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Research Report on Environmental
Protection and Conservation
Social Concern Project Report
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Business Administration
By Shrestha Dash
Under the guidance of Prof. Shrikumar M
CHRIST (Deemed to be University)
January 2022
I hereby declare that the Social Concern Project report entitled “Research Report on
Environmental Protection and Conservation” has been undertaken by me for the award of
Master of Business Administration. I have completed this study under the guidance of Prof.
Shrikumar M. I also declare that this Social Concern Project report has not been submitted for the
award of any Degree, Diploma, Associateship, Fellowship, or any other title, in CHRIST (Deemed
to be University) or in any other university.
Place: Bengaluru
Date: 15.01.2022
This is to certify that the Social Concern Project report submitted by Shrestha Dash on the title
“Research Report on Environmental Protection and Conservation” is a record of Social
Concern project work done by him/ her during the academic year 2020-2022 under my guidance
and supervision in partial fulfillment of Master of Business Administration.
Place: Bengaluru
Date: 15.01.2022
Prof. Shrikumar M.
School of Business and Management
CHRIST (Deemed to be University), Bengaluru
I am indebted to many people who helped me accomplish this Internship successfully.
First, I thank the Vice-Chancellor Dr. Fr Abraham V M, CHRIST (Deemed to be University) for
giving me the opportunity to do my project.
I thank Dr. Jain Mathew, Dean, Dr. Georgy Kurien, Associate Dean and, Prof. Sirish, Head of the
Department, School of Business and Management, CHRIST (Deemed to be University) for their
kind support. (Main Campus).
I thank Prof. Shrikumar M. for his support and guidance during the course of my project. I
remember him/her with much gratitude for his/her patience and motivation, but for which I could
not have submitted this work.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to my NGO mentor, David SR, Founder, E-Cure, Bangalore,
for giving me an opportunity to work under his guidance and successfully complete my project.
I thank my parents for their blessings and constant support, without which this social concern
project would not have seen the light of day.
Shrestha Dash
Page No.
Introduction (the service-learning initiative of the project)
Profile of the Organization (Brief description of the structure
of the organization and its activities)
Project Objective and Methodology
Data analysis/ Detail description of the project
Findings/ Learning from the study and Recommendations
References, Bibliography, and Appendices
Certificates and Formats (as per the annexures given)
Social responsibility is an ethical paradigm that proposes that an individual or an organization
should act in the best interests of society. Individuals and organizations must act ethically and
sensitively in response to social, cultural, economic, and environmental concerns to be socially
responsible. The civic responsibilities and actions of the people and organizations must benefit
society as a whole. There should be a direct relationship between economic progress and societal
and environmental well-being. Individuals, firms, and governments who strive for social
responsibility, also called Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), can positively impact businesses
and society while contributing to financial success.
For the Social Concern Project, I chose to work for a Non-Government Organization (NGO), ECure, to identify their problems and issues requiring service, analyze the problem to draw
appropriate inferences, and recommend appropriate solutions to address challenges in the
organization. The total duration of the project was four days. The NGO gave various tasks and
responsibilities to carry out, then drafted a report for the NGO.
Similarly, this report traces the points and progress to date of the E-Cure organization. It refers to
the difficulties looked at by the NGO, specifically in guaranteeing there stays a joint effort between
the people and the NGO, yields are fitting to social researchers, dealing with the change from
research undertakings to support, absence of mindfulness, and absence of gifts.
Social Concern Project is a collective social action given by the institution for the sake of providing
a social benefit by the youth to the society by using their skills and also using management skills
for the better development and framing policies to the organization to control the issues and
perform effectively for the betterment of the society and the selected organization. This Social
Concern Project is an initiative for managing and solving the issues faced by the Social Concern
Organizations such as NGOs and social entrepreneurs (MSMEs). The social Concern project deals
with creating awareness and helping such organizations to adopt better strategic decisions.
Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) have been, in principle, in existence for a long time. Nongovernment associations can change in various types of affiliation. There is a wide range of NGOs
worldwide, which can make the method involved with characterizing such affiliation a
troublesome errand. E-Cure is one such association situated in Jayanagar, ensuring and monitoring
the climate. It was established in 2011 by David SR and has been situated in Bangalore for over
ten years. They attempt an assortment of drives, including Tree Plantation, Street Transformation,
Plastic Bag annihilation, Terrace cultivation, and mindfulness programs. The NGO has been
working with people and corporates for the past ten years to protect the climate in and around
Bangalore. The association's drawn-out objective is to take up the ranch drive to more urban
communities. This report calls attention to the fundamental difficulties confronted and how we
moved toward those with a worldwide viewpoint.
Profile of the organization
Profile of the Organization
E-CURE is a non-benefit association established by a couple of volunteers who have recently
coordinated and taken an interest in numerous climate cordial projects and established many trees
in and around Bangalore. The people of the beneficent trust make a solid effort to make our Mother
Earth a superior planet. The primary reason for shaping this trust is to zero in on "Squander
Management," particularly Dry Waste, Wet Waste, and Electronic Waste. The primary plan is ● To make Awareness Campaigns and Programs in Localities, Apartments, Schools, and
Colleges on Waste Segregation.
● To execute a framework where isolated squanders are gathered.
● To work with collecting losses to focus where they are arranged in an EnvironmentFriendly way.
The vision is to diminish the e-squander danger to people by spreading mindfulness and setting up
productive e-squander executives frameworks at different areas across Bangalore through
networks to make a spotless green Bangalore have zero waste. The association proactively takes
part in distinguishing expected regions for the ranch, remembering the biodiversity and
environmental elements of the neighborhood. They attempt to guarantee that the nearby networks
receive multifold rewards; other than reestablishing the green cover, the trees likewise give them
organic products, blossoms, leaves, and so on normally utilized in local area life. They have been
working energetically with people and corporate groups to make the earth a better place to live.
The drawn-out plans of the association involve taking tree manor drives to more urban areas and
accepting a lot more tree lovers to have the option to enhance the two scales and affect their
endeavors. The NGO has organized many plantation drives and many corporate majors like
Amazon. Other than plantation, the NGO has actively engaged in many waste management
activities, lake cleaning, development, and distribution of paper bags. They also educate young
female adults with menstrual hygiene and teach them additional skills to improve their overall
Project Objective &
Project Objective
● To understand the effects of micro plastics on the environment.
● To find eco-friendly alternatives to reduce the production of micro plastics and plastic
● To educate general people regarding micro plastics and their effects on the environment.
● To suggest some alternatives to reduce plastic usage for shops and households.
● To contribute to the betterment of society.
● To do research work on plastics and their impact on the environment.
● To prepare charts and posters based on the research on awareness about eradicating
● plastics and encouraging environment-friendly alternatives.
● To do an awareness campaign (especially with vendors, supermarkets, etc.) to motivate
● Moreover, educate people in adopting environment-friendly products.
● To plant at least five saplings in and around one’s surroundings.
● To recommend the NGO on more innovative initiatives that could be undertaken in the
Quantitative research was conducted to understand people's knowledge of micro plastics and their
usage, future impacts of micro plastics on the environment, and current solutions to reduce plastic
usage. Based on the information collected, infographics, charts, and posters were made. The
posters also included solutions and some alternatives to reduce plastic usage. Vendors, small shop
owners, and public people in and around SG Palya, Koramangala were given awareness regarding
plastic waste and its impacts on the environment. The research concluded with planting five
saplings, thereby fulfilling the project's objectives.
Detailed Description of the
Detail description of the project
Problems Identified
● Lack of Individual Participations
● Lack of Awareness
● Lack of Collaboration
● Lack of Feedbacks
● Lack of Donations
Analysis of the Problem
● The unavailability of volunteers in the NGO who can convince vendors to go eco-friendly
was one of the primary challenges that the NGO was facing.
● Vendors were not ready to use cloth or paper bags because plastic bags were cost-effective.
● The majority of the customers preferred plastic carry bags compared to paper and cloth
bags, which get wet quickly.
● In many cases, people are aware of the harmful effects that plastic causes but are too lazy
to put it into use.
● Community feedback acts as one of the primary pointers for the NGO to change the way
they prioritize their goals and tasks.
● The NGO is not widely known, and it also does not have a user-friendly website.
How did we approach the problem? / Project Description (or Tasks)
To help the organizations with the above-stated problems, I acted as one of its representatives and
went for various campaigns. The Social Concern Project at E-Curve mainly included research
work and two field works. For the ease of the project, we were grouped into teams of five people,
but the work was done individually with instant updates to the NGO mentor. The project consisted
of 4 days and a total of 18 hours.
Task - 1: Research Work and Campaign Drive - Plastic Waste Awareness
I started my Social Concern Project on 22nd December 2021. The first duty I was given was to
conduct research into previous events involving the use of plastics around the world, their future
consequences, and potential solutions. I did a qualitative study on articles and news on plastics and
their impacts as part of this research work.
With a thorough understanding of the conditions, I was asked to prepare charts and posters on
plastics and their impacts and alternatives to plastics.
1) What’s currently happening across the globe?
Many of the studies done by researchers across the globe state that there has been an increase in
temperature in the Earth's surface, atmosphere, and oceans, which is definitely not a good sign.
Temperature extremities and heavy precipitation events are becoming more common, while
glaciers and snow cover are diminishing and sea ice retreats. Seas are warming, rising, and getting
more acidic, and coastal flooding is becoming more common. The growing season is more
extended, and enormous wildfires are more common. In 2019, global energy-related CO2
emissions were estimated to be around 36.44 billion metric tons, up significantly from preindustrial levels. The earth surface temperature in 2020 was 0.98 degrees Celsius higher than the
20th-century average. Talking about plastics, while plastic has numerous practical applications,
humans have developed a dependency on single-use or disposable plastic, which has profound
environmental effects.
Every minute, 1,000,000 plastic drinking bottles are bought throughout the world, and each year,
5 trillion single-use plastic bags are used. Experts have hypothesized that plastic rubbish may be
used as a geological indicator of the Anthropocene period since it has grown so prevalent in the natural
Since the early 1950s, researchers have estimated that more than 8.3 billion tonnes of plastic have
been manufactured. Approximately60% of the plastic has ended up in a landfill or the
Another problem is that, since 1990, land conversion for agriculture, urbanization, mining, and
industry has resulted in the loss of 420 million hectares of forest.
2) Future Impacts
Plastic pollution is still impacting our ecosystems, health, and economy across the world. The
Studies Revealed that Plastic garbage accounted for between 24 and 35 million metric tons (Mt)
per year in the aquatic environment in 2021. It is more than double the pace of earlier plastic inflow
estimates. Even if every nation in the world accepted and adhered to current global pledges to
reduce plastic pollution, the organization anticipated that emissions would stay unchanged,
resulting in as much as 53 million tons of plastic pouring into the ocean
into rivers, lakes, and seas by 2030. Plastic will eventually seep into the environment as long as
we use it. Cleaning must be part of the answer. According to the research, the challenge is
enormous: collecting 40% of yearly plastic emissions would need over 750 million individuals
engaged in manual coastal cleaning activities each year in the best-case scenario.
The next task was fieldwork which lasted for around two days (23rd December and 24th
December). With the prepared charts and posters, I was asked to consult about 25 shopkeepers and
vendors in and around SG Palya and inquire about the use of plastics in their shop, their knowledge
on plastics and their impact, and try to educate them providing alternatives to plastics. The local
shops in S.G Palya are a mix of the crowd, among which more than half of these shops rely on
plastic bags, some rely on paper bags, and a few shops encourage customers to bring their bags. I
went around talking to them, explaining the importance of reducing plastic bags and their ill effects
on the planet. Based on the interaction with a fruit vendor, I realized that paper bags are slightly
expensive compared to plastic bags. It is one of the reasons why local vendors are hesitant towards
paper bag transition. Another reason was that customers still prefer plastic bags as they are
convenient to carry around.
