. 3) - Spread of empire/political influence Cold War – democracy (US) vs communism (USSR). 4) - Technological advancement Internet, smartphones. 5) - Growth of media Global media such as CNN, CNBC, Al-Jazeera Effects of globalisation Financial NYSE was the centre of the world’s economic heartbeat. 9/11 attack had shaken the world until today. Sub-prime mortgage crisis – financial crisis in USA influenced other states because USA is the largest importer in the world. World Bank establishment. IMF, OPEC. Political Proliferation of international regional organisations composed of states and the spread of non-state political actors. War in Iraq affected the USA economy (oil). Increase in multilateral organisations (IGO) i.e. UN, EU, Commonwealth, to promote political ideologies. Military USA’s army’s presence in Korean peninsular to ensure no war will break out between North and South Korea. NATO was deployed in many countries to bring down regime, i.e. Bosnia and Libya. Criminal/Terrorism Use of criminal to achieve objectives (AlQaeda, Abu Sayyaf, drug trafficking, prostitution, etc). Border issues. - - - - Political: the decrease of the importance of the state. (through creation of sub-states such as EU, ICC, etc, the state losses power of policymaking and thus sovereignty). Global environmental problems like crossboundary pollution, over fishing on oceans, climate changes are solved by discussions. More transborder data flow using communication satellites, internet, mobile phones, etc. ICC and ICJ movements are launched. International travel and tourism increases. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare - - - Worldwide sport events such as FIFA World Cup and Olympic Games. Global standard applications such as patent, copyright laws, word trade agreement increases // supranational recognition: patents authorised by one country are authorised in another too. Immigration between countries increases. Cross-cultural contacts grow and cultural diffusion takes place. Increase in the desire to use foreign ideas and products, adopt new practices and technologies and be a part of world culture. Free trade zones are formed having less or no tariffs. 6) - 7) - Improve living standards and reduce poverty Because of faster economic growth. i.e. India has cut its poverty rate in half in the past two decades. China has reduced the number of rural poor from 250mil in 1978 to 34mil in 1999. Cheaper imports make wide range of products to be accessible to more people. Through competition, can promote efficiency and productivity. Improved wealth through the economic gains of globalisation Led to improved access to health care and clean water. Increased life expectancy. Advantages of globalisation 1) - 2) - 3) - - 4) - - 5) - Faster economic growth Shown to have consistently grown much faster than those states that try to protect themselves. Well-managed economies have grown at rates that are on average 2.5% higher than states with economies closed to globalisation. Improved environmental awareness and accountability Positive environmental outcomes. By encouraging the use of more efficient, lesspolluting technologies and facilitating economies’ imports of renewable substitutes for use in place of scarce domestic natural resources. Improved technology Dramatically reduced costs and prices changing the way the world communicates, learns, does business and treats illnesses. Decrease in adult illiteracy rates in developing countries. Resolved international political and economic tensions Increasing interdependence and global institutions like WTO and World Bank that manage the settlement of government-togovernment disputes. This have enabled international political and economic tensions to be resolved based on “rule of approach” rather than which state has the greater political and economic power. International migration Led to greater recognition of diversity and respect for cultural identities. Improves democracy and access to human rights. 8) - Others: Decreases the possibility of war. Easier and faster transportation. Free trade between countries increases. Global mass media connects all the people in the world (i.e. student exchange program). As the cultural barriers reduce, the global village dream becomes more realistic. The interdependence of the nation-states increases. Disadvantages of globalisation 1) - Spread of diseases i.e. HIV, AIDS, swine flu, bird flu. Spread across borders. Greater risk of diseases being transported unintentionally between nations. 2) - Reduce life expectancy Because of the diseases such as AIDS (in some parts of Africa). 3) Introduction of cigarettes and tobacco to developing countries Major adverse health and financial costs associated. - 4) - - - Harming the environment Agricultural, forest, mining and fishing industries exploit inadequate environmental codes and corrupt behaviour in developing countries. Agricultural seed companies are destroying the biodiversity of the planet and depriving subsistence farmers of their livelihood. Increased likelihood of economic disruptions in one nation affecting all nations Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Impacts of globalisation on developing countries 1) - - - - - - 2) - - - - 3) - Economic POSITIVE Developing countries are able to share the same economic growth that the developed countries have. i.e. World Bank and IMF encourage developing countries to go through market reforms and radical changes through large sum of loans. Developing countries have taken the step to open their market by remoring tariffs and freeing up their economies. Allows developed countries to invest in developing countries, which in a way helps to create job opportunities. NEGATIVE Increases the inequality between the rich and the poor. The benefit that globalisation brings is not universal as the rich are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer. i.e. Africa, which is among the developing