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Characterization​: ​ ​Characterization is a
technique used by writers to reveal aspects
of a character’s personality. When you
characterize an individual you are judging
them. You want to be able to use one
adjective to describe the character.
Conflict​: ​the “problem” in the story which
triggers the action.
Internal Conflict​ ​is a personal problem or
issue like depression, heart-break, or
confusion over what one should do about a
certain situation.
External Conflict​ ​is a problem that a person
has with someone else like a fight or an
Theme​: ​ ​the life lesson or message in a work
of literature. This message is usually about
life, society or human nature.​ It’s the
Setting​: ​the time and place in which the
action of a literary work takes place. This can
include the date, the hour, the location, etc.
Hyperbole​: ​an exaggeration or
overstatement. (Ex. It’s colder than the
North Pole outside.)
Irony​: ​the difference between what
appears to be and what really is.
Simile​: ​a comparison between two
seemingly unrelated objects using the
words “like” or “as.” (Ex. Your skin is like silk.)
Metaphor​: ​a comparison between two
seemingly unrelated subjects without using
“like or “as.”( Ex. Your eyes are windows to
your soul.)
Symbol​: ​something concrete (an object)
that represents or stands for something
more abstract, like an idea, a feeling, or
emotion. (Ex. The American Flag is a
symbol of the idea of freedom)
Imagery​: ​sensory details (imagery appeals
to the senses- what can be seen, heard, felt,
Repetition​: ​the repeating of a word or
phrase within literature to create a rhythm
or make a point.
Foreshadowing​: ​a suggestion of what is to
come later in a work by giving hints and
Personification​: ​a figure of speech in which
human qualities are assigned to
non-human things, or life is given to
inanimate objects. (Ex. The portrait of my
grandmother spoke words of wisdom.)
Tone /Mood
Watch out! Tone and mood are similar!!
Tone​ ​is the author’s attitude toward the
writing. (Ex. Amused, Pessimistic, Angry,
Informal, Playful, Ironic, Light, Sad, Serious,
Formal, Suspicious, Gloomy, Optimistic,
Mood​ ​is the general reader’s feelings about
the author’s words. It is the atmosphere
created by the author’s words. (Ex.
Melancholy, Mysterious, Frustrating,
Romantic, Gloomy, Sentimental, Sorrowful).
author’s advice about life to their readers.