Task - 2: Plantation Drive
The next task was to plant saplings. IAs part of this initiative, we approached the BBMP Forest
Department at Bellandur to procure some saplings. These saplings are provided free of cost by the
officials, provided there is a written letter from the authorities. The seedlings were planted at the
Tavarekere park, along with some help from the security guard. We planted around 12 saplings
which consisted of Ashoka, Mahogany, Badam, and two other varieties, all of which would grow
to become bigger trees in the future, thereby reducing the amount of carbon footprint.
Only 4% of the world's forests are plantations, which are established to provide various ecosystem
services. Plantation forests, in addition to such services, also provide direct and indirect benefits
to biodiversity through the provision of forest habitat for a wide variety of species, along with
reducing the negative impacts on the natural forests. Climate change is occurring due to changes
in temperature, rainfall, storm frequency and magnitude, fire frequency, and magnitude of pest and
disease outbreaks. Though climate change can be seen affecting plantations indirectly, changes
like species, rotation length, thinning, pruning, extraction of bioenergy feedstocks, and large-scale
climate change driven afforestation, reforestation, and potential deforestation can be seen.
Plantations can create opportunities for biodiversity conservation and forest sustainability.
The future biodiversity will experience direct effects of climate change because of regional
temperature and moisture balances. Plantation measures can be adopted to mitigate climate
change, which could have a more significant impact on biodiversity in the future. To maximize
the future biodiversity opportunities and protect the existing biodiversity values, the plantation
measure should be carefully implemented in order to increase the resilience and adaptive capacity
of plantations to changing climatic conditions. New plantations on abandoned agricultural land
can lead to an overall increase in biodiversity, resulting in positive biodiversity benefits due to less
pressure on the remaining natural forests. There are benefits that we experience because of planting
trees, which are as follows:
Social benefits:
● Spending time among trees and a green environment reduces stress.
Recovery from diseases and surgery has been fast if patients are provided with a view of
● Trees are often planted as living memorials of loved ones.
Environmental benefits:
● Trees reduce the urban heat island effect through evaporative cooling.
● There is more production of oxygen.
● Trees provide the habitat for many species along with food.
Economic benefits:
● Trees can reduce the cooling costs in summer by providing shades on the south and west
side of houses.
● They can also act as a windbreak to reduce the cooling effects of winter winds if planted
on the north side of houses.
Task - 3: Research Report on Environmental Protection and Conservation
Inferences based on the learnings
All over the planet, 1,000,000 plastic drinking bottles are bought each moment. In contrast, 5
trillion single-utilized plastic packs are utilized worldwide consistently. Altogether, a big part of
all plastic delivered is intended to be utilized just a single time — and afterward discarded. Plastic
waste is so pervasive in the regular habitat that researchers have even proposed it could fill in as a
landmark of the Anthropocene period.
While plastic has numerous essential uses, we have become dependent on single-use or expendable
plastic — with highly natural results. From the 1950s to the 70s, just a modest quantity of plastic
was delivered, so plastic waste was reasonable. By the 1990s, the plastic waste age had
dramatically multiplied in twenty years, following a comparative ascent in plastic creation. In the
mid-2000s, our plastic waste rose more in a solitary decade than it had in the past 40 years. Since
the 1950s, plastic creation has become quicker than some other materials. We have likewise seen
a shift away from creating rigid plastic and towards plastics intended to be discarded after a solitary
use. These single-utilized plastic items are all over. For a significant number of us, they have
become fundamental to our regular routines.
We want to slow the progression of plastic at its source. However, we additionally need to develop
further how we deal with our plastic waste. Since the present moment, a ton of it has winds up in
the climate. Streams convey plastic waste from deep inland to the ocean, making them significant
supporters of sea contamination. Assuming that the latest things proceed, our seas could contain
more plastic than fish by 2050. The worldwide volume of plastic waste develops, and probably the
greatest makers do not deal with their waste adequately. On the off chance that the latest things
proceed, our seas could contain more plastic than fish by 2050. Be that as it may, the world is
awakening to the issue, and state-run administrations are beginning to act. According to statistics
obtained from many sources, including the United Nations Environmental Program, approximately
1.9 billion trees are planted yearly.
Tree planted every year
Trees planted every month
Tree planted every day
Trees Planted every minute
Tree Planted every second
According to the same studies, 158 million trees are replanted worldwide, 5 million trees are
planted each day, and around 7,000 trees are planted each minute. By far, industrialized countries
are at the forefront of this goal. Some have succeeded in planting millions of trees in recent years,
equating to the number of trees removed each year. China planted around 2,407,149,493 saplings,
followed by India planting around 2,159,420,898 saplings.
Future Impacts
The world is facing acute environmental changing conditions. It is a severe issue dodged by the
government, industry leaders, and other activists worldwide. Looking at a few of the directly
visible impacts to us instead of the detailed understanding of the probability of other losses is
difficult to understand, just like the fact of the rising temperature of the earth by 0.6 degrees Celsius
due to the consumption of fossil fuels (Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other contributors
of greenhouse gasses). Based on the various predictive modeling, it is suggested that the upcoming
years will eventually increase the earth's overall surface temperature by nearly 4 degrees which is
Below are some of the changes that will be and are already reflecting the environmental conditions:
● Changing precipitation patterns: the average rise in temperature is not only causing the
temperature to rise but is directly impacting the water cycle to speed up over time and
causing unusual rainfall patterns, floods, and excessive evaporation. The current average
precipitation pattern shows the differential change in the increase from 1%-3%.
● Rising Sea level: increasing temperature leads to two parts of changes in the environment
system: melting of global ice sheets and increasing the temperature cause ocean water to
expand, increasing its overall volume contributing to rising of almost 10 to 20 cm of sea
level. As various models predict, the rising sea level will cause several of the existing
coastlines to disappear and the formation of new land patterns.
Loss of Biodiversity: Starting with the fact that “Every time a human walks and creates a
new path in the forest, it leads to the extinction of several organisms and their natural
habitat. Below is the illustration of a timeline that shows the extinction of biodiversity over
The fact of rising carbon dioxide is not just alarming. The rate at which the Oceans which is
absorbing carbon is the problem. At some point, the ocean water will become saturated. It will
reach its threshold to intake any more carbon dioxide, which will lead to a further increase in
greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. It also initiates the acidification of ocean bodies which will
succumb to the oceanic planktons to survive—leading to the eventual dissolving of their shells.
Moving to the urgency of plastic waste disposal as at the current rate of plastic consumption, our
environment could reach 10 billion tons of plastic by the year 2050. Looking carefully at various
research shows that more than 99% of the plastic that has ever been produced, only 9% of them
has been recycled. The remaining 12% has been incinerated, and the remaining 79% is present in
our landfills.
The ways that will impact in future disposal of plastic waste are:
● Unlearning how to waste (teaching consumers and customers the way towards the new
methods of how to dispose of waste)
● Bioplastics are not the solution but are marketing gimmicks; therefore, please be careful as
they contribute to the existing plastic waste crisis.
● Recycling is not the only way. The rate at which plastic waste increases will never eradicate
even 50% of the existing waste.
● Due to its shredding ability, plastic has already reached micro stages, because of which it
has hijacked the food chain. The only way out of this now mass ocean cleaning that has
been initiated nowadays remains extraordinary cost, which can be performed with the help
of government bodies or joining hands of global bodies who oversee the activity with strict
● The disturbing part of plastic remains non-degradable, causing entry to all types of
ecosystems to change in the animal's system and causing malnutrition, digestive blockage,
and slow positioning due to increased toxicity.
● The continuing assimilation of plastic in water bodies leads to morphing and joining with
sulfur releasing algae, causing an intentional feeding mechanism to birds that are food but
are plastic.
Proposal of the value-based service approaches
Plantation of the sapling is like giving life to a dead land, influencing the entire ecosystem that
thrives there, and building a natural habitat of all the near-extinct organisms. Over 25 years of the
study, it was observed that planting saplings was to create such an ecosystem and monitor, caring
for their growth until they can sustain themselves as most sapling plantation drives go
unmonitored. Let us deep dive, into the study:
● Creation of biodiversity and initiate multi-layer animal chain that further links creation to
the food chain.
Increases the fertility of the land.
● Increases rainfall pattern in the region if conditionally suffering from lack of adequate
water cycle pattern.
● Indirectly creating socio-economic changes as this creates several economic developments
of the land and the region, by providing employment, by-products of the tree that can be
further sold.
● Rises the overall oxygen depletion in the vicinity and reduces the carbon dioxide
● It can be further utilized as a tourism model if monitored in a pattern not polluted with
inorganic waste.
● They are improving hibernation and migration patterns of birds within the biodiversity.
● Encourages the local economy by boosting the local services.
To observe the live social experiment, kindly refer to this website ( Bhalo Pahar) that has created
this experiment into reality and has observed the current points illustrated above. The organization
strives to create the same and has led to severe ecosystem creation and socio-economic
development in the vicinity of Purulia, in the borders of West Bengal.
Solutions put forward by organizations and countries across the world.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is the UN system's principal environmental
authority. UNEP applies its knowledge to improve environmental standards and practices while
also implementing environmental commitments at the national, regional, and global levels.
UNEP's objective is to inspire, enlighten, and enable nations and peoples to improve their quality
of life without jeopardizing future generations by providing leadership and encouraging
partnership in environmental protection.
As part of its transition to results-based management, UNEP reorganized its work program into
six major areas. Scientific data, the UNEP mission, and priorities emanating from global and
regional forums influenced the selection of six areas of specialization.
1. CLIMATE CHANGE - UNEP increases countries' ability to integrate climate change
responses by providing leadership in adaptation, mitigation, technology, and finance. UNEP
concentrates on easing the transition to a low-carbon society, advancing climate scientific
understanding, promoting renewable energy development, and boosting public awareness.
assessments in crisis-affected nations and offers advice on putting legislative and institutional
frameworks in place to improve environmental management. Post-conflict environmental
assessments in Afghanistan, Côte d'Ivoire, Lebanon, Nigeria, and Sudan are among the projects
done by UNEP's Post-Conflict & Disaster Management Branch (PCDMB).
3. ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT - Facilitates ecosystem management and restoration in a way
that is consistent with long-term development and encourages the usage of ecosystem services.
The Global Program of Action (GPA) for the Protection of the Marine Environment from LandBased Activities is one example.
4. ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE - UNEP assists governments in developing,
implementing, and reinforcing the processes, institutions, laws, policies, and programs required to
achieve sustainable development at the national, regional, and global levels, as well as
mainstreaming environmental considerations in development planning.
5. HARMFUL SUBSTANCES - The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) works to
reduce the adverse effects of dangerous substances and hazardous waste on the environment and
6. SUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION/RESOURCE EFFICIENCYThe United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) focuses on regional and worldwide
initiatives to guarantee that natural resources are generated, processed, and utilized in an
environmentally friendly manner.
Plastic pollution can be reduced by policy reforms that encourage changes in company and
consumer behavior and plastic design, alternatives, and recycling. From UNEP and WRI's (World
Resources Institutes) recommendations, here are four legislative and legal options that countries
can adopt to reduce their plastic waste permanently:
1. Bans on single-use plastics
Governments' most often used and successful legislative tools are bans and limits on single-use
plastic items (that directly prohibit their production, distribution, or use). Some of their success
might be attributed to the flexibility of the ban law, which allows for exemptions for medical and
other essential uses while encouraging the use of alternative products such as cloth or paper bags.
2. Economic Incentives and Taxes Governments can also apply taxes to discourage the
manufacturing or use of single-use plastics and provide tax breaks, subsidies, and other financial
incentives to encourage the use of alternatives to single-use plastics. Portugal and Denmark, for
example, have effectively employed these economic mechanisms to boost the use of reusable and
recycled products. Taxes and incentives can be applied to specific firms or goods (such as
supermarkets or plastic manufacturers) (like plastic coffee cup lids or soda bottles).
3. Product Regulations
Product standards, certifications, and labeling regulations can all be designed to educate the public
about the adverse effects of plastic on the environment and the health and safety risks associated
with its manufacture and usage. This strategy can help consumers choose sustainable items.
4. Producer Responsibilities Increased
Manufacturers can maintain accountability for single-use plastic products over their entire life
cycles through Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes. By making manufacturers
accountable for single-use plastics throughout the collection, recovery, recycling, or reuse of their
products, these legislative measures help ensure more sustainable designs.
Biomedical waste management during Covid -19 pandemic
Updated guidelines for covid-19 related waste as per World Health Organization (WHO)
All medical waste created during the COVID 19 patient's treatment must be adequately collected
in defined containers, handled, and then delivered to a linked site for suitable treatment or disposal,
or both, according to the WHO. Waste can be moved ex-situ if appropriate recycling and treatment
facilities are in place. It further said that all staff involved in medical waste management must wear
appropriate PPE (goggles or a face shield, mask, thick gloves, long-sleeved gown, apron, and
boots) and keep their hands clean after each use (WHO, 2020c).
COVID-19 waste must be treated according to local rules and regulations, which usually involve
heat treatment (Tsukiji et al., 2020). Most countries, including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia,
Japan, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, adopted burning
for COVID-waste treatment, among other procedures like melting, steam sterilization, radio wave,
chemical disinfection, and deep burial (Tsukiji et al., 2020). Table 1 also discusses different
countries' handling and management of COVID-waste during pandemics. This section discusses
some of the most prevalent ways for processing and disposing of HCW.
Plastic waste creation trends, the impact of COVID-19 on existing waste management systems,
and potential solutions to post-pandemic waste management difficulties (data obtained from Ellen
MacArthur Foundation, 2017).
Example of environmental conservation: Bhutan
Bhutan is one of the world's tiniest countries. However, it is more committed to environmental
protection than most. One of Bhutan's Gross National Happiness philosophy's four pillars is
environmental conservation. Its constitution requires Bhutan to keep 60 percent of its land under
forest cover at all times. Bhutan has been prosperous in this endeavor. More than 51% of the
country is under protection, which is the highest percentage of any Asian country. The majority is
made up of intact forests intertwined with free-flowing rivers.
Since the 1970s, WWF has worked with the Government of Bhutan, Bhutan-based non-profit
organizations, and local communities to achieve this balance. For example, they help conduct
extensive wildlife surveys, create conservation management plans for national parks, and educate
rural communities on minimizing human-wildlife conflicts.
Learnings from the study &
Findings/ Learning from the study
● The plastic waste generation had more than tripled in two decades, following a similar rise
in plastic production.
● Shopkeepers and customers prefer plastic carry bags over cloth or paper bags because
plastic is cheaper and easy to maintain.
● Planting a tree will help control floods, prevent soil erosion and provide oxygen.
● Many people are aware of the harmful effects of plastic but are too reluctant to bring it into
● Organizations might spread their channels through other states or countries so that their
core message can reach varied groups of people across the globe.
● A specific number of trees can be distributed among students to be planted at home, which
can be part of their academic activity.
● Organizations in collaboration with hospitals can prepare plans for disposing of plastic
wastes of COVID test kits and other hospital utensils safely.
● Organizations in collaboration with the CSR activities of other companies can conduct
seminars and activities to make people aware and collect and dispose of plastic waste in a
community where the company is based.
● Organizations in collaboration with youth can offer local community engagement
workshops, organize beach clean-ups, promote plastic-free products, lobby with local and
national governments, and speak at public events.
● Organizations collaborating with self-help groups can produce cloth or paper bags from
used materials and distribute them among shops to reduce plastic bags.
References, Bibliography,
and Appendices
References, Bibliography, and Appendices
Certificates and Formats
Certificates and Formats (as per the annexures given)