countries, still holds the highest poverty rate. Education POSITIVE Acts as a catalyst to jobs that require higher skills. This demand will allow people to gain higher education. When demand of highly-educated people increases, the government will somehow be pushed by the citizens to provide better education. This will cause the education of developing countries to improve. NEGATIVE Causing globalised competition which forces many professional, skilled workers who are highly qualified and educated to migrate to developed countries because they would want to benefit from the higher wage rate and the greater lifestyle prospects that developed countries offer. Leads to decreased skill labour in developing countries. Health POSITIVE The improvement of living standards and life expectancy of people in developing countries. Means increased fortune of the country. - - - With more fortunes, poor nations are able to supply good health care services and better sanitation to their people. NEGATIVE Indirectly helps to spread new diseases to these countries. Due to the increase of the number of travelers that are travelling between countries, which indirectly causes diseases to spread. i.e. H1N1, various influenzas. Forms of globalisation - - Economic (free trade, open market) Financial (consolidate of banks, global operation, new technologies, universality of banking) Political (role of regional organisations) Military (network around the globe) Cultural spread (World Cup, K-Pop) Environmental (working together to resolve problems, water, air pollution) Criminal (drug and human trafficking) Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GLOBAL HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUES Human: A member of the homo sapiens species; a man, woman, or child; a person. Rights: Things to which you are entitled or allowed; freedoms that are guaranteed. Human rights: The rights you have simply because you are human. History and origins - - Mooted by Cyrus the Great (600BC). All slaves were freed and everyone has the freedom of religion, regardless of the race. It evolved throughout the human history. Romans refer it as natural rights. Many tried to uphold human rights, but failed (i.e. World War, tyranny around the world). Finally, after WW2 ended, United Nations was formed in 1945 which among its objectives is to protect human rights. UN Declaration of Human Rights – adopted in 1948 which affirms its objective. Situations that violate human rights - Why are basic human rights violated and suggest solutions - - UDHR 1948 - Drafted by representatives of all regions in the world and encompassed of all legal traditions. Formally adopted in 1948. The most universal human rights document in existence. Equality, freedom of religion, freedom of expression. Types of rights - Civil rights: Personal liberties, such as freedom of speech, thought and religion. Political rights: Right to vote, voice political opinions and participate in political process. Social rights: Right to healthcare, education and other social benefits. Human rights claims that dominate global politics - - Accusations that government are abusing individuals (crime of genocide). Demands by ethnic, racial and religious communities for autonomy or independence. Claims in what is generally regarded as private life, including rights and obligations within families, and the demands for equality by minority groups within unconventional lifestyle. Demand by governments for protection against powerful governments and non-state actors, as well as the right to economic development. The rights to adequate food, housing, employment and cultural life are denied. Genocide. War crime. Slavery. - Define human rights (the rights you have simply because you are a human) The rights you are entitled to (freedom of speech, freedom of religion, rights to education, etc – give examples) Whose responsibility is it to protect human rights – the state Who violated human rights – also the state Reasons why are these rights violated – the government itself has broken down/civil war/ there’s no government/ corruption/ greedy over power/ abuse of power – the police became more autocratic i.e. detention without….. / the state of economy/ discrimination – discriminatory practices of the state because of race/religion – Africa, the blacks are the majority but they cannot take the same bus etc/ government doesn’t want to hold elections, violate rights to vote as a citizen Your solutions and recommendations to curb these violations – impose sanctions (sanctions imposed to North Korea recently, because they threatened to launch their nuclear weapons- no country can sell or trade with North Korea at the moment), humanitarian intervention- of NSA, UN can expel, UN can suspend membership, bringing the violators of human rights to the International Criminal Court, demonstration- attract the attention of other countries, bring a case to agencies Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Refugees: A person who has been forced to leave their home and seek refuge elsewhere. - United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees - - An international convention that defines who is a refugee, sets out the rights of the individuals who are granted asylum, sets out the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum and sets out which people do not qualify as refugees, such as war criminals. - The right to move freely within a country. Free exercise of religion and religious education. Free access to the courts, including legal assistance. Access to elementary education. Access to public relief and assistance. Protection provided by social security. Protection of intellectual property, i.e. inventions and trade names. Protection of literary, artistic and scientific work. How to address the problem of refugees Asylum seeker: A person who is seeking protection as a refugee and is still waiting to have his or her claim assessed. 