Uploaded by Kayla Herrington


Minerals and water are organic and yield energy in the human body.
An excess intake of any energy nutrient can lead to becoming overweight.
The Dietary Reference Intakes reflect the collaborative efforts of scientists to produce a set of
standards for the amount of energy, nutrients, and other dietary components that best
support health.
To ensure that the vitamin and mineral recommendations meet the needs of as many people
as possible, the recommendations are set near the top end of the range of the population's
estimated average requirements.
Dietary Reference Intakes are values that are appropriate to use for planning and assessing
diets for individuals and groups.
Consuming nutrient-dense foods can help control your kcalorie intake.
Many North Americans enjoy turkey and pumpkin pie at Thanksgiving due to:
a. habit.
b. associations.
c. values.
d. emotional state.
Personal preference plays a significant part in the food choices of an individual. Widely shared
preferences include:
a. a desire for sour tastes.
b. significant nutritional value.
c. tastes for salt and sugar.
d. a craving for protein.
You are at a friend's house and he offers to share a snack. You eat some even though you
aren't hungry primarily because of:
a. emotional state.
b. associations.
c. social interaction.
d. ethnic heritage.
All of the following nutrients are organic except:
a. vitamins.
b. fat.
c. protein.
d. minerals.
The kcalorie content of a food depends on how much it contains of each of the following
a. carbohydrate.
b. fat.
c. water.
d. protein.
Which of the following statements about vitamins is true?
a. They are inorganic.
b. They facilitate the release of energy from the other three organic nutrients.
c. They are the medium in which all of the body's processes take place.
d. They provide energy to the body.
The essential nutrients are those:
a. the body can make for itself.
b. that are predominant in most foods.
c. that must be obtained from foods.
d. included in the main DRI table.
Which of the following becomes a major fuel for the body only when the other fuels are
a. carbohydrate
b. fat
c. protein
d. water
Which of the following does not yield energy for the body?
a. carbohydrate.
b. protein.
c. alcohol.
d. vitamins.
Vitamins provide ___ kcalories per gram.
a. 0
b. 4
c. 7
d. 9
How many kcalories are provided by a food that contains 25 g carbohydrate, 6 g protein, and
5 g fat?
a. 172
b. 169
c. 142
d. 102
Which nutrient has the greatest energy density?
a. carbohydrate
b. protein
c. fat
d. vitamins
How many fat kcalories are in a food that contains 15 grams of fat?
a. 60
b. 105
c. 135
d. 215
Your friend always refers to meat as protein. You try to correct her by stating that:
a. practically all foods contain mixtures of the energy-yielding nutrients.
b. protein is not the predominant nutrient in meat.
c. protein-rich foods are always high in fat.
d. meat contains more carbohydrate than protein.
All of the following contain mixtures of the energy nutrients except:
a. beef.
b. potato.
c. oil.
d. legumes.
Dietary Reference Intakes are designed to:
a. recommend numbers of servings of food to eat per day.
b. help food manufacturers decide on product contents and processing methods.
c. meet minimum nutrient needs to prevent malnutrition in people.
d. specify nutrient needs that best support the health of people in the United States and
The Recommended Dietary Allowances:
a. are designed primarily to prevent toxicities.
b. are set when there is a lack of scientific data to generate an Adequate Intake.
c. focus on all dietary components.
d. are the foundation of the Dietary Reference Intakes.
Consumers who take vitamin/mineral supplements should be aware that excessive intakes
can pose hazards, and refer to the _____ values of the Dietary Reference Intakes.
a. Adequate Intake (AI)
b. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)
c. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
d. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
Which of the following Dietary Reference Intake categories is most appropriately used to
develop and evaluate nutrition programs for groups?
a. Estimated Average Requirement
b. Tolerable Upper Intake Level
c. Adequate Intake
d. Recommended Dietary Allowance
Which of the following statements about the Dietary Reference Intakes is false?
a. The DRI are designed to merely prevent nutrient deficiency diseases.
b. The DRI focus on disease prevention.
c. The DRI focus on adequacy of nutrients.
d. The DRI apply to the diets of individuals.
Dietary Reference Intakes may be used to:
a. treat persons with diet-related illnesses.
b. assess dietary nutrient adequacy.
c. specify the minimum daily intake of all nutrients.
d. design weight-loss plans.
