Uploaded by Pamela Bandy

planetary-health infographic

advertisement
H
T
L
A
E
H
Y
R
A
T
E
N
A
L
P
UMAN
H
F
O
H
T
L
RAL
U
THE HEA
T
A
N
E
H
AND T
N
O
I
T
A
S
I
ICH
CIVIL
H
W
N
O
S
SYSTEM
S
IT DEPEND
THE HUMAN POPULATION IS HEALTHIER
THAN EVER BEFORE
LIFE EXPECTANCY
POVERTY
CHILD MORTALITY
Mean global life expectancy
at birth (years)
Population of world in
poverty (%)
Recorded deaths
of under-fives 1
80
100
20M
60
50
10M
0
0
40
1950
2000
1950
2000
1950
2000
BUT TO ACHIEVE THIS WE’VE EXPLOITED THE
PLANET AT AN UNPRECEDENTED RATE
CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS
OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
ENERGY USE
Atmospheric concentration
of CO2 (ppm)
Global ocean acidification (mean
hydrogen ion concentration, nmol/kg)
World primary
energy use (EJ)
400
9
350
8
400
300
7
200
250
6
0
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
600
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
TROPICAL FOREST LOSS
WATER USE
FERTILISER USE
Global tropical forest loss compared
with 1700 baseline (%)
Water use
(thousand km3)
Global fertiliser use (nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium;
thousand tonnes)
40
4
30
3
20
2
10
1
0
0
1800
1850
1900
1950
200
100
2000
1800
1850
1900
1950
0
2000
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
The period of environmental changes induced by human exploitation
of the planet defines a new geological era: the Anthropocene epoch´┐Ż
ON OUR CURRENT TRAJECTORY WE WILL PUT
EVEN MORE PRESSURE ON THE PLANET
POPULATION
GRAIN PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS
World population (billions)
Total global cereal production
(billions of tonnes)
WATER DEMAND2
2050
2000
c. 4.2 bn
1800
1 billion
5,500 km3
2014
3,500 km3
1 bn
7 billion
2050
9.6 billion
1960
2014
2050
DAMAGING THE PLANET
DAMAGES HUMAN HEALTH
BIODIVERSITY
CLIMATE
CHANGE
LOSS
UNDER
NUTRITION
If unchecked climate change related
impacts could cause an extra
Overfishing together with increasing
acidity and other environmental
changes threaten fish supplies
250,000
Millions of people are at risk of
under nutrition due to the
combined effects of
deaths per year
climate change and other
environmental changes
between 2030 and 2050 3
WATER
USE
SOIL
DEGRADATION
By 2050 over
This leads to a loss of
of the world’s population could
be living in areas under severe
water stress
million hectares
of agricultural land
per annum
40%
1-2
These environmental threats could also exacerbate each other
TO SAFEGUARD HUMAN HEALTH WE
NEED TO MAINTAIN THE HEALTH OF THE
PLANET ON WHICH WE DEPEND
LEARN ABOUT
PLANETARY
HEALTH
REDUCE
FOOD
WASTE
HEALTHY DIETS
WITH A LOW
ENVIRONMENTAL
IMPACT
Planetary health is the
highest standard of health,
wellbeing and equity
worldwide. Human systems
are responsible for shaping
the future of human
civilisation and the Earth’s
natural systems
30-50% of all food produced
is never consumed.
Reducing food waste means
less land is needed for
agriculture; saving energy,
water, helping to protect
biodiversity and improving
food security
Diets low in red meat with
plenty of fruit and
vegetables reduce the risk
of heart disease. Dietary
changes could reduce
greenhouse gas emissions
and land use requirements
by up to 50%
Coordinated global,
national and local policies
that reduce environmental
damage and improve
health need to be
implemented
USE WATER MORE
EFFICIENTLY
END
DEFORESTATION
FAMILY
PLANNING
CITY
PLANNING
Although drip or trickle
irrigation methods are
more expensive to
install, they can be
33% more efficient in
water use
Since 2000 we have cut
down over 2.3 million
km2 of primary forest.
The REDD+ mechanism
aims to reduce
greenhouse gas
emissions and improve
local livelihoods
Around 225 million women
who want to avoid pregnancy
are not using effective
contraception. Access to
family planning could cut
maternal deaths by almost
30% and improve food
security
Planning healthy and
sustainable cities can
increase resilience to
environmental change,
reduce environmental
impacts and improve
people’s health
BETTER
GOVERNANCE
Read the full series at http://www.thelancet.com/commissions/planetary-health
SOURCES
1. http://data.unicef.org/child-survival/under-five
2. OECD, http://www.oecd.org/env/indicators-modelling-outlooks/49844953.pdf
3. Original source reference in: Watts N, Adger WN, Agnolucci P, et al. Health and climate change: policy responses to protect public health. Lancet 2015; published online June 23.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60854-6
All other data is in: Whitmee S, Haines A, Beyrer C, et al. Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of The Rockefeller Foundation–Lancet Commission on
planetary health. Lancet 2015; published online July 16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60901-1
Download