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FINAL EXAM REVIEW For Anatomy and Physiology

Final Review Bio 210
Anatomy vs. Physiology – What is the difference?
Survival Needs - Know them
Body Organization - Chemical, Cell, Tissue, etc.
Directional Terms, Planes, Quadrants, and Regions – Know Them
Body Systems and their Responsibilities- Know Them
Body Organs and Cavities - Where are they located?
Chemistry – Atoms (Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, Atomic Mass, Atomic Number, Elements (which are most important,
Charged Particles(Anions vs. Cations), Solutions (solvent, solute), Colloids, Suspensions, Compounds (organic and Inorganic,
and Chemical Bonds, Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
Acids, Bases, and Buffers – What are their functions?, pH Scale, What makes something an acid or base, how much more
acidic something is in relation to something else
Homeostasis - What is it?
Monomers, Polymers, Macromolecules (Carbs, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic Acids, ATP and examples of each both by name and
structure), Catabolism, Anabolism, Glycolysis vs. Glycogenesis vs. Glycogenolysis vs. Gluconeogenesis
Cell Structure and Function - Cell Junctions, Organelles (What they do and how?), Phospholipids
Transport - Active and Passive (types and how they work); Tonicity (hypo, hyper, iso), Filtration
Cell Cycle and its components – GAP 1, Synthesize, GAP 2, Mitosis, Cytokinesis, PMAT and the MAIN thing going on in each
DNA – Replication, vs. RNA, vs. ATP, Genes, DNA to RNA to Codon to Anticodon.
Protein Synthesis: Transcription, Translation, Be able to go from DNA to Protein
Enzymes –What are they, What do they do, How do they work?
Tissues, Membranes, and Glands – What are their Functions?, Types, Location, Serous, Cutaneous, Mucous, Visceral vs.
Parietal, Peritoneum, Pleura, Pericardium, Endocrine vs. Exocrine, Holocrine vs. Merocrine vs. Apocrine, Cells of the Different
Tissues (Osteoblast, Osteocyte, Chondroblast, Chondrocyte, Fibroblast, Fibrocyte, RBC, WBC, Platelet, Epithelial, Adipocytes),
The Integumentary System – What are its functions?, Burns, Stratums, Tissue Types, Components, Glands (Eccrine, Apocrine,
Sebaceous), Corpuscles, Arrector Pili Muscle
The Skeletal System – What are its functions?, Bones (identification), Axial Skeleton, Appendicular Skeleton, Joints (Types and
movements, Knee vs. Shoulder), Body Movements, Bone Formation, Bone Repair, Bone Cells and Remodeling, Bone Markings,
Sinuses, Hematopoiesis, Ligaments, Ossification (Primary vs. Secondary), Appositional Growth, Compact Bone, Spongy Bone,
Diploe, Trabeculae, Medullary Cavity (Fat vs. Marrow), Sinuses
The Muscular System – What are its functions?, Sarcomere (parts and functions), Contraction vs. Muscle Shortening, Events
for Contraction, Neuromuscular Junction, Muscle Tone, Atrophy, Muscle Types and Names, Groups of Muscles (Hamstrings,
Quadriceps, Adductors), Prime Mover vs. Antagonist vs. Synergist, Fascicles, Fibers, Myofibrils, Actin, Myosin, Tendons, What
muscles do what action. What exercise does to muscles, Isometric vs. Isotonic Contraction, Intercalated Discs, Striations
The Nervous System – What are its functions?, Neuron Types and Locations, Neuroglia CNS vs. PNS, Myelin sheath differences
in PNS and CNS, Nerve Impulses, ions, Neurotransmitters (What fibers secrete them and what effect do they have, how do they
work?), CNS vs. PNS, Autonomic vs. Somatic, Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic, Cranial Nerves (Which does what), Spinal
Nerves, Ganglions, Reflexes (reflex arc, Common Reflexes), Meninges and Spaces (Where they are and what holds them in
place), Brain and Spinal Cord Special Areas, Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Thalamus, Cerebrum, Cerebral Cortex,
Cerebellum, CSF, RMP, Polarized (Depolarized, Repolarized, and the reasons the membrane is each), Blood Brain Barrier,
Special Senses – Eye (Optic Disc, Fovea Centralis, Retina, Blind spot, Lens, Aqueous Humor, Vitreous Humor, Anterior Chamber,
Lacrimal Canal, Scleral Venous Sinus, Dural Sinus), Ear (Organ of Corti, Cochlea, Macula, Crista Ampullaris, Semicircular Canals,
Vestibule, Bony Labyrinth, Perilymph, Endolymph, Tympanic Membrane, Malleus, Incus, Stapes, Pharyngotympanic Tube, Oval
Window, Static and Dynamic Equilibrium) , Taste (Cranial Nerve, Gustatory Pathway, Basic Taste Sensations (5), Papillae, How
Taste Buds Work
Cellular Respiration and Fermentation – ATP production, Glycolysis, Citric Acid Cycle, Electron Transport Chain, Mitochondria,
NAD +, NADH, FAD, FADH2, Pyruvic Acid, Lactic Acid, ATP Synthase, Glucose, Energy, Oxygen Importance, Anaerobic vs. Aerobic,