A good indicator that an adult's energy are the foundation of the Dietary Reference Intakes.
intake is appropriate is a healthy:
a. height.
b. weight.
c. elbow breadth.
d. appetite.
An individual's Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) is deemed adequate in the absence of:
a. bone loss.
b. weight gain or loss.
c. obvious signs of malnutrition.
d. body fat.
According to the DRI committee, protein should provide ______ of daily kcalories.
a. 45-65%
b. 20-35%
c. 10-35%
d. 8-21%
Nutrient-dense foods:
a. are iron rich.
b. contain a mixture of carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
c. carry nutrient labeling information.
d. deliver the most nutrients for the smallest number of kcalories.
Research confirms that a common contributor to 3 of the top 5 causes of death is:
a. undernutrition.
b. overnutrition.
c. depression.
d. vitamin deficiency.
Which of the following have the highest nutrient density?
a. lamb, ice cream, and pre-sweetened cereal
b. whole-grain bread, poultry, and skim milk
c. cottage cheese, sweet potatoes, and ham
d. dried apples, legumes, and pancakes
Which of the following foods would provide the highest nutrient density for calcium?
a. cheddar cheese
b. fat-free milk
c. ice cream
d. frozen yogurt
Foods such as potato chips, candy, and colas are called empty-kcalorie foods because they:
a. are inexpensive.
b. are lacking in calories.
c. provide calories but few nutrients.
d. should be eaten in moderation.
You are advising a client on components of the Dietary Guidelines. Which of the following
would you include in your advice?
a. Increase intake of vegetables and fruits.
b. Decrease intake of milk and milk products to two cups per day.
c. Decrease intake of whole grains and other complex carbohydrates.
d. Increase intake of trans fats and saturated fats.
After absorption, the water-soluble nutrients are released directly into the ____.
a. bloodstream
b. nephrons
c. lymph
d. kidneys
e. liver
A bolus is a(n) ____.
a. sphincter muscle separating the stomach from the small intestine
b. portion of food swallowed at one time
c. small, indigestible portion of food that can get stuck in the large intestine
d. enzyme that hydrolyzes starch
e. portion of partially digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
Villi are found in the ____.
a. stomach
b. esophagus
c. colon
d. small intestine
e. large intestine
The main function of bile is to ____.
a. stimulate the activity of protein digestive enzymes
b. increase the acidity of the contents of the stomach
c. decrease the acidity of the contents of the stomach
d. emulsify fats
e. neutralize the intestinal contents
The products of amylase digestion in the mouth are ____.
a. monosaccharides and lactose
b. polysaccharides and maltose
c. proteins
d. lipids and proteins
e. polysaccharides and sucrose
Drinking plenty of water in conjunction with eating foods high in fiber supplies fluid for the
fiber to take up, thus relieving constipation.
Which enzyme breaks down starch in the mouth?
a. carbohydrase
b. salivary chymylase
c. lipase
d. gastric protease
e. salivary amylase
Segmentation propels or pushes food through the GI tract, while peristalsis mixes the food,
with a more gradual pushing motion.
When nutrients enter the blood vessels from the small intestine, they are first transported to
the ____.
a. thoracic duct
b. kidney
c. liver
d. cells throughout the body
e. spleen
Which nutrients must be broken down in order to be absorbed?
a. carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals
b. carbohydrate, protein, and vitamins
c. carbohydrate, protein, and fat
d. fat, protein, and minerals
e. vitamins, minerals, and water
Involuntary muscle contractions move food through the intestinal tract. The movement that
forces the contents back a few inches before pushing it forward again is called ____.
a. segmentation
b. rotation
c. digestion
d. peristalsis
e. liquefaction
A nutrient or other substance must pass through the cells of the digestive tract wall before it
actually enters the body.
