Remember/Know judgments in cognitive neuroscience: An illustration of the underrepresented point of view John T. Wixted, 2009 University of California Gökçe Korkmaz University of Pavia Recognition memory procedures are often used to investigate the neuroanatomical basis of declarative memory. Recognition memory test • Target items that previously appeared on a list are randomly intermixed with lures, and these items are individually presented to the subject for an Old/New recognition decision. • Recollection consciously retrieving contextual details that were associated with the item at the time of encoding • Familiarity confidently knowing that the item was on the list even though no specific information about its prior occurrence Remember/Know procedure Distinguish between recollection and familiarity. Recollection of encoding details ‘’Remember’’ Recollection- free feeling of familiarity ‘’Know’’ Area of utilization Neuroimaging Studies to identify brain structures that underlie recognition memory processes. Lesion Studies What is the relationship between signal detection theory and discrimination ability? Signal detection theory • Targets and lures on a recognition test are associated with overlapping distributions of memory strength, with the average strength of the targets being greater than that of the lures. Donaldson,1996 • Six-point scale (1 = Sure New, 2 = Probably New, 3 = Maybe New, 4 = Maybe Old, 5 = Probably Old, and 6 = Sure Old) Experimental Psychology Literature Gardiner & Java, 1990 • A nonword list was presented to the participants to memorize. Experiment 1: Asked participants to make a Remember/Know desicions following each Old desicion. Experiment 2: Asked for a confidence rating instead (Sure / Not Sure). Neuroscience literature Verfaellie et al. (2008) • Used the Remember / Know procedure to determine which memory process is impaired more in amnesic patients. Participants studied; • Items presented once, • Items presented three times with the same context word each time, • Items presented three times with a different context word each time. Hypothesis was repetition would enhance recollection and familiarity in controls, whereas it would mainly enhance familiarity in amnesic patients. Result; repetition was found to significantly increase recollection in controls only, but repetition significantly increased familiarity in both groups. • Remember/Know procedure is used in the neuroscience literature to either directly quantify recollection and familiarity. the effects of lesions on these two processes can be measured • To separate recollection-based from familiaritybased recognition decisions. correlated brain activity can be measured using fMRI Future suggestions Related approachs could be used to test the effects of hippocampal lesions on Remember/Know judgements. Hippocampal activity and relationship betweeen reaction times for Remember and Know Procedure. Hippocampal patients should report high-confidence Know judgments more often than controls when hippocampus selectively subserves recollection References Wixted, J. T. (2009). Remember/Know judgments in cognitive neuroscience: An illustration of the underrepresented point of view. Learning & Memory, 16(7), 406-412. Thank you for your attention!