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GE 5 – UTS
and an increased focus on
man as an individual.
Comes from two Greek
words: philos (love) and
Sophia (wisdom)
Later was applied to
science or discipline
which uses human
reasons to investigate the
ultimate causes, reasons
and principles which
govern all things.
In the west, the first
philosophical schools
emerged in ancient
Greece around the 6th
century BCE.
These first of school of
thought gave rise to
changes and
developments which
brought about the
emergence of philosophy
as we know it at present.
Western philosophy
Is primarily concerned
with uncovering the truth
through systematic
argumentation and
There is a greater
emphasis on the use of
reason rather than faith,
Led to the development
of a more scientific,
theory- based approach
in philosophy, and a more
individualistic, self –
oriented approach in
analyzing the human
One of the most notable
characteristics of ancient
Greek civilization was
their love for learning.
For a Greek to claim
himself a wise and
learned person, he must
know a lot of things from
various disciplines.
Sophists – were an important
group that emerged and
influenced learning in Ancient
They were teachers who
traveled throughout
Greece and taught people
who wished to learn.
Learning during that time
was done through
discussion and
arguments, and the
Sophist were excellent
public speakers who
trained their students to
win each and every
argument they
participated in.
A term which means
“lovers of wisdom”
They believed that
teaching is more than just
training people to win
arguments but teaching
and learning should be an
opportunity to learn the
truth of all things in this
world and all real wisdom
should strive to achieve
truth aside from
One of their leaders is
They believed that
arguments and discussion
must be based on sound
They were the pioneers
of today’s philosophers.
Their central belief was
that man need not know
all things in the world,
but one must continue to
inquire and seek to
understand and learn
about the human
They were the pioneers
of today’s philosophers.
Their central belief was
that man need not know
all things in the world,
but one must continue to
inquire and seek to
understand and learn
about the human
Among the ancient
Greeks, the philosophers
become pioneers in
various fields of
knowledge such as
history, biology,
medicine, mathematics,
astronomy, and even
Common to hear from an
ancient philosopher who
was considered “expert”
in various fields of
Notable Ancient Greek
Pythagoras (570 BCE to 495 BCE)
– a mathematician and scientist,
he was credited with the
formulation of the Pythagorean
His work earned him
many followers, and he
established a community
of learners who were
devoted to the study of
religion and philosophy.
Heraclitus (535 BCE to 475 BCE) –
he proposed that everything that
exist is based on a higher order or
plan which he called logos.
For him, change is a
permanent aspect of the
human condition and he
was credited with the
saying, “No man ever
steps on the same river
schools of philosophy
such as Cynicism and
Epicurus (341BCE to 270 BCE) –
He believed that philosophy could
enable man to live a life of
Democritus (460 BCE to 370 BCE)
– He devoted himself to studying
the causes of natural phenomena.
He was among the first to
propose that matter is
composed of tiny
particles called atoms.
Diogenes of Sinope (412BCE to
323 BCE) - he was known
advocate of a simple and virtuous
life. For him, one should not only
talk of virtue but should show it in
words and actions.
He emphasis on
austerity and simplicity
often went to extreme,
and he was said to have
lived like a beggar.
His teachings and views
were later developed by
his followers and
influenced the
development of several
His views gave rise to
Epicureanism –a school of
philosophy which
believes that wisdom and
simple living will result to
a life free from fear and
Socrates (470 BCE to 399 BCE) Foremost philosopher of ancient
times. Great contribution on the
fields of ethics.
He was known critics of
intellectuals during his
time. But he does not
consider himself as
“wise” and merely
considering himself as
“midwife” that help
inquiring minds achieved
He also believes that
philosophy allow a man
to live a life of virtue.
He formulated the
Socrates Method – means
examining a topic by
devising a series of
questions that let the
learner examine and
analyze his knowledge
and views regarding the
discussed in an attempt
to arrive at new
PLATO (427 BCE to 347 BCE)
A student of Socrates, he
wrote down his teacher’s
His teachings ang writings
were considered as the
foundation of the
Western Philosophy.
His most significant ideas
included his Theory of
Forms, which proposes
that everything that
exists is based on an idea
or template that can only
be perceived in the mind,
these nonphysical ideas
are eternal and
He also focused his
studies on the ideal
society and proposed an
ideal model of
government and society
which is ruled by wisdom
and reason.
Plato is also known for his
dialectic, a method of
inquiry where two
opposing ideas are
His last contribution to
learning was the founding
of the Academy, an
institution of higher
learning which was the
first of its kind in the
ARISTOTLE ( 384 BCE to 322 BCE)
Was the prominent
student of Plato.
However, disagreed with
Plato’s theory of forms
and took a different view
in interpreting reality.
For him, all ideas and
views are based on
perception and our reality
is based on what we can
sense and perceive.
This view influenced the
study of the physical
He was involved in a
great variety of disciplines
such as zoology,
psychology, ethics, and
He also proposed a
system for the
classification of plants
and animals.
His studies in logic led to
the formulation of a
formal process of
analyzing reasoning
which gave rise to
deductive reasoning –
the process by which
specific statements are
analyzed to reach a
conclusion or
Archimedes (287 BCE to 212 BCE)
He was considered a
leading scientist in
ancient times
A mathematician,
physicist, engineer,
inventor and astronomer.
Archimedes inquiries into
mathematics, gave rise to
modern calculus.
He pioneered the use of
mathematics to analyze
natural phenomena.
He is credited for several
inventions like,
Archimedes screw, a
device for raising water,
and a method for
determining volume using
The contribution of the
ancient philosophers
contributed greatly to the
development and spread
of philosophy in Greece
and throughout Europe.
Many of their ideas
survived through the
centuries, and these
formed the basis for the
development of modern
Western Philosophy.