Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 Key Terms and People: Vocabulary 1. abolition movement - a campaign to abolish or end slavery. 2. David Walker – African American merchant and abolitionist, he published the Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World. 3. Frederick Douglas – former slave, abolitionist, and writer, he published The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass and founded the newspaper NORTH STAR. 4. Sojourner Truth – American evangelist and reformer, became a speaker for abolition and woman’s suffrage. Wrote “Ain’t I a Woman” 5. discrimination – prejudice towards an entire group. 6. William Lloyd Garrison – white publisher of the LIBERATOR; help founded the American Anti-Slavery Society. 7. John Brown – militant white abolitionist who organized a slave revolt and raid on a federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA. 8. Missouri Compromise (1820) – Missouri was admitted as a slave state and Maine as a free state. 9. Compromise of 1850 – California joined union as a free state while the rest of land (from Mexico) organized into New Mexico and Utah territories. 10. Popular sovereignty – vote by the people (popular vote). 11. Fugitive Slave Act – people that who helped or hid fugitive slaves were subject to heavy fines and imprisonment. 12. Kansas-Nebraska Act – organized Kansas and Nebraska into territories as slave states overriding the Missouri Compromise. 13. Dred Scott decision – US Supreme Court stated that Scott could not sue because he was not a citizen. 14. Republican Party – formed in 1854 as the anti-slavery party. Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 15. Abraham Lincoln – 16th President of the United States, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. 16. Confederate States of America – formed in December 1861 when South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas seceded the Union. 17. contrabands – escaped slaves 18. 1st Louisiana Native Guards – an all-black Civil War regiment, also called the Corps d’Afrique that gained control of New Orleans for the Union forces. 19. 54th Massachusetts Infantry – one of the first all-black Civil War regiments formed after Congress approved recruitment of black soldiers. 20. Robert Smalls – former slave and steamboat pilot who captured the Confederate warship Planter during the Civil War. 21. border states - Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri stayed in the Union. 22. Emancipation Proclamation – order issued that set free enslaved Africans in rebel areas on January 1, 1863. 23. Juneteenth – event that commemorates June 19, 1865, the date when the Emancipation Proclamation was announced in Galveston. Texas. Federal troop did not reach Texas and free the slaves there until after the Civil War was over. Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 Section 1 THE ANTISLAVERY MOVEMENT Both black and white Americans helped support the antislavery movement in the early to mid1800s. ORIGINS OF THE ANITSLAVERY MOVEMENT - Dates back before the American Revolution o Early colonists such as the ____________ protested against slavery o As the independence struggle grew more people joined the call to end slavery; first antislavery society formed in ________________________ in 1775 Not a major force until early 1800s with religious revival known as ________________________________ o Rebirth of religious fervor encouraged reform o Reform focus contributed to growth of antislavery movement More Americans viewed slavery as morally wrong that went against ________________ o Social reformers united and formed organization to oppose slavery - - Black Abolitionists American antislavery groups differed in their goals; some opposed the spread of slavery but wanted it kept in place where already existed; others wanted to abolish slavery Abolition Movement - Campaign to abolish, or end, slavery Supporters called _______________ Free blacks among most vocal in group; took great risks in supporting abolition Black Militants - - Militant black abolitionists favored use of ________ Wrote and spoke calling on African Americans to resist slavery by any means necessary David Walker - - Free black merchant; published 1829 pamphlet, _________________ _________________ _________________ Called on African Americans to rise up against slavery MANY VOICES - Walker Not Alone o New York abolitionist Henry Highland Garnet urged slaves to resist o In 1843 speech he declared, “Strike for your lives and liberties …” o Shocked by calls for violence, others looked for more peaceful methods to end slavery Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 - Fredrick Douglass o Black abolitionist who ____________ the use of force o Had escaped slavery; was gifted writer and speaker for abolition o Published antislavery newspaper, ___________________; wrote about his life o Traveled across U.S. and British Isles giving speeches on evils of slavery; his eloquent appeals drew people to the movement The Black Abolition Movement Douglass one of Many Racial Discrimination - Free blacks gave speeches, held antislavery conventions - Unfair treatment of people of a certain race—___________________ - Published many antislavery newspapers - Free blacks in the North still faced unequal treatment; took direct action to fight against discrimination - Personal accounts of slave life helped educate Americans - __________________________ sued a railway company and won; paved way