1) - Legal status of refugees - - - - - - Refugees are legally entitled to receive the protection of 147 countries that have participated in the convention. Refugees are allowed to enter and temporarily stay in these countries. There is a distinction between the legal status of refugee and Internally Displaced Person (IDP). Refugees are those who are forced to leave their own countries while IDPs are those who have been force to leave their residents but have remained in their own countries. Stateless people (illegal immigrant) are those who have no nationality. They can also be categorised as refugees but only if they fit the convention’s criteria. However, people who leave their homes because of extreme poverty, famine, or environmental factors do not qualify as refugees. Countries with significant IDP population: Afghanistan, Africa, Iraq, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan. Refugees rights under the International Law - The right to belong to trade unions. The right to belong to other non-political nonprofit organisations. The right to engage in wage-earning employment. The right to own property. The right to practice a profession. The right to self-employment. Access to housing. Access to higher education. // most favourable The right to choose their place of residence. - 2) - 3) - Local integration Granting refugees a permanent right to stay in the host country. However, the government of the host country would be unwilling. Where refugees have integrated locally in Africa, they often do so through informal “selfsettlement”, with no firm legal status. Resettlement in a third country Participant countries agree to take a certain number of refugees each year. However, the number could be as small as nine countries offer meaning quotes. Nine government currently host the bulk of the refugees who are annually resettled in new countries (USA, Canada, Finland, Australia, Sweden, Norway, New Zealand, Denmark, Netherlands) Repatriation to the country of origin Legally, it must only occur when the returnees’ safety can be guaranteed. In practice, UNHCR promotes and facilitates voluntary repatriation through various means: organising “go-and-see” visits, compiling updated information on the country, engaging in peace and reconciliation activities, promoting housing and property restitution, providing return assistance and legal aid to returnees. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare GENOCIDE - A systematic mass murder of an ethnic, religious, or national group based on discriminatory preconceptions. United Nations Convention on the Prevention of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) - Examples of genocide Armenian genocide, 1915 - - During WW1 by Ottoman empire. Many Armenians ran for shelter around Europe (Armenian Diaspora) because of it. Many Armenians were rooted out from their home and were forced to march in the Syrian desert and many died. To date, Turkey refused to acknowledge this event as genocide. Instead, they claim that the Armenians were victims of widespread chaos and governmental breakdown as the Ottoman empire collapsed before modern Turkey was created. - Raphael Lemkin, who introduced the term ‘genocide’ presented his essay entitled “Crime of Barbarity” to the League of Nations. However, it was rejected. However, his genocide idea was accepted as an offence against the international law and his idea formed basis of Nuremberg Trial. Finally, in 1948, the General Assembly adopted “Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”. Art 1: Genocide is a crime under the international law. Art 2: Genocide means killing an ethnic with the intention to destroy it. Art 3: UN to enforce the convention in order to prevent future genocide. Why CPPCG is not effective? Rwandan genocide, 1994 1) - - Occurred in Rwanda, a poor African country. Rwanda consisted of majority of Hutu and a small group of Tutsi tribe. A group of Tutsi rebel invaded the capital of Rwanda and shot down a plane that carried the president, who is a Hutu. As a retaliation, the Hutus committed masskillings of the Tutsis. - Bosnian genocide - - Bosnia was part of the Ottoman (Turkish) empire until 1978 and then of the AustroHungarian empire until WW1. After the war, Serbs and Bosniaks were looking for independence. The Serbs, who were led by Slobodan Milosevic, cried for Serbs nationalism. They considered the Bosnian who were mainly Muslim as intruders and wanted to clean the Serbian land from the Bosnian. - 2) - 3) - There are countries that do not invoke to CPPCG Khmer Rouge in Cambodia: in power, Khmer Rouge carried out a radical program that included isolating the country from all foreign influences, closing major facilities such as schools, hospitals and factories, abolishing banks and currency, outlawing all religions, confiscating all public properties and relocating people from urban areas to collective farms where forced labour was widespread. The purpose of this policy was to turn Cambodians into “Old People” through agricultural labour. The regime killed 1.7mil people in Cambodia as no one invoked to the convention even after it has been established. No machinery to govern the CPPCG A permanent body is inexistent and should be made to monitor the implementation of the convention, and require states to issue reports on their compliance with the convention. This would make it more effective. Only a small number of countries ratified to CPPCG It had the status of 146 parties. Only 41 countries signed the convention. It is only about 21% which is not even half. Countries that have signed: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Egypt, Philippines, Russia and others. