Social and Cognitive Learning Essential Questions •What are the principles of Observational Learning and Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment? Social-Cognitive Learning Theory: • Albert Bandura • We imitate the activities of those around us. • This type of social learning is called Observational Learning or Modeling. Examples of Modeling • Patterns of speech or personal habits • Toy versions of adult chores • Sports or music skills • Smoking or drinking • Aggression There are 4 key steps to this process: •1. ATTENTION—The person must pay attention to another person’s behavior and its consequences. 2. Retention The person must store what they have seen in their memory because it isn’t always used right away. 3. Reproduction You have to be able to take the stored mental image and reproduce it. This is sometimes easier said than done!!! 4. Motivation People will only reproduce the observed behavior if they have a motivation to do so. Usually only if they feel like doing so will pay off in some way. Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Beating the Bobo Doll What are your take-a-ways? • What real life implications do you see? • How is social learning (specifically observational learning) relevant to you? • How can you use this information productively? • Why do you think Bandura is such an influential psychologist? Essential Questions •What are the principles of Observational Learning and Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment? Cognitive Learning Essential Question •What are the principles of Cognitive Learning? Cognitive Learning means to learn through thinking. It is how we learn abstract and subtle things. Example: --Algebra Even with animals conditioning can be more complex than just stimuli, response, and consequences. How could the environment affect the conditioning process? Latent Learning takes place under the surface. It isn’t immediately obvious until the person/animal is reinforced. Examples: --Rat in a maze without food (Toleman’s research) --Driving somewhere as a passenger vs. driver --Sitting in a class as a student assistant. Expectancies and Reinforcement Value • The Motivation to perform an action is in part determined by expectancies—our beliefs about our chances of successfully performing the action AND of getting the desired reward. Examples: • Asking someone out on a date. • Studying for a test. • Your example??? The preference for certain items over others refers to reinforcement value. • Examples: --Dogs (what motivates them?) --You getting good grades. --Other examples? Cognitive Mapping • The ability of humans and animals to form mental images of where they are located in the environment. •Children see Children do Essential Question •What are the principles of Cognitive Learning?