What is Special Education? It is a set of educational programs or services specially designed to meet the unique needs of learners with disabilities that cannot be sufficiently met using traditional educational programs or techniques. Special education as intervention Preventive: Designed to keep minor problems from becoming a disability Remedial: Attempt to eliminate the effects of a disability Compensatory: Enable successful functioning in spite of the disability Special education as instruction Individually planned Specialized Intensive Goal-directed Who Are Exceptional Children? Exceptional children differ from the norm (either below or above) to such an extent that they require an individualized program of special education Four key terms –Impairment - The loss or reduced function of a body part or organ –Disability - Exists when an impairment limits the ability to perform certain tasks –Handicap - A problem encountered when interacting with the environment Not all children with a disability are handicapped –At risk - Children who have a greater-than-usual chance of developing a disability Vision, policy, goals and objectives Vision “ By the 21st century , it is envisioned that a child with special needs could be adequately provided with basic education.” “ It also envisioned that the child with special needs will get full parental and community support for his/ her education without discrimination of any kind.” DepEd Handbook on Inclusive Education 2000 Policy •Inclusive education for all. - To accelerate access to education among children and youth with special needs GOALS The goal of the special education programs of the Department of Education all over the country is to provide children with special needs appropriate educational services within the mainstream of basic education. OBJECTIVES Provide a flexible and individualized support system for children and youth with special needs in a regular class environment in schools nearest the student’s home. OBJECTIVES Provide support services, vocational programs and work training, employment opportunities for efficient community participation and independent living. Implement a life-long curriculum to include early intervention and parent education, basic education and transition programs on vocational training or preparation for college Make available an array of education programs and services: -SPED center built on “a school within a school concept” Inclusive education in regular class Alternative modes of service delivery to reach the disadvantaged children in far-flung towns, depressed areas and underserved barangays. How Many Exceptional Children Are There? It is impossible to state the precise number Different criteria used for identification Preventive services Imprecise nature of assessment The child may be eligible at one point in time and not eligible at another Children in special education represent about 9% of the school age population Approximately 75% of students with disabilities receive at least part of their education in regular classrooms Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children? Possible benefits of labeling Recognizing differences in learning and behavior is the first step to responding responsibly to those differences May lead to more acceptance of atypical behavior by peers Helps professionals communicate and disseminate research findings Funding and resources are often based on categories Helps advocacy groups promote more awareness Makes special needs more visible Why Do We Label and Classify Exceptional Children? Possible disadvantages of labeling Focuses on what students cannot do May stigmatize the child and lead to peer rejection May negatively affect self-esteem May cause others to have low expectations for the student Disproportionate number of culturally diverse groups are labeled May take the role of fictional explanatory constructs Takes away from the child’s individuality Suggest that there is something wrong with the child Labels have permanence Basis for keeping children out of the regular classroom Requires great expenditure that might be better spent on planning and delivering instruction Why Are Laws Governing the Education of Exceptional Children Necessary? An Exclusionary Past Children who are different have often been denied full and fair access to educational opportunities Separate Is Not Equal Special education was strongly influenced by social developments and court decisions in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g., Brown v. Board of Education) Equal Protection All children are entitled to a free, appropriate public education. 1-4 Essential Laws A. Promotion of Disability Concerns in the Philippines 1. The 1987 Constitution There are five provisions of the Constitution where persons with disability are expressly mentioned to ensure that persons with disability have equal participation in the Philippine Society Mandates the establishment of National Commission Concerning Disabled Persons (NCCDP, now National Council on Disability Affairs, NCDA) for their rehabilitation development and self-reliance, and integration into the mainstream of society 2. Accessibility Law (July 26, 1982) requires that public buildings meet reasonable accessibility requirements in order to promote the mobility of persons with disability 3. Republic Act. No. 6759 White Cane Act (Sept 18, 1989) awareness raising measure for the benefit of visually impaired persons. Essential Laws Magna Carta for Disabled Persons (Republic Act No. 7277 of 1992) The Magna Carta contains specific provisions and policies: 1. Address the concerns of persons with disability and ensures that they are provided equal opportunities and participation in their development 2. Prohibits acts of discrimination in the area of employment, transportation services and use of public accommodations 3. Grants 20% discount privileges in the purchase of medicines and other basic services 4. Republic Act. No. 8425 Social Reform and Poverty Alleviation Act (Dec 11, 1997) 5. Declares that the State should adopt an area-based sectoral and focused intervention to poverty alleviation. Identified persons with disability as 1of the 14 basic sectors. 6. National Plan of Action for the Philippine Decade of Persons with Disabilities (2003-2012) 7. National Human Rights Action Plan 2009-2014, particularly on the Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disability (CRPD) 8. Philippine Development Plan (2011-2016). Includes in Chapter 8 on Social Development strategies on PWDs, such as on education and training of PWDs, full implementation of laws protecting PWDs, amended Magna Carta for PWDs The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Six Major Principles of IDEA Zero Reject: Schools must educate all children with disabilities Nondiscriminatory Identification and Evaluation: Schools must used nonbiased, multifactored methods of evaluation Free, Appropriate Public Education: An IEP must be developed for each child Least Restrictive Environment: Must be educated with children without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate Due Process Safeguards: Parents’ and children’s rights protected Shared Decision Making: Schools must collaborate with parents Related Legislation Gifted and Talented Children – The Gifted and Talented Children’s Education Act of 1978 provides financial incentives for states to develop programs for students Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Extends civil rights to people with disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act Extends civil rights protection to private sector employment, all public services, public accommodation, and transportation Current and Future Challenges Bridge the research-to-practice gap Increase the availability and intensity of early intervention and prevention programs Improve students’ transition from school to adult life Improve the special education—general education partnership Inclusive EDUCATION INCLUSION- describes the process by which a school accepts children with special needs for enrolment in regular class where they can learn side by side with their peers. The school organizes its special education program and includes a special education teacher in its faculty. The school provies the mainstream where regular teachers and special education teachers organize and implement appropriate programs for both special and regular students Salient Features IE Implementing and maintaining warm and accepting classroom communities that embrace and respect diversity or differences. Implements a multilevel, multimodality curriculum. This means that special needs students follow an adapted curriculum and use special devices and materials to learn at a suitable pace. Prepares regular teachers and special education teachers to teach interactively ( students work together( learn with and from each other), teach one another and participate actively in class actitivities), Provides continuous support for teachers to break down barriers of professional isolation. ( coteaching, team teaching, collaboration and consultation) Ways of collaborative activities that take place in the regular class If the class is discussing activities on saving the environment, the deaf student can work on collage of pictures on the topic Prompts or cues are added to learning tasks to assist children with mental retardation in task performance.