COT Study Guide – Part 1 Week 1. Cells What are the stages of development and time frame? Where does the fertilization occur? What surrounds the oocyte? What are fimbriae? What happens when the sperm and oocyte react? What are the layers of the uterus? Functions? How does the menstrual cycle work? What are the stages of the menstrual cycle? Functions? Compare and constrast fertilization and menstrual age. What is a morula? Blastocyst and components? What is the inner cell mass and outer cell mass do? What happens during the onset of week one? What critical events happens during week one? What are the critical events of week two? What is hCG? What does implantation do to the trophoblast? What is the bilaminar disc? What is the amniotic cavity? Yolk sac? What are the sources of amniotic cavity? What is the chorionic cavity? Chorion? What are teratogens? When are they usually an big issue? What is the third week of development significant for? What is the primitive streak? Groove? Node? How is the endoderm layer formed? Mesoderm? Ectoderm? Compare and contrast mesoderm and mesenchyme? What does the epiblast give rise to? What is the notochord important for? What is the oropharyngeal and cloacal membrane? Week 2. Compartments What are the components of the cell membrane? And their components? What is a lipid raft model? What does anesthesia do to lipid raft models? What are the components of the cytoskeletal proteins? What protein makes up thin filaments? What protein makes up microtubules? What is f-actin assembled from? What type of junctions do f-actin bind? What do intermediate filaments bind to? What makes up the junctional complex? What is another name for zonula occludens? zonula adherents? macula adherents? What do they bind to? What types of proteins do they contain? What is EMT? Apical is? Basal is? What is heterochromatin? What are the two ways heterochromatin can be? What is constitutive heterochromatin? What is facultative heterochromatin? What is euchromatin? What is the nucleolus for? What is fibrillar material for? What is granular material for? Describe the cytoplasm of RER and ribosomes. Which organelles can not be seen under LM? What is exocytosis, the two types, and the function of the two types? What is endocytosis, the two types, and the function of the two types? Explain the following modes of secretion. What are exosomes? What are microvesicles? What are secretory vesicles? What are endosomes? What are lysosomes? What are peroxisomes? How did mitochondria come about? What do mitochondria have there own of? How do mitochondria reproduce? What do mitochondria do to cytoplasm? Where is epithelia derived from? What are the apical and basal structure? Their core? What they are used for? What is the structure of cilia and flagella? What is the structure and function of primary cilium? Compare and contrast microvilli and sterocilia? How do you classify epithelia? Filamentous keratins are a major class of? What is metaplasia? Hyperplasia? Hypertrophy? Dysplasia? Where does connective tissue originate from? What is mesenchyme? What are the features of mesenchyme? What is trans-differentiation? What is de-differentiation? What type of collagen is bone made of? What cells make up connective tissue? What fibers make up connective tissue? What is the ground substance for connective tissue? What are the fibrillar collagens? What is the fibrillar anchoring collagen? What is the meshwork collagen? What are the collagens that make up the basement membrane? What is the lamina lucida made of? Lamina densa? Lamina reticularis? Compare contrast keloid scar and hypertrophic scar. Week 3. Connective Tissue Where do the cells in CT come from? What are the fibers in CT? What is the ground substance in CT? What cells come from MSC? What cells come from PHSC? What cells are for inflammation? What cells are for innate immunity? What cells are for adaptive immunity? What are the cardinal signs of inflammation and what do they mean? What is acute inflammation? What is chronic inflammation? What do mast cells release? What do mast cells bind? What are metachromatic granules? What is compound exocytosis? What are eosinophils for? What are the components of eosinophil granules? What is charcot-leyden crystal? Describe the lifecycle of a macrophage. What are the macrophage functions? What is macrophage syncytia? Describe the Langhans cell. Describe the FBG cell. What are chemokines? What are the types of diapedesis? Describe leukocyte diapedesis. What are the granules in neutrophils? What are their functions? What is NETosis? Compare and contrast B-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte function and development. What is an plasma cell? What do cell populations derive from? What are stem cells? Progenitor cells? Precursor cells? Compare and contrast apoptosis and necrosis. Compare and contrast PAMPs and DAMPs. What is PRR? What is autophagy? What are the types of chemical dissolution and what do they do? Special tissues? Scarring? Week 4. Body Plan What are is neurulation? What is the shape of the neural tube? What causes the notochord to form? What does the neural plate form? What are the two types of ectoderm? And derivatives? How does the neural tube form? Describe the fusing of the neural tube? How do neural crest cells form? What do they give rise to? What do they convert to? What are the derivatives of the mesoderm? Functions? What are somites? Functions? Describe the lateral plate. What are the types of body folding? Describe each. What are the types of connective tissue and their components? What are the characteristics and functions of cartilage? What are the types of cartilage and characteristics of each? What is cartilage and its components? Describe the perichondrium? Describe the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes? Describe cartilage growth. Describe cartilage repair. What are the functions of bone? What are the bone classifications? Compare and contrast flat bones and long bones. Compare and contrast compact and spongy bone. Compare and contrast woven and lamellar bone. List the bone cells and their functions. Describe bone remodeling. What are the disorders of bone and how do they occur? Week 5. Skin and Bones What is ossification? What are the types of ossification? How do they work? What are the zones of ossification? What are the functions of each? What are the types of bone growth? Explain bone fracture repair. What is the relationship between mobility and stability? What are classification of joints structurally? Functionally? Definitions? What are the types of joints and there functions? Compare and contrast tendons and ligaments. What are bursa and tendon sheaths? What are meniscus and articular disc? Explain the components to synovial joints in detail. What is arthritis? The subtypes and the functions? What are the layers to skin and the sub layers of each and associated cells? How is the dermis and epidermis formed? What is a proliferative unit? Describe stem cell division in the epidermis. Describe hair growth and the stages. Explain the components of a hair stem cell and how it works. What is the epidermal barrier for? What are the components of the epidermal barrier? How do cells differentiate and move through the layers? What are desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and keratin filaments in terms of skin? Describe the brick and mortar model. Explain how vitamin D is produced. Explain the different type of burns. What are Langerhans cells? How are melanocytes made? What are the determinants of skin color? How does tanning happen? How do eccrine sweat glands work? How do blood vessels work in the dermis for heat transfer? What are the sensory receptors? Function? Location Week 6. Muscle Tissue What are the single muscle cells? What are their function? Where do they derive from? What are the striated – muscles? What is the non-striated muscle? What are the smooth muscle cells? What are the cardiac muscle cells? What are their functions? What are the skeletal muscle cells? What are there characteristics? What is the special layer that smooth muscle connects to? What do intermediate filaments bind to? What are caveolae? What process do they use? What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum? What do dense bodies bind to? Explain the generation of force in smooth muscle? What are smooth muscle innervated by? What is the neurotransmitter in the sympathetic division and parasympathetic division? Compare and contrast myogenic and neurogenic. What is a dyad and where does it bind? What is an intercalated disc? What are the components? What is the function of each component? What is a triad and where does it bind? Describe PAS and what it stains for. Describe cytochrome oxidase and what it stains for. Describe muscle fiber development. What are satellite cells? Compare and contrast muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ. Describe how desmin and costameres relate to muscles. What is the myotendinous junction? What is an external membrane? Week 7. Nervous System What are molecular factors that closes the cranial and caudal neural pores? Where are they located? What are the two regions that the neural tube differentiates into? What are the structures that come from each region? (top and bottom) What are the regions that the neural tube segments into? (left to right) What are the ganglionic eminences? Compare and contrast protostomes and deuterostomes. Define the following terms: Chordate Vertebrate Agnatha Gnathostomata Compare and contrast superior and inferior colliculus. Where is the neocortex? What animals have an expanded neocortex? What is grey and white matter? Where is it located in the brain and spinal cord? What is the difference between gyrencephalic and lissencephalic? What are cells derived from neural ectoderm? What are their characteristics? Compare and contrast fast and slow neurotransmitters. Compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric division in a sheet. How do neurons migrate through the cortical sheet? Describe the development of cortex. Compare and contrast ependymal cells and choroid plexus. Describe hydrocephalus. What are the two circulations in the brain? Describe retina development. Explain the meninges with the associated spaces and any fluids associated. Describe the dural venous sinuses. What are the two types of brain hemorrhage? Subtypes? How they come to be? Compare and contrast sensory and motor neurons.