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Biol 2402 Lecture Exam 1 Review

ndBiol 2402 Exam 1 Review questions
What are 2 main characteristics of a hormone?
a. long-distance chemical messengers
b. travels in blood or lymph
From what material are steroid hormones derived?
a. cholesterol
A hormone binds a ________
a. receptor
A protein or peptide hormone usually requires a ______ to send its signal inside a cell.
a. cell membrane receptor
Another word for a first messenger is a(n) ________
a. hormone
What are 2 common second messengers?
a. cAMP & PIP2 (calcium)
What would be the problem with excess PTH in the bloodstream?
a. higher levels of blood calcium
The end result of most hormone action in the cell is what?
a. increase growth or enzyme activity
Another name for the pituitary gland is the ________
a. hypophysis
What are the 2 classes of hypothalamic regulatory hormones?
a. inhibitory and releasing
Most tropic hormones originate from what part of the pituitary?
a. anterior pituitary adnohypothesis
Where are ADH and oxytocin found?
a. posterior pituitary gland
Of the thyroid hormones regulating metabolism, which is the most active?
a. T3
Thyroid hormones need what element in order to function?
a. iodine
Parathyroid hormone helps increase blood levels of what?
a. Ca2 (calcium)
In what region of the suprarenal gland are the catecholamines produced?
a. adrenal medulla
What are 2 main effects of glucocorticoids?
a. keeps blood glucose levels constant & maintains BP
Another name for cortisol is __
a. hydrocortisone
20. Melatonin is secreted from which gland?
pineal gland
21. An example of an organ with both exocrine and endocrine functions would be _______
22. Where is insulin produced?
Beta cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas
23. If blood sugar drops too low, what hormone will be released to re-establish balance? Where is
this produced?
glucagon; Alpha cells in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas
24. What is the main difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?
Type 1 - hyposecretion (not producing insulin, beta cells inadequate) autoimmune ; Type 2 hypoactivity (something wrong w/ cell membrane or hormone) insulin sensitivity
25. Situations requiring split second responses or crisis management, is the job of what system?
SNS (sympathetic nervous system)
26. Plasma is mostly ______
a. water
27.What are 3 primary classes of plasma proteins?
albumin, globulins, fibrinogens
28.What is the average blood pH?
29.Iron is a component of what major red blood cell protein?
heme of hemoglobin
30.Red blood cells (RBCs)lack what major organelles?
ALL - RBC's are anucleate (no organelles)
31.What is the average life of RBCs?
100-120 days
32.What are some advantages to the shape of RBCs?
larger surface area contributing to gas transport pass through small capilaries
33.Where is the primary site of erythropoiesis in the adult?
red bone marrow (axial skeleton, girdles & proximal epiphyses of humerus & femur) sternum
34.Which leukocyte is the most common granulocyte?
35. EPO is produced by what organ and has what effect on the blood?
a. kidneys; raises level of RBC production
36. A person with type O blood contains what antibodies?
a. anti-A & anti-B
37. Platelets are derived from what cell? Are platelets actual cells?
a. megakaryocytes; no, just fragments of cells
38. What blood protein is a major component of blood clots?
a. fibrin
39. T and B cells are what major type of leukocyte?
a. lymphocyte
40. Which leukocytes are producers of antibody?
a. B cells of lymphocyte
41. What is the site of most gas and nutrient exchange in the tissues?
a. capillaries
42. What is the condition in which a traveling clot blocks a blood vessel?
a. embolism
43. Vitamin B12 deficiency is also known as what?
a. pernicious anemia
44. Leukemia is characterized by what?
a. over production of WBC's (white blood cells)
45. Thrombin converts what protein to fibrin?
a. fibrinogen
46. In what direction do arteries carry blood? What is the direction in veins?
a. arteries - from body to heart (or from body-heart-lungs) ; veins - gtom heart to body (or
from lungs-heart-body)
47. Which are the most muscular chambers of the heart? Why?
a. ventricles; actual pumps of the heart
48. Where does blood go after leaving the right ventricle?
a. to the lungs pulmonary circulation
49. Where does blood go after leaving the left ventricle?
a. to the body systemic circulatory
50. Name the three layers of the heart wall
a. epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
51. What type of blood travels through the pulmonary artery? The aorta?
a. deoxygned blood pulmonary
52. What is the function of valves?
a. keeps blood moving in one direction
53. Where is blood pressure the highest? Where is it the lowest?
a. highest left ventricle and aorta lowest right atrium
54. Through what vessels does the heart get supplied with blood?
a. coronary artiers
55. In an EKG, the height of the waves represents what electrical property?
a. voltage
56. What part of the EKG corresponds to ventricular depolarization?
a. QRS Complex
57. Rh-positive blood indicates the presence of what antigen?
a. D-antigen
58. What do the formed elements consist of?
a. erythrocytes (RBC's), leukocytes (WBC's), and platelets
59. What is the difference between serum and plasma?
a. serum is missing RBC's, WBC's, and fibrinogen (no clotting factors)