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare EUROPEAN UNION - - A politico-economic union of 28 member states that are primarily located in Europe. Operates through a system of supranational institutions and intergovernmental-made decisions by member states. Consists of European Parliament, Council of European Union, European Commission, Court of Justice of European Union, European Central Bank and Court of Auditors. Principles Art 1-4 of the Constitution - Art 1-5 of the Constitution - Aims - - - - - To introduce European citizenship. (protection of fundamental human rights and freedoms) To ensure freedom, security and justice (cooperation in the field of justice and home affairs) To promote economic and social progress (help people earn enough money and get treated fairly) To develop Europe as an area of freedom, security and justice (help Europeans to live in safety, without the threat of war) To maintain and build on established EU laws (make laws that protect people’s rights in the member countries) To speak for EU on the international scene (by working as a group the EU hopes that Europe will be listened to more by other countries) Objectives - - To bring its member states closer together with respect of human rights and democracy (common style of passport, common rules about fair trading with each other, common agreements about law enforcement, and other agreements) To promote peace, the Union's values and the well-being of its people Guarantees the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital within the Union and strictly prohibits any discrimination on grounds of nationality. Stated the obligation to respect the national identities and the fundamental political and constitutional structures of the member states. Art 1-6 of the Constitution - Lays down the principle of the primacy of the law of EU over the law of member states. This principle has been recognised to be the basic principle and a key aspect of the functioning of the Union. Article 1-7 of the Constitution - Confers on the EU legal personality. Following the merger of the European Community and the EU, the new Union will therefore have the right to conclude international agreements. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Four main developments of EU 1) - - 2) - - - From economic to political union What began as a purely economic union has evolved into an organisation spanning policy areas, from development aid to environment. A name change from the EEC to the European Union (EU) in 1993 reflected this. The EU is based on the rule of law: everything that it does is founded on treaties, voluntarily and democratically agreed by all member countries. These binding agreements set out the EU's goals in its many areas of activity. Mobility, growth, stability and a single currency The EU has delivered half a century of peace, stability and prosperity, helped raise living standards, and launched a single European currency, the euro. Thanks to the abolition of border controls between EU countries, people can travel freely throughout most of the continent. And it's become much easier to live and work abroad in Europe. The single or 'internal' market is the EU's main economic engine, enabling most goods, services, money and people to move freely. Another key objective is to develop this huge resource to ensure that Europeans can draw the maximum benefit from it. 3) - Human rights and equality One of the EU’s main goals is to promote human rights both internally and around the world. Human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, the rule of law and respect for human rights: these are the core values of the EU. Since the 2009 signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, the EU's Charter of Fundamental Rights brings all these rights together in a single document. The EU's institutions are legally bound to uphold them, as are EU governments whenever they apply EU law. 4) - Transparent and democratic institutions As it continues to grow, the EU remains focused on making its governing institutions more transparent and democratic. More powers are being given to the directly elected European Parliament, while national parliaments are being given a greater role, working alongside the European institutions. In turn, European citizens have an everincreasing number of channels for taking part in the political process. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Definition: Deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil, and also the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife. - Any change or disturbance to the environment perceived to be deleterious or undesirable. Effects 1) - 2) - Causes 1) - 2) - - 3) - - 4) - Land disturbance Happens when there are numerous weedy plant species. i.e. Garlic mustard grow on the land. These plants can assume control over nature, eliminating the local greenery. The result is territory with a solitary predominant plant which does not give satisfactory food assets to all the environmental life. Pollution Pollution, in whatever form, whether it is air, water, land or noise, is harmful for the environment. Air pollution pollutes the air we breathe, causing health issues. Water pollution degrades the quality of water that we use for drinking purposes. Land pollution results in degradation of the Earth’s surface as a result of human activities. Noise pollution can cause irrepairable damage to our ears. i.e. Bunus River in KL is polluted and filled with rubbish. Deforestation Cutting down trees to make way for more homes and industries. Overpopulation results in more demand for food, clothes and shelter. Human beings need more space to provide homes and to grow food for millions of people. i.e. Decreased population of Orang Utan due to deforestation. Overpopulation Rapid population growth puts strain on natural resources which results in degradation of the environment. 