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The Bloom's Taxonomy is a set of 3 hierarchical models, used to classify educational learning objectives
into levels of complexity. Also known as the 3 domains of learning, Bloom's Taxonomy covers learning
objectives in the domains of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
Named after Benjamin Samuel Bloom, who chaired the committee of educators that devised the taxonomy,
and authored its first text in 1969, Bloom's Taxonomy is a widely used teaching tool, serving to inform
many educators. Each of the 3 domains of learning has various levels of sequential difficulty, and allows
educators to assess learners on the learning outcomes in a structured manner. Bloom's Taxonomy also aids
educators in the preparation of educational or training materials as they are able to classify and peg the
content to a selected domain and level.
As this is a taxonomy, each subsequent and increasing level of difficulty means that learners must be able to
competently perform at the level or levels that precede it. In this way, Bloom's Taxonomy also allows
educators to chart the progress of a learner towards mastery of a specific subject matter in a domain of
learning. Action verbs are typically associated with each level, which serve to describe what a learner is able
to achieve at that level.
The most widely used domain of learning in Bloom's Taxonomy is the Cognitive domain. A revised and
updated version was released in 2000. The Cognitive domain relates to mental ability, and measures the
amount of knowledge gained through learning.
The 6 levels within the Cognitive domain are:
1. Remembering: To recall, recognise, or identify concepts
2. Understanding: To comprehend meaning, explain data in own words
3. Applying: Use or apply knowledge, in practice or real life situations
4. Analysing: Interpret elements, structure relationships between individual components
5. Evaluation: Assess effectiveness of whole concepts in relation to other variables
6. Creation: Display creative thinking, develop new concepts or approaches
The Affective domain relates to emotional quotient, and measures the feelings and attitudes experienced or
changed through learning.
The 5 levels within the Affective domain are:
1. Receiving: Open to experience or idea, willing to hear
2. Responding: Get involved in or participate actively
3. Valuing: Attach values and express personal opinions
4. Organising: Reconcile disparate elements or conflicts, develop value system
5. Internalising: Adopt belief system or philosophy
The Psychomotor domain relates to manual or physical aptitude, and measures the growth in skills gained
through learning.
The 5 levels within the Psychomotor domain are:
1. Imitation: Copy the actions of another, to observe and replicate
2. Manipulation: Reproduce activity from instruction or memory
3. Precision: Demonstrate activity reliably, to a high quality, and independently
4. Articulation: Integrate and adapt expertise to fulfil a non-standard objective
5. Naturalisation: Automated, unconscious mastery of activity at a strategic level
In summary, Bloom's Taxonomy is a universally effective classification strategy for educators, useful as a
guide in creating educational / training content, impart learning with clear objectives, and assess learners on
the learning outcomes.