for second legal case which opened streetcars to black passengers - ___________________—leading abolitionist and women’s rights activist; famous speech, “Ain’t I a Woman” delivered in 1851 White Abolitionists White Activists William Lloyd Garrison - Thousands of white activists joined antislavery movement during mid-1800s - White journalist; one of foremost abolitionists in nation - Many became leaders in the movement - 1831 newspaper, ___________________ - Radical abolitionist who called for immediate end to slavery Sensational Action - Garrison burned copy of U.S. Constitution 1854 Helped found the ________________ Anti-Slavery Society and the _________________ Anti-Slavery Society Cost of Support - - White abolitionists contributed own money for lecture tours; purchased freedom of many slaves Often risked own lives. Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 Other White Abolitionist Leaders - - - - To abolish slavery, needed to persuade people to join cause; white abolitionists used many methods o Published antislavery newspapers (Garrison); Published pamphlets and books Weld’s Slavery As It Is helped inspire __________________________ o Uncle Tom’s Cabin was ________________________________ 1852 novel of terrors and tragedies of slave life; novel sold _______________________ copies the first year. o Novel drew new supporters to abolitionist cause Some used political means o Arthur and Lewis Tappan established ________________________ as first antislavery political party in U.S. Militant ____________________________ thought that only force could end slavery o 1849 moved to black community to learn evils of slave system firsthand from former slaves; he believed nothing short of war would end slavery Using your notes above answer the following questions. 1. What were the origins of the antislavery movement, and what led to its growth in the early 1800s? 2. Who were some black abolitionists, and what methods did they use? 3. Who were some white abolitionists, and what methods did they use? Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 THE COMING CONFLICT Section 2 Disagreement over the expansion of slavery led to conflict between the North and South, and in time to the secession of the southern states. RISING TENSIONS - - - Growing number of Americans now settling the West o Hoping to find wealth, obtain land of their own o Issue of slavery’s expansion into new territory arose ____________________________________ o Tension between slave and free states increased in early 1800s o 1819 Missouri Territory applied to enter the Union as a slave state; if accepted would tilt slave state–Free state balance in Senate in _______________ favor; Northerners upset about losing power in Senate o Others opposed expansion of slavery on moral grounds o Issue resolved with Missouri Compromise of 1820, which admitted Missouri as slave state and Maine as free state and banned slavery north of the 36°30′ N latitude in unorganized territory of __________________________________ Delicate Senate balance was maintained but tensions remained high Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 THE COMPROMISE of 1850 - New Territories Sought Statehood o Issue of slave or free states continued o Politicians fought over issue; a few tried hard to maintain balance o In 1848 the U.S. gained vast amount of land in the West as a result of the ___________________________________; debate over allowing slavery intensified California Applies o California’s leaders applied for statehood as free state in 1849 o This would upset the balance in the Senate o The South feared loss of ___________________________________; Southern leaders threatened to secede from the Union as a last result o Some Northerners countered, “______________________________ - Henry Clay Henry Clay, author of the Missouri Compromise, came up with a plan to solve the California problem. Congress passed a series of laws called _____________________________________ Details - Compromise resulted in _______________ joining Union as a free state - Rest of land gained from Mexico was organized into New Mexico and Utah territories Territories Appeasement - _________________ _________________, a vote of the people, would determine slave issue - Agreement included a tougher _________ ________________ to appease the slave states - Slave trade ended in the ______________ _________________ - Neither side completely satisfied with compromise Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 The Fugitive Slave Act - Compromise of 1850 settled one dispute and triggered another – a dispute over the ________________________________ o Southerner slaveholders felt that northerners ignored the law and offered aid to escaped slaves o New law made assisting runaway slaves a __________________; commissioners were appointed to enforce law; citizens expected to “aid and assist” New law meant anyone who helped or hid fugitive slaves was subject to heavy fines and imprisonment o Federal marshals had great power; could arrest fugitive slaves who had been free for decades o African Americans accused of being runaways had to prove that they were free, a ___________________ and _______________________________ task Law put many black northerners —whether legally free or escaped— at risk - - FIGHITING the FUGITIVE SLAVE ACT - Northerners Infuriated o More were encouraged to support the fight against slavery o In the North people openly resisted new law; organized against it o