3) - - 4) - Loss of biodiversity Important to maintain the balance of ecosystem. It combats pollution, restores nutrients, protect water sources and stabilise climates. Ozone layer depletion Ozone layer is responsible for protecting the Earth from harmful UV rays. As it will deplete, it will emit harmful radiations back to the Earth, causing possibility of skin cancer and rising temperature of the Earth. Impact on human health Areas exposed to toxic air pollutants can cause respiratory problem such as pneumonia and asthma. Millions of people are known to have died due to indirect effects of air pollution. Impact the economy In terms of restoration of green cover, cleaning up of landfills and protection of endangered species. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare Solutions (International Level) 1) - - - 2) - Implementing more environment protection treaties and obeying to them i.e. Kyoto Protocol. Adopted in 1997. Became a binding treaty in 2005. 192 countries were party to the treaty at the time it was signed, along with European Union. The main objectives include to reduce greenhouse effect. Rio Declaration (informally known as Earth Summit). Consisted of 27 principles intended to guide future sustainable development around the world. 7th principle stated that states shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve, protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth’s ecosystem. Protects and regulates the development of resources in participating countries. Role of INGOs i.e. Greenpeace and WWF. Greenpeace is an INGO focusing on protecting the environment. WWF is an INGO focusing on protecting the wildlife and biodiversity conservation. More INGOs like this should be created. The already-existing INGOs should organise environmental awareness programs. June 5 – World Environment Day. These INGOs could also do a public protest on excessive development. (National Level) 1) - 2) - Government should impose punishments Prohibit the contamination of lake, rivers and seas. Punish those who illegally cut down the trees in the forest or cause pollution. Wrong-doers should be sued under public nuisance in tort for noise pollution. Campaign Advertising campaign on various media i.e. TV and internet on environmental awareness. Can be done by NGOs. Help promote the idea and can influence people to protect and love the environment. Awaken the spirit of environmental conservation among people and put ideas into action. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare OVERPOPULATION Definition: An undesirable condition where the number of existing human population exceeds the carrying capacity. // Excessive population within an area that lacks enough resources for long-term sustainment. Causes - - - Migration issues (immigration) Lack of family planning (early marriage – increases the chance of producing more children, use of birth control) Cultural thing (to have many children) More income (for poor people) Reduced mortality rate (decline in the death rate) Technology advancement (create better medical facilities, saved more lives, increase birth rate) Lack of education Effects - - Pollution (more people use transportations that cause air pollution) Depletion of resources (only limited amount of food and water can be produced at a time, which is insufficient for the people) Rise in unemployment (inadequate number of jobs to cater large number of people) High cost of living (demand exceeds supply) Health issues (ageing, HIV, spread of diseases) Solutions - - - - - Providing better education (sex education, family planning, marriage courses, contraceptive methods) Government policy (i.e. limit foreign workers, one child policy – i.e. China, tax exemptions, strict migration laws) Reducing birth rate (abortion, abstinence, contraception, government policy) UN Population Fund (prepare and study the effects of population, assist government to initiate a reproductive education) Millennium Development Goals (prepare blueprint for reducing poverty and improving lives agreed to by all countries and all leading development institutions) Biological welfare (intentional spread of new diseases) Emigration (bring people out of the country) Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare TERRORISM Definition: The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce the government, the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of a political or social objectives. 4) - Types of terrorism 1) - 2) - - - 3) - Domestic terrorism Occurs within borders of a state. Usually happen when someone is dissatisfied with the government, other groups or policies. Launched by killing and bombing at government offices. i.e. Latin American – Shinning Path, Tupac Amaru (one incident involved Malaysian Ambassador in Peru) - Nationalist terrorism Terrorism that is motivated by nationalism, usually with strong nationalist ideas and goals. Sometimes they want to establish an independent state, or take control of a certain region and sometimes to overthrow the government of a country or to accomplish the abolition of an entire political system to replace it with another. A form of terrorism which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial or otherwise illegitimate state. i.e. Palestine Liberation Organisation, Provisional Irish Republican Army, Gerakan Acheh Merdeka 5) - Religious terrorism Irresponsible act by certain group of people by using violence in the name of religion. They misinterpret the word of God in order to achieve their political interest. They believe that everyone is sinner and they were the chose one to finish God’s work. Always linked to Islam but exists in other religions too. i.e. ISIS, Al-Qaeda, KKK. - - - State terrorism The terror act used by the state to suppress dissents. Use of violence to coerce or intimidate and to create fear among the citizens. This was a popular tactic to command respect and fear among its people during WW1 and WW2. i.e. Germany (Nazi), Russia (Stalinist), Iraq, North Korea, Uganda. Three levels: intimidation (use of force to discourage opposition and dissent by exploiting the police and army force), coerced conversion (forcing the citizen to change their behaviours, usually after a revolution, i.e. Soviet