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Segal Chap 5

 Considered to have been founded in 1898 via the NYC COS
 Early debate between Settlement Movement and Charity
Organization Societies: focus on personal deficiencies or
environmental problems?
 Early 20th century Professional Identity Crisis:
 Dr. Abraham Flexner: (1915) He delivered a paper he wrote on “Is
social work a profession?” His conclusion: No. It lacks a unique
Charity Organization
Settlement Movement
Specialized focus on individuals Focus on individuals as part of
and families
their communities
Practice Emphasis
Group work and community
Macro Emphasis
Coordination and organization
of social services
Social reform and political
Research Focus
Scientific Methods used to
determine need – emphasizing
research on the individual
Research on the community and
social needs assessment
Contribution to the field
Training of professional social
service providers
Understanding strengths of
cultural diversityT
 Federal Government: Largest contributor to social services. Also mandates
and regulate policies that govern social services.
 State Government: Receives federal funds for provision of social services.
Also provides some services independently.
 Local Government: Includes town councils, school boards, etc.
 Tribal Government: 573 tribal governments – all are officially sovereign.
 Non-Profit Organizations: voluntary charity groups with
protected 501c3 status: tax-exempt, United Way, American Red Cross
 For Profit Organizations: Commercial agencies that provide social
services. Profit making entities- Ex. Better World Books-online forprofit bookseller of used and new books – also donates books and
percentage of profit to literacy programs around the world.
 Social Insurance: “cash benefits in the form of a transfer of money from
the government to the individual” – eligibility can differ. Example: Social
 Cash Assistance Programs: A kind of public assistance – gov payment of
money from taxes to those in need. Intended for basic necessities.
Typically less than social insurance payments. Example: TANF, SSI
 In-Kind Benefit Programs: Rather than cash, these are services or
commodities provided to eligible recipients. Example: Medicare, SNAP
 Vouchers: cross between in-kind and cash assistance. Earmarked for
specific service or commodity, but recipient has more choice on where to
use the voucher. Example: Housing (Section 8), WIC
 Entitlement: Mandated by law to give aid to all who are eligible and
continue to meet the criteria. Social Security is a good example. Funding
is not capped.
 Social Investment: Spending public money to help people and
communities grow and develop, goal to improve social well-being.
Example: Head Start
 Economic Development: Using policy or tax incentives to encourage
economic growth in struggling communities (economically distressed).
Example: Federal Empowerment Zones – IRS and US Department of
Housing and Urban Development (tax incentives for businesses to
stimulate the economy and to create new job opportunities for people
living there.)