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Bonding lesson 1 Intro to ionic bonding

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Introduction to ionic bonding
SC5a Ionic bonds
Welcome to BONDING
This will be your new topic for the
next few weeks. So get ready!
What’s in the Bonding topic?
-
Ions
Ionic Bonding
Ionic Structures & Properties
Simple covalent bonding
Giant covalent structures
Metallic Bonding
Starter: Keywords
Compound
Element
Mixture
Bond
Paired Task - complete
these definition for each
keyword - no devices!
Compound - two or more elements . . . . . . . .
Element - substance made up of only . . . . . . .
Mixture - substance containing two or more . . . . . . . .
Bond - forces of attraction that . . . . . . . .
Task 1: Keywords
Compound
Element
Mixture
Bond
Paired Task - complete
these definition for each
keyword - no devices!
Compound - two or more elements joined together
Element - substance made up of only one type of atom
Mixture - substance containing two or more different
substances that are not joined together
Bond - forces of attraction that hold atoms together
What are the different types of bonding?
You need to know the three different types of bonding that
exists between atoms.
Different types of bonds are formed depending on the types
of atoms involved:
We will learn this one
first
● Ionic bonding
– occurs between metal and non-metal atoms.
● Covalent bonding
– occurs between non-metals atoms only.
● Metallic bonding
– occurs between metal atoms only.
BIG QUESTION
How can atoms
become stable?
Why do atoms form bonds?
Atoms are more stable if they have an
outer electron shell that is FULL, like a
noble gas.
What is an ion?
Electrons can transfer between
atoms with incomplete outer
electron shells.
Metals tend to give away outer
shell electrons and non-metals
tend to gain electrons.
An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has an
electrical charge, either positive and negative.
Forming POSITIVE ions
An atom that loses electrons has more protons
than electrons and so has a positive overall charge.
This is called a positive ion.
Consider a sodium atom, which has one electron in its outer shell:
A sodium ion has
a full outer shell which noble gas
also has this
electron
configuration?
Forming POSITIVE ions
Sodium atom:
11 protons
=
+11
11 electrons
=
-11
Total charge =
0
Na
Sodium ion:
11 protons
=
+11
10 electrons
=
10
Total charge =
+1
loses
1 electron
2.8.1
(partially full outer shell)
-
+
Na
[2.8]
(full outer shell)
Forming POSITIVE ions
Magnesium
12 protons
+12
12 electrons
12
Total charge
0
atom:
=
=
=
Magnesium ion:
12 protons =
+12
10 electrons
=
10
Total charge =
-
+2
2+
Mg
loses
2 electrons
2.8.2
(partially full outer shell)
Mg
[2.8]2+
(full outer shell)
Task 1: Aluminium
Aluminium is a metal. It has 13 electrons.
In your exercise book draw two diagrams, showing:
1. the electronic structure of an aluminium atom
2. the electronic structure and charge of an aluminium ion
Forming NEGATIVE ions
An atom that gains electrons has more electrons than
protons and so has a negative overall charge.
This is called a negative ion.
Consider a fluorine atom which has 7 electrons in its outer
shell:
Forming NEGATIVE ions
Fluorine atom:
9 protons
=
+9
9 electrons
=
-9
Total charge =
0
Fluoride ion:
9 protons
=
+9
10 electrons
=
10
Total charge = -1
-
F
2.7
(partially full outer
shell)
gains 1
electron
F
[2.8]
(full outer
shell)
Forming NEGATIVE ions
Sulfur atom:
16 protons =
+16
16 electrons
=
16
Total charge =
-
0
S
gains 2
electrons
2.8.6
(partially full outer shell)
Sulfide ion:
16 protons =
+16
18 electrons
=
18
Total charge = -2
S
[2.8.8]2
(full outer
shell)
2
-
Task 2: Oxygen
Oxygen is a non-metal. It has 8 electrons.
In your exercise book draw two diagrams, showing:
1. the electronic structure of an oxygen atom
2. the electronic structure and charge of an oxide ion
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