Abolitionists urged African Americans to prepare to defend themselves. Harriet Tubman o In Troy, New York she came to the aid of Charles Nalle who had been captured and was going to be returned to slavery in the Virginia o As a crowd pushed forward Tubman helped him escape. - BLACK SELF-PROTECTION GROUPS Blacks Organized Warrants for Escapees - As threat of capture increased blacks organized to protect themselves - September 1851 armed group pounded on Parker’s door to serve warrants - Self-protection groups were successful - - Developed alert plans if slave catchers were seen in area Parker’s wife blew a horn for help and neighbors came to their aid; in the battle that followed, the slave catchers retreated Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 - _______________________, one of the organizers, used the plan to save four men at his house - Arrests for treason followed and Parker became a __________________, leaving his family behind THE CONFLICT BECOMES a CRISIS Throughout the 1850s the dispute over slavery raged on. Three key events brought the crisis between North and South to a head. - ______________________________________ o Passed in 1854, the Act organized Kansas and Nebraska into territories and allowed the issue of slavery to be determined by __________________________ o The Act bitterly divided the nation; proslavery and antislavery forces sent supporters to Kansas to help _____________________________________ there o Abolitionist __________________________ settled in Kansas o “_________________________________” became a violent battleground - What does the Cartoon above mean? Who are the freesoilers? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 The Dred Scott Decision Lawsuit - 1857 Supreme Court case - Enslaved Missouri man traveled with his slaveholder to Illinois and Wisconsin Territory where _________ _______________________ - Upon return to slaveholding Missouri Dred Scott sued for his freedom - His argument: __________________ ______________________________ The Court’s Decision Fifth Amendment - Deeply divided Court ruled against Scott’s argument; Scott could not sue because he wasn’t a citizen under the U.S. Constitution - Based decision on _______________ ______________; the Compromise deprived slaveholders of those rights without due process of law - Also declared the Missouri Compromise __________________ - Abolitionists felt ruling put Supreme Court on side of slavery JOHN BROWN’S RAID Radical Abolitionists October 16, 1859 - John Brown contributed another link in the chain of events - Brown and his 21 men set out for Harper’s Ferry, Virginia - By 1859 he had decided force was only way to end slavery; came up with plan to attack federal arsenal, capture guns, and arm a slave revolt - Broke into the arsenal; but few slaves joined his revolt - Trapped the next day; Brown was convicted and ___________________ before year’s end - Many Northerners viewed Brown as a ___________; church bells tolled in salute at his death - Harriet Tubman supported his plan; others warned him against it Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 THE NATION SPLITS APART Unpopular compromises, laws, and court decisions of the 1850s had deepened the divisions in the United States. Ideological, economic, and political division over slavery would rip the country apart. The Election of 1860 - - - Gained Support Established in the - __________________ 1840s, antislavery joined the new party political parties had in 1856; addressed limited success the Illinois Republican In 1854 antislavery convention in 1858 parties united to form with dire prediction the _______________ - Lincoln stated, “A Party in time for the house divided against upcoming election itself cannot stand” THE FIRST SOUTHERN STATES SECEDE Lincoln Chosen In 1860, Republicans selected Lincoln as party’s presidential candidate With a division in the Democratic Party, Southerners _______ their vote and Lincoln won the presidency Many Southerners irate over Lincoln’s election "A party found on the …. Hatred of African slavery is now the controlling power,” wrote the New Orleans Delta Election propelled seven southern states to secede and form a new nation in _________ The Confederate States of America o ______________________ o ______________________ o ______________________ o ______________________ o ______________________ o ______________________ o ______________________ Answer the following questions using the notes from THE COMING CONFLICT (section 2) 1. How did the expansion of slavery create rising tensions between the North and the South? Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 2. How did black and white northerners react to the fugitive slave act? 3. What conflicts intensified the debate over slavery into a crisis? 