Uploaded by Gökçe Korkmaz

Neurobiology of memory

Remember/Know judgments in
cognitive neuroscience: An
illustration of the underrepresented
point of view
John T. Wixted, 2009
University of California
Gökçe Korkmaz
University of Pavia
Recognition memory procedures are often used to
investigate the neuroanatomical basis of declarative
Recognition memory test
• Target items that previously appeared on a list are randomly
intermixed with lures, and these items are individually presented to
the subject for an Old/New recognition decision.
• Recollection
consciously retrieving contextual details that were associated with the
item at the time of encoding
• Familiarity
confidently knowing that the item was on the list even though no
specific information about its prior occurrence
Remember/Know procedure
Distinguish between recollection and familiarity.
Recollection of encoding details
Recollection- free feeling of familiarity
Area of utilization
Neuroimaging Studies
to identify brain structures that underlie
recognition memory processes.
Lesion Studies
What is the relationship between
signal detection theory and
discrimination ability?
Signal detection theory
• Targets and lures on a recognition test
are associated with overlapping
distributions of memory strength, with
the average strength of the targets being
greater than that of the lures.
• Six-point scale (1 = Sure New, 2 =
Probably New, 3 = Maybe New, 4 =
Maybe Old, 5 = Probably Old, and 6 =
Sure Old)
Experimental Psychology Literature
Gardiner & Java, 1990
• A nonword list was presented to the participants to
Experiment 1:
Asked participants to make a Remember/Know
desicions following each Old desicion.
Experiment 2:
Asked for a confidence rating instead (Sure / Not Sure).
Neuroscience literature
Verfaellie et al. (2008)
• Used the Remember / Know procedure to determine which
memory process is impaired more in amnesic patients.
Participants studied;
• Items presented once,
• Items presented three times with the same context word each
• Items presented three times with a different context word
each time.
Hypothesis was repetition would enhance recollection and
familiarity in controls, whereas it would mainly enhance
familiarity in amnesic patients.
Result; repetition was found to significantly increase
recollection in controls only, but repetition significantly
increased familiarity in both groups.
• Remember/Know procedure is used in the
neuroscience literature to either directly
quantify recollection and familiarity.
the effects of lesions on these two processes can
be measured
• To separate recollection-based from familiaritybased recognition decisions.
correlated brain activity can be measured using
Future suggestions
Related approachs could be used to test the effects of
hippocampal lesions on Remember/Know judgements.
Hippocampal activity and
relationship betweeen reaction
times for Remember and Know
Hippocampal patients should report
high-confidence Know judgments
more often than controls when
hippocampus selectively subserves
Wixted, J. T. (2009). Remember/Know judgments in cognitive neuroscience: An illustration of
the underrepresented point of view. Learning & Memory, 16(7), 406-412.
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