Union, China), genocide (systematic killing. i.e. Pol Pot, Idi Amin – Uganda). Global terrorism Include activities by domestic, nationalist, religious and state terrorists. Each terrorist attack are inter-linked with each other. So far, Al-Qaeda is known for its wellconnected network around the globe, financially and manpower. i.e. A terrorist leader in Yemen, may direct a bombing in the Philippines or USA. Causes of terrorism 1) - - 2) - 3) - Oppression Groups opposing the current state of affairs may engage in terrorism as a principal method of expression and not as a last resort. The unfair treatment of the government may lead to oppression. Financial gain Poverty. To sheer financial gain. Hostage taking – to earn ransom money rather than to achieve political goal. Suicide bombers in Palestine – the family will receive financial reward. The believe that violence is an effective tool for change Choose violence after long deliberation – felt like they had no choice. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare 4) - 5) - Religious extremist Considered as the main driver to terrorism. i.e. ISIS, Taliban, KKK. Radical Christian killers have been involved in abortion clinic bombings and militia actions in the USA. Clash of civilization Cultural and religious differences between civilisations worldwide. The clash of belief between the West and the Muslims in the East – led to controversial concept – create new world order. Methods of terrorism 1) - 2) - 3) - - Launching attack By using explosive device to inflict damage to the target. Using suicide bombers who chose to sacrifice their lives. Vehicles borne devices, i.e. HSBC Bank in Istanbul. Using modern welfare method, i.e. biological and chemical attacks such as nuclear attack. i.e. poisonous gas attack on Tokyo subway in 1995. Assassination and kidnapping Of diplomats, government officials or citizens of a nation. Hold them as hostage until the government fulfill their demand. i.e. assassination of JFK (President US) and Benazir Bhutto (Pakistan PM). Hijacking Airplanes, buses, and any other vehicle. Take control over the vehicle and held passengers hostage and threaten to kill them – blow up or crash the plane. i.e. 1977 MAS hijacked en route Penang to KL – attempted hijacking and 9/11 tragedy Goals of terrorism - Social and political justice Self-determination (create new states) Racial superiority Foreign policy Publicity Demoralised government Ways to overcome terrorism a) - b) - c) - - d) - Set up a proper procedure to stop them Identify and understand their strategies – how do they attack us – the possible target. Constant patrol by the security guard, system to check for harmful item – metal detector. Get the citizens to be involved To report anything that is out of place or strange. Give the authorities thousands of eyes and ears to watch for suspicious behaviour. Control media power They want to make news – they learn how to exploit the media to propagate the their demand. Need to reduce the utility gained from such behaviour – prevent from receiving credit from such act. Positive incentive to actual and prospective terrorist not to engage in violent act. Positive sanction. Interaction between groups tends to reduce extremist views – avoid segregation. e) Be sensitive and tolerant although we are different by religions, races, languages and etc. f) To identify and protect all nuclear materials so that they do not fall into the hands of terrorists Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare WORLD WAR I Why men go to war? - Thirst for power To expand their territorial limit To spread political ideology How it ended? - Causes of WW1 - - - Competing powers between powerful countries in the Europe. Germany and Britain were competing to have the most powerful navy in the world. Tension ran high in the Europe. The European countries scrambled around the globe including Africa to colonise as many continent as they can. Nationalism – desire for self-rule. Hostility among countries, i.e. France, Germany, the British Empire, Austria-Hungarian empire and Russia. The Schlieffen Plan 1914 - - - Germany believed war with Russia was extremely likely. If war broke out, Germany assume France would also attack as it was an ally of Russia and keen to revenge its defeat in the Franco-Prussian war. If this happens, Germany would face a war on two fronts. Germany wanted to avoid this at all costs. So, Germany instructed the Germany Army Chief of Staff, Alfred von Schlieffen, to draft a plan on how to avoid going into war against these two countries. Assassination which led to WW1 - Assassination of Archduke Franz in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Philip, a Bosnian-Serb. This led to retaliation by the Austria-Hungarian government against the Serbian government. This had triggered the chain reaction which led to WW1. When Russia began to mobilise due to its alliance with Serbia, Germany declared war on Russia. Thus began the expansion of the war to include all those involved in the mutual defense alliances. Countries that were involved in WW1: Including Britain, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Russia, America, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria. Before WW1 officially ended, there were many treaties signed between the warring countries. 11 November 1918: Germany signed an armistice with the allies – the official date of the end of WW1. Signing the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1918. Effects of WW1 - Basically hundreds of thousands to millions of soldiers were killed. Four empires were wiped out: German, AustroHungarian, Ottoman, Russian. Starvation and famine. Economic impact to the affected countries. Spread of diseases. Establishment of League of Nations – to avoid future wars. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare COMMUNISM VS DEMOCRACY - - - After WW1 and WW2 ended, there were two main superpowers: USA and USSR. After those wars, Soviet Union emerged stronger in terms of military, together with USA. Germany and Japan were defeated which led to the Soviet expansion in the West, East and North. During WW2, USA and Soviet Union fought together as allies against the Axis powers. However, the relationship between the two nations was a tense one. Americans had long been wary of the Soviet communism and concerned about Russian leader Joseph Stalin’s tyrannical, blood-thirsty rule of his own country. After the war ended, the Americans became wary of the Soviet expansion plan which they feared the Soviet will take over the world one day. Cuban missile crisis - - - - The most dangerous confrontation during the Cold War. Started when Nikita Kruschev, the Soviet leader, decided to station nuclear weapons in Cuba, which is 90 miles from USA. The installation was intended to prevent USA from invading Cuba after previous attempt failed. JFK notified Americans about the presence of the missile, explained his decision to enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear that USA was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralise this perceived threat to national security. The nuclear war was fortunately averted when the USA agreed to Nikita’s offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for the USA promising not to invade Cuba. JFK also secretly agreed to remove USA missiles from Turkey. Differences between democracy and communism The fall of communism (numerous weaknesses) Democracy Communism - Free election No election/fixed - Democratic Autocratic/dictatorship - Capitalist Communist Richest world power Poor economic base Personal freedom Controlled society Media freedom Controlled media/freedom of expression - - - Cold War (1940s-1980s) refers to the relationship between the USA and USSR. Arm race between USA and the Soviet, i.e. the American supplied weapons to the Afghan jihadists to fight against the Soviet army in Afghanistan. Vietnam War was one of the classic example of democracy vs communism. The most crucial part of this war is the Cuban missile crisis. - - - - - Concentration on weaponry and nuclear led to economic problems. Freedom of expression was stifled and citizens had to share their wealth with the country. Only few companies were allowed to run their businesses and usually politically connected to the Communist Party. Lack of economic activities in the Soviet countries had led to the reform by Mikhail Gorbachev, the last USSR leader. Gorbachev abandoned the “Brezhnev Doctrine” – Soviet’s policy of intervening with military force, if necessary, to preserve communist rule in the region. Gorbachev introduced “perestroika” – economic and political restructuring, as well as “glasnot” – openness. His reforms resulting in series of strikes between it failed to rejuvenate the economy. Factories reduced production and resulting in the increase (?) of consumer goods. Government printed more money to solve it but it led to inflation. The citizens were dissatisfied and strikes were planned to protest. “Glasnot” resulted to nationalism. More countries demanded to leave USSR and set up a republic country, which led to more revolutions. The fall of Berlin wall in 1989 marked the collapse of the communism. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare ARM RACE AND ARM CONTROL Definition: A competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces. Reasons - Power rivalry Military burden sharing Balance of power Economies of scale Self-reliance Authoritarians regime Why is it a problem? - - Proliferation of nuclear weapons among superpowers is very worrying. China, USA, France, India, Pakistan, North Korea, Israel’s tendency to develop nuclear weapon is very dangerous to the world society. Known as MAD – Mutual Assured Destruction (deter other countries from attacking, preemptive in nature). Non-proliferation regimes - The superpowers agreed to slow down the nuclear development. United Nations Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) – to prevent further spread of nuclear weapons. Limited Test Ban Treaty – signed by JFK to prevent nuclear test in the atmosphere. Geneva Protocol – prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. Problems in enforcing arm control agreements - Difficult – they rely on the desire of participants to abide by terms of agreement. When a nation no longer desire to abide by the terms, they might withdraw from the treaty (i.e. North Korea from NPT) Disadvantages of withdrawing from arm control agreements - - To openly defy an agreement, is often seen in a bad light politically and can carry diplomatic repercussions. If one remains in an agreement, competitors who are also participatory may be held to the limitation of the terms, while withdrawal release your opponents to make the same developments you are making, limiting the advantages of the development. Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare BIODIVERSITY LOSS 4) Climate change - Definition of biodiversity: the variety of life in the world or in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Importance of biodiversity 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) - Health Variety of food for humans. 