The digestive tract begins at the ____ and ends at the ____.
a. pharynx; rectum
b. tongue; renal glands
c. stomach; large intestine
d. mouth; anus
e. lower esophageal sphincter; rectum
The primary site of nutrient absorption is the ____.
a. duodenum
b. stomach
c. pancreas
d. small intestine
e. large intestine
The function of mucus in the stomach is to ____.
a. neutralize stomach acid
b. emulsify fats
c. activate pepsinogen to pepsin
d. denature proteins
e. protect stomach cells from gastric juices
Immediately before passing into the large intestine, the food mass must pass though the
a. pancreas
b. bolus
c. pyloric sphincter
d. lower esophageal sphincter
e. ileocecal valve
The _____ describes the effect a food has on blood glucose levels.
a. glycemic index
b. insulin index
c. solubility factor
d. viscosity index
e. energy index
While fiber has many benefits, it does not aid in _____.
a. weight management
b. lowering the risk of type 2 of diabetes
c. overall health of the gastrointestinal tract
d. the prevention of osteoporosis
e. regulating cholesterol
Soluble fiber can help reduce blood cholesterol levels by _____
a. converting cholesterol into vitamin D
b. binding cholesterol and carrying it out of the body with the feces
c. blocking the absorption of bile
d. preventing the production of bile
e. blocking the production of insulin
Which item would you recommend to someone interested in lowering his or her blood
cholesterol level?
a. white bread
b. oatmeal
c. corn flakes
d. pork
e. coffee
The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:
a. furnish the body with energy.
b. provide material for synthesizing cell walls
c. synthesize fat.
d. insulate the body to prevent heat loss.
High-fructose corn syrup and fruit juice concentrate are examples of _____.
a. starches
b. disaccharides
c. added sugar
d. fibers
The _____ are the basic units of all carbohydrates.
a. monosaccharides
b. disaccharides
c. polysaccharides
d. sucrose molecules
Three monosaccharides important in nutrition are:
a. glucose, lactose, and fructose.
b. fructose, glucose, and sucrose.
c. maltose, fructose, and lactose.
d. galactose, sucrose, and lactose.
e. fructose, glucose, and galactose.
The primary source of energy for the brain and nervous system under normal conditions is:
a. sucrose.
b. amino acids.
c. fructose.
d. glucose.
e. fatty acids.
The hormone that moves glucose from the blood into the cells is:
a. glucagon.
b. insulin.
c. testosterone.
d. sucrose.
Which of the following does not come exclusively from plants?
a. glucose
b. maltose
c. fructose
d. galactose
Fructose is:
a. the sweetest of the sugars.
b. known as milk sugar.
c. abundant in whole grains.
d. also known as dextrose.
Fructose occurs naturally in:
a. bread.
b. milk.
c. meats.
d. fruits.
Which of the following compounds is a disaccharide?
a. glucose
b. fructose
c. lactose
d. galactose
What happens when blood glucose falls too low?
a. glucagon promotes breakdown of muscle glycogen
b. glucagon promotes breakdown of liver glycogen
c. insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the liver
d. insulin promotes glycogen synthesis in the muscle
The most familiar source of sucrose is:
a. bread.
b. table sugar.
c. milk.
d. meat.
e. fruit.
One molecule of maltose can yield _____ molecules of glucose.
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. four
Which of the following is the principal carbohydrate in milk?
a. galactose
b. fructose
c. sucrose
d. lactose
Chemically, lactose is a:
a. monosaccharide.
b. disaccharide.
c. dextrose.
d. polysaccharide
An example of a polysaccharide is:
a. starch.
b. meat.
c. fruit.
d. protein.
Which of the following carbohydrates is a polysaccharide?
a. fructose
b. starch
c. maltose
d. lactose
The stored form of glucose in the body is called:
a. glycogen.
b. insulin.
c. fat.
d. muscle.
Polysaccharides are composed of:
a. one glucose unit.
b. two glucose units.
c. three glucose units.
d. many glucose units.
Excess glucose in the blood is converted into glycogen and stored primarily in the:
a. brain and liver.
b. liver and muscles.
c. blood cells and brain.
d. pancreas and brain.
The richest sources of starch are:
a. fruits.
b. grains.
c. vegetables.
d. soybeans.
Whole grains, vegetables, and fruits are rich sources of:
a. sucrose.
b. dietary fiber.
c. fat.
d. glycogen.
Cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and gums are:
a. nonnutritive sweeteners.
b. sugar alcohols.
c. fibers.
d. forms of starch.
_____ is a fiber found in all vegetables, fruits, and legumes.
a. Hemicelluose
b. Pectin
c. Mucilage
d. Cellulose
All of the following fibers are used by the food industry as additives or stabilizers except:
a. pectins.
b. gums.
c. lignins.
d. mucilages.