4. What further events led the nation to split apart? THE CIVIL WAR – FREEDOM WON Section 3 The Civil War led to new roles, rights, and freedoms for African Americans in the North and the South. WAR BREAKS OUT Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. He hoped the states would return peacefully to the Union. Instead war came two months later. - An Attack Leads to War o Confederate officials started seizing federal arsenals, forts, and other property in the South; Lincoln declared property still belonged to Union o Ordered U.S. Military to protect all such property o Confederates determined to take _________________________, South Carolina o Lincoln sent in ships with essential supplies; worried troops would follow, Confederates fired on Fort Sumter on ____________________________ and took the fort o The Civil War had begun and Lincoln sent troops to put down _______________ o Most states rallied to his call for troops; several slave states still in Union refused o _____________, ________________, ____________________, and _________________________ joined the Confederacy Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 PREPARING FOR WAR With outbreak of war, both sides prepared armies to fight Black men in the North volunteered to fight; the Union army turned them away; African Americans created informal military units and trained for possible active duty A few Union generals disagreed with the decision not to accept blacks in the army o ____________________, escaped Confederate slaves, began turning up at Union army camps seeking protection and offering to help the Union cause o Offered noncombatant positions such as cooks or hospital orderlies o The navy approved active enlistment of black men in September 1861 African Americans contributed to the war effort of the ______________________ o Slaves grew much of the food; such labor freed white men to fight o Slaves served in noncombat positions as cooks or wagon drivers - - AFRICAN AMERICANS IN THE CIVIL WAR African American finally got the chance to fight in the Union Army and played a crucial role in the war effort in many capacities. Enlistment of Black Troops Black Regiments - No quick victory for Union; war continued and more died - Some formed in Union controlled South - Northern attitudes about use of black troops changed - 1862 _____________ _____________also known as the ______ _________ organized - July 1862 Congress ___________ limited enlistment of blacks - Two more regiments fielded; general recruitment approved in 1863 More Recruitment - Black leaders called on men to serve; the _________________ _____________ one of first black regiments - _____________ tried to recruit in March 1865; few enlisted - War was over one month later Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 Hardships and Heroism Unique Hardships - - U.S. Navy - Black troops received fewer supplies, less training, and less pay - If captured, ________ troops faced more severe treatment - ______________ of all Union sailors in the War were black - Took steps to counter such discrimination - - ______________ was one who proved his bravery and loyalty - Members of the 54th Mass. Infantry protested unequal wages by __________ __________________ Confederate troops enslaved or executed captured black soldiers - Black troops fought with distinction in more than 250 engagements; with 23 _________________, nation’s highest military award - - Treatment U.S. government finally agreed to pay same to all troops - White troops were held as prisoners of war - In all, _____________ black men served bravely in the Union forces Heroic Black Women in the Civil War Black women displayed outstanding bravery during the conflict o Many women served as nurses o Others traveled with troops to help cook, sew, and wash Nursing the sick was the most common job o Nurse __________________________________, wife of officer in 1 st Carolina Volunteers o Also taught soldiers to read and write in her spare time. ______________________________ o Leading black abolitionist worked to support the war effort o Helped raise money and supplies for southern black refugees o Met with __________________________, who convinced her to nurse wounded black soldiers in Freedmen’s Hospital. Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 BLACK MILITARY SPIES - More War Efforts o Served Union Army as spies o Union officials found black spies were very effective at passing Confederate information o Found to be better at avoiding detection than white spies Female Spies o __________________________ gathered information from southern slaves Praised for her “remarkable courage, zeal, and fidelity” o _____________________________________ another well-known black spy; worked in home of ____________________________________________ Pretended she could not read; listened to conversations and examined documents; passed valuable military information to Union officials - THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION One crucial unanswered question – What would Lincoln do about issue of slavery? Abolitionists argued war pointless if not to end slavery; many white northerners opposed emancipation, or the freeing of slaves. - Resolving the Issue of Slavery o Lincoln in difficult position; personally opposed to slavery, he could not afford to lose northern support for the war. o Many white northerners would not risk lives for African Americans o Ending ________________ was not a war aim; preserving the ___________ was; Lincoln feared ending slavery might lead ________________________________. FEAR OF CONSEQUENCES Border States - There were still slave states in the Union - Border states of _____________, ________________, _____________, Issue Still Raised - As Union troops pushed into Confederate territory thousands of _________________ sought refuge with them Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 and ________________ stayed in the Union - - Strategic militarily because of their location between the North and the Confederacy - At first the administration supported returning contrabands to slaveholders; some commanders did so - Actions infuriated abolitionists; pointed out this was helping the Confederacy Union could not risk losing these states Taking Action - Lincoln’s Plan Lincoln and his advisors decided to take action against slavery Dilemma: Lincoln did not believe he had _______________________ to end slavery - Lincoln proposed compensated emancipation in the border states - Border states to receive ____________________ in exchange for passing laws to abolish slavery over time War Struggle Border States Refused - These states loyal to Union, but not ready to end slave system on which economies based - Union leaders convinced Lincoln that ending slavery in the South was important militarily - All four border states ____________ Lincoln’s plan - Confederacy would be crippled without _____________________ LINCOLN’S DECISION Commander in Chief - Lincoln used constitutional power as commander in chief to end slavery in the areas that were ______________ - Began forming new plan for emancipation; first step was April 1862, ending slavery in the ________ __________________ Needed Victory - Lincoln waited for a Union victory to announce full plan; Chose Battle of ___________________ in September 1862 - Once again Lincoln offered compensated emancipation to slaveholders in border states Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 - Soon after, Congress outlawed slavery in all ____________________ - Also declared would free all enslaved African Americans in rebel areas of the South on January 1, 1863 RESPONSE TO LINCOLN’S PLAN Reaction to Lincoln’s announcement was mixed. Some abolitionists were hopeful that it would deal a death blow to the institution of slavery. Others were angry because the plan did not go far enough. - - Plan called for end to slavery in areas in rebellion and did not include border states and parts of the Confederacy under Union control Other northerners opposed Lincoln’s plan o As Lincoln feared, some white Union soldiers __________________ rather than fight to end slavery in the South o Unskilled workers in North feared flood of black workers would increase job ___________________________; had rioted in Illinois earlier when former slaves were hired to help harvest crops Many northerners rallied behind Lincoln’s plan; for them, freeing slaves would help shorten the war Many Union soldiers in favor of destroying all that gave the enemy strength LINCOLN ISSUES THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION - Emancipation Proclamation issued January 1, 1863 Groundbreaking order proclaimed all enslaved African Americans in rebel areas to be emancipated, or free Many African Americans and abolitionists rejoiced as news spread; a major step for ending slavery achieved Great emotional impact in the North; initially little effect in the South o Applied only to slaves in Confederate areas where _____________ had no power to enforce order o Effect on the South changed with ______________________________; advancing troops freed slaves they encountered, liberating thousands of enslaved people each day. Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 SPREADING THE WORD Northern African Americans risked their lives to spread the word of freedom in Confederate-held parts of the South. Upon learning the news, many slaves put down their rakes and hoes and escaped to Union lines. Weakened South Great Britain - Confederate war effort weakened - Reduction in slave labor force hurt Confederate armies and plantations - Stronger Union - Major cotton importer considered aid to Confederacy - Union recruited black soldiers after Proclamation - Abolitionism was strong in Britain and once ____ ______________ made a war aim, Britain no longer willing to help South - Black soldiers and sailors played important role in Union victory - Fought hard for people’s freedom Proclamation ended any hope for ____________ support for the South ENSLAVED AFRICAN AMERICANS Profound Impact Historical Value - Emancipation Proclamation very important to blacks in the South - Union troops freed millions of African Americans from lives of cruel labor - In areas where the proclamation did not apply, many slaves decided they were free as well and courageously escaped - Proclamation is key document of American history; Lincoln called it central act of his administration and the great event of 19th century - Proclamation significant in setting legal precedent for African Americans - Later in war Congress would pass amendment to _____________________ _______________________________ THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION’S LEGACY - ______________________________ commemorates June 19, 1865. The date the proclamation was announced in _______________________________________ Chapter 5 - STEPS TO FREEDOM 1850-1865 - o Federal troops did not reach Texas to free slaves until the ________________________ o In 1980 Juneteenth became a state holiday in Texas o Not an official holiday elsewhere but is gaining in popularity with large celebrations in Minneapolis and Milwaukee Juneteenth festivities include public speeches, parades, rodeos, and picnics Many people gather with their families to rejoice in the gains African Americans have made and to reflect on future hopes Answer the following questions from THE CIVIL WAR – FREEDOM WON (section 3) 1. What events led to the outbreak of war between the Union and the Confederacy? 2. In what ways did African Americans contribute during the Civil War? 3. What led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation?