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What is Special Education?
It is a set of educational programs or services specially designed to
meet the unique needs of learners with disabilities that cannot be
sufficiently met using traditional educational programs or techniques.
Special education as intervention
Preventive: Designed to keep minor problems from becoming a
Remedial: Attempt to eliminate the effects of a disability
Compensatory: Enable successful functioning in spite of the
Special education as instruction
Individually planned
Who Are Exceptional Children?
Exceptional children differ from the norm (either below or above) to such
an extent that they require an individualized program of special
Four key terms
–Impairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ
–Disability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain
–Handicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the
Not all children with a disability are handicapped
–At risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a
Vision, policy, goals and objectives
“ By the 21st century , it is envisioned that a child with special needs could
be adequately provided with basic education.”
“ It also envisioned that the child with special needs will get full parental
and community support for his/ her education without discrimination of
any kind.” DepEd
Handbook on Inclusive Education 2000
•Inclusive education for all.
- To accelerate access to education among children and youth with
special needs
The goal of the special education programs of the Department of
Education all over the country is to provide children with special needs
appropriate educational services within the mainstream of basic
Provide a flexible and individualized support system for children and youth
with special needs in a regular class environment in schools nearest the
student’s home.
Provide support services, vocational programs and work training,
employment opportunities for efficient community participation and
independent living.
Implement a life-long curriculum to include early intervention and
parent education, basic education and transition programs on
vocational training or preparation for college
Make available an array of education programs and services:
-SPED center built on “a school within a school concept”
Inclusive education in regular class
Alternative modes of service delivery to reach the disadvantaged
children in far-flung towns, depressed areas and underserved barangays.
How Many Exceptional Children Are There?
It is impossible to state the precise number
Different criteria used for identification
Preventive services
Imprecise nature of assessment
The child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at
Children in special education represent about 9% of the school age
Approximately 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their
education in regular classrooms
Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children?
Possible benefits of labeling
Recognizing differences in learning and behavior is the first step to
responding responsibly to those differences
May lead to more acceptance of atypical behavior by peers
Helps professionals communicate and disseminate research
Funding and resources are often based on categories
Helps advocacy groups promote more awareness
Makes special needs more visible
Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children?
Possible disadvantages of labeling
Focuses on what students cannot do
May stigmatize the child and lead to peer rejection
May negatively affect self-esteem
May cause others to have low expectations for the student
Disproportionate number of culturally diverse groups are labeled
May take the role of fictional explanatory constructs
Takes away from the child’s individuality
Suggest that there is something wrong with the child
Labels have permanence
Basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom
Requires great expenditure that might be better spent on planning
and delivering instruction
Why Are Laws Governing the Education of Exceptional Children
An Exclusionary Past
Children who are different have often been denied full and fair access to
educational opportunities
Separate Is Not Equal
Special education was strongly influenced by social developments and
court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s
(e.g., Brown v. Board of Education)
Equal Protection
All children are entitled to a free, appropriate public education.
Essential Laws
A. Promotion of Disability Concerns in the Philippines
1. The 1987 Constitution
There are five provisions of the Constitution where persons with disability are
expressly mentioned to ensure that persons with disability have equal participation
in the Philippine Society Mandates the establishment of National Commission
Concerning Disabled Persons (NCCDP, now National Council on Disability Affairs,
NCDA) for their rehabilitation development and self-reliance, and integration into
the mainstream of society
2. Accessibility Law (July 26, 1982) requires that public buildings meet reasonable
accessibility requirements in order to promote the mobility of persons with disability
3. Republic Act. No. 6759 White Cane Act (Sept 18, 1989) awareness raising measure
for the benefit of visually impaired persons.
Essential Laws
Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (Republic Act No. 7277 of 1992)
The Magna Carta contains specific provisions and policies:
1. Address the concerns of persons with disability and ensures that
they are provided equal opportunities and participation in their
2. Prohibits acts of discrimination in the area of employment,
transportation services and use of public accommodations
3. Grants 20% discount privileges in the purchase of medicines and
other basic services
4. Republic Act. No. 8425 Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act
(Dec 11, 1997)
5. Declares that the State should adopt an area-based sectoral and
focused intervention to poverty alleviation. Identified persons with
disability as 1of the 14 basic sectors.
6. National Plan of Action for the Philippine Decade of Persons with
Disabilities (2003-2012)
7. National Human Rights Action Plan 2009-2014, particularly on the
Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD)
8. Philippine Development Plan (2011-2016). Includes in Chapter 8 on
Social Development strategies on PWDs, such as on education and
training of PWDs, full implementation of laws protecting PWDs,
amended Magna Carta for PWDs
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
Six Major Principles of IDEA
Zero Reject: Schools must educate all children with disabilities
Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: Schools must used
nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation
Free, Appropriate Public Education: An IEP must be developed for
each child
Least Restrictive Environment: Must be educated with children
without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate
Due Process Safeguards: Parents’ and children’s rights protected
Shared Decision Making: Schools must collaborate with parents
Related Legislation
Gifted and Talented Children – The Gifted and Talented Children’s
Education Act of 1978 provides financial incentives for states to develop
programs for students
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Extends civil rights to people with disabilities
Americans with Disabilities Act
Extends civil rights protection to private sector employment, all public
services, public accommodation, and transportation
Current and Future Challenges
Bridge the research-to-practice gap
Increase the availability and intensity of early intervention and prevention
Improve students’ transition from school to adult life
Improve the special education—general education partnership
INCLUSION- describes the process by which a school accepts children
with special needs for enrolment in regular class where they can learn
side by side with their peers.
The school organizes its special education program and includes a
special education teacher in its faculty.
The school provies the mainstream where regular teachers and special
education teachers organize and implement appropriate programs for
both special and regular students
Salient Features IE
Implementing and maintaining warm and accepting classroom
communities that embrace and respect diversity or differences.
Implements a multilevel, multimodality curriculum. This means that special
needs students follow an adapted curriculum and use special devices
and materials to learn at a suitable pace.
Prepares regular teachers and special education teachers to teach
interactively ( students work together( learn with and from each other),
teach one another and participate actively in class actitivities),
Provides continuous support for teachers to break down barriers of
professional isolation. ( coteaching, team teaching, collaboration and
Ways of collaborative activities that take place in the regular class
If the class is discussing activities on saving the environment, the deaf
student can work on collage of pictures on the topic
Prompts or cues are added to learning tasks to assist children with mental
retardation in task performance.