80% of human food supply comes from 20 kinds of plants. Human health The shortage of drinking water is expected to create a major global crisis. Biodiversity plays an important role in drug discovery and medicinal resources. Medicines from nature account for usage by 80% of the world’s population. Ecosystem Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity. Each species, no matter how small, all have an important role to play. i.e. A larger number of plant species means a greater variety of crops. Greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life forms. Healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters. Industry Biological sources provide many industrial materials. i.e. fiber, oil, dyes, rubber, water, timber, paper and food. Culture: Biodiversity enhances recreational activities i.e. bird watching, fishing, trekking etc. It inspires musicians and artists. Causes of biodiversity loss 5) - - Effects of biodiversity loss 1) - 2) - - 3) - 1) Introduction - 2) - 3) - of exotic species and genetically modified organisms Species originating from a particular area, introduced into new natural environments can lead to different forms of imbalance in the ecological equilibrium. Deforestation Cutting down trees. Illegal deforestation. In excessive amount that is detrimental to the biodiversity. Pollution i.e. Air, water, noise. Human activity influences the natural environment. Producing negative, direct or indirect, effects that alter the flow of energy, the chemical and physical constitution of the environment and abundance of the species. Heating of the Earth’s surface affects biodiversity because it endangers all the species that adapted to the cold due to the latitude (the Polar species) or the altitude (mountain species). Overexploitation of resources Excessive activities connected with capturing and harvesting a renewable natural resource in a particular area. i.e. hunting, fishing, farming. The resource itself may become exhausted, i.e. the case of sardines, herrings, cod, tuna and many other species that man captures without leaving enough time for the organisms to reproduce. 4) - - 5) - Changes the way the whole ecosystem perform Reduced plant diversity. Because they grew less, they also took up less carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This shows that loss of biodiversity might increase the effects of climate change by reducing the ability of ecosystems to absorb carbon dioxide. Impacts human health and well-being negatively A balanced diet depends on the availability of a wide variety of foods which in turn depends on the conservation of biodiversity. i.e. food pyramid (carbohydrate, protein, etc.) Increase the spread of many wildlife pathogens to humans. Put simply, reduced biodiversity means millions of people face a future where food supplies are more vulnerable to pests and disease, and where fresh water is in irregular or short supply. Leads to natural disaster i.e. Because of the loss of mangroves and coral reefs, which are excellent natural buffers against floods and storms, coastal communities have increasingly suffered from severe floods. Harms the social relations Many cultures attach spiritual, aesthetic, recreational, and religious values to ecosystems or their components. The loss or damage to these components can harm social relations, both by reducing the bonding value of shared experience as well as by causing resentment toward groups that profit from their damage. Loss of freedom of choice The notion of having choices available irrespective of whether any of them will be Courtesy of http://www.slideshare.net/littlenotestoshare 6) - - - 7) - actually picked is an essential constituent of the freedom aspect of well-being. Affects the production of basic materials Biodiversity provides various goods. i.e. plants and animals – that individuals need in order to earn an income and secure sustainable livelihoods. In addition to agriculture, biodiversity contributes to a range of other sectors, including "ecotourism", pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and fisheries. Losses of biodiversity, such as the collapse of the Newfoundland cod fishery can impose substantial costs at local and national level. Flora and fauna extinction Amphibians are particularly sensitive to changes in environment. i.e. The Golden Toad (Costa Rica) Other animals, i.e. reptile green vine snake. Loss of vegetable species. 5) 6) 7) 8) - - Solutions to curb biodiversity loss 1) 2) 3) 4) - - Protecting areas Create protected areas where human activity is limited. i.e. reserved forests, such as Hutan Simpan Sepilok. To prevent deforestation and overexploitation of resources. Preventing species introductions Preventing from the start is better than fixing. Invasive species, which can wreak havoc when introduced to the ecosystem. Informing and educating To promote awareness. Education is a powerful tool. Educate people about the effects of biodiversity loss. Educate the people about the benefits of biodiversity. This will encourage people to be more conscious of the environment. The more people know about biodiversity loss, the more they will be prepared to help slow it. Ecological restoration and reclaimation Short-term conservation: means protecting species/habitats in immediate danger. It is a quick way to stop biodiversity from decresing further. Long-term conservation means purchasing land and protecting it from harm. By preserving the land, we will be preserving all of the species that live there. - Make human-occupied land more wildlifefriendly We humans take up a lot of space, and that isn't going to change. However, it is very easy for farmers and cities to make their land more habitable for wildlife. Keeping hedges alive as a can serve as a habitat for birds and bats. Enact and enforce laws Pass legislation that protects ecosystems. Imposing stiff penalties for violations. To prevent further habitat destruction. Keep permanent funds for biodiversity Provide a back-up in case of emergency. Alternative livelihoods i.e. poor farmers around the world are forced to use destructive methods to clear land in order to grow crops to support their families. Poor fishermen must sometimes throw explosives into the sea near coral reefs or take important reef species out of their environments in order to sell them to aquariums. The solution to these threats is to create programs that help develop sustainable and alternate livelihoods to such people so that they can feed their families without having to destroy the environment. i.e. fishermen in poor villages who are forced to destroy coral reef ecosystems could be given jobs in fishing.