The sugars in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk are:
a. usually added to these foods.
b. considered discretionary kcalories.
c. naturally occurring.
d. resistant to digestion.
The steady upward trend in sugar consumption among North Americans can be attributed to:
a. consumer demand.
b. food manufacturers.
c. better food preservation techniques.
d. improved food safety practices.
The leading source of added sugars in the North American diet is:
a. baked goods such as cookies and cakes.
b. fruit packed in heavy syrup.
c. soft drinks and other sugar-sweetened beverages.
d. chocolate bars and other candy treats.
According to the World Health Organization's recommendations, no more than _____% of
daily kcalories should come from added sugars.
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 20
Which of the following statements best describes the role of sugar in the development of
a. Sugar consumption is a direct cause of weight gain leading to obesity.
b. The increased use of added sugars by food manufacturers is the cause of obesity.
c. Sugar contributes to obesity when it is part of excessive energy intakes.
d. There is no correlation between the consumption of added sugars and the rise in obesity.
Which of the following statements about excessive sugar consumption is true?
a. It causes cancer.
b. It causes heart disease.
c. It causes dental caries.
d. It causes hyperactive behavior in children
In the small intestine, _____ from the _____ breaks starch into maltose.
a. bacterial enzymes; colon
b. maltase; intestinal cells
c. amylase; pancreas
d. amylase; salivary glands
Sweeteners that yield energy are called:
a. nutritive sweeteners.
b. alternative sweeteners.
c. resistant sweeteners.
d. glycemic sweeteners.
The nonnutritive sweetener that is unsafe for people with phenylketonuria is:
a. aspartame.
b. neotame.
c. sucralose.
d. stevia.
Soluble fibers are found in:
a. celery, wheat bran, and corn.
b. kidney beans, apples, and oatmeal.
c. corn, apples, and sunflower seeds.
d. celery, soybeans, and bran flakes.
Which of the following is the most effective at alleviating constipation?
a. cellulose
b. pectin
c. gums
d. psyllium
Carbohydrate should contribute approximately _____% of the total daily energy intake.
a. 35-40
b. 45-55
c. 45-65
d. 55-60
A 2000-kcalorie diet that provides 175 grams of carbohydrate provides:
a. inadequate carbohydrate.
b. excessive carbohydrate.
c. an appropriate amount of carbohydrate.
d. inadequate fiber.
The Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fiber is approximately _____ grams per day.
a. 10-15
b. 15-25
c. 25-35
d. 35-50
Grains and legumes contain predominantly:
a. sugars and fiber.
b. starches and fiber
c. fat and fiber.
d. sugars and fat.
Foods richest in carbohydrates include:
a. eggs, cheese, and milk.
b. rice, broccoli, and apples.
c. milk, nuts, and oils.
d. mayonnaise, butter, and salad dressing.
Which of the following groups contains the least carbohydrate?
a. grains and starchy vegetables
b. nuts and dried fruits
c. milk and cheese
d. fruits and vegetables
The glycemic index ranks carbohydrate foods based on their effect on:
a. blood glucose levels.
b. blood cholesterol levels.
c. weight.
d. blood pressure.
The glycemic index of a food can be measured by comparing the increase in one's blood
glucose levels after consuming a carbohydrate to that caused by a reference food such as:
a. white bread.
b. a banana.
c. ice cream.
d. oatmeal.
The main factors that influence the GI value of a food include all of the following except the
a. structure of the starch.
b. type of fiber in the food.
c. manner in which the food was processed.
d. time of day the food was consumed.
People at risk for _____ may benefit from limiting their intake of high-GI foods.
a. infectious disease
b. arthritis
c. diabetes
d. migraine headaches
Whenever carbohydrate is available to the body, the human brain depends exclusively on it as
an energy source.
Most dietary fiber provides little or no energy.
Experts agree that moderate amounts of sugar in the diet may pose a number of major health
A client consumes 2000 kcalories per day and 200 grams of carbohydrate. This person meets
the current dietary recommendations for carbohydrate intake.
The process by which food is broken down into absorbable components is called ____.
a. digestion
b. absorption
c. excretion
d. mastication
e. adsorption
The energy-yielding nutrients are:
A. minerals, protein, and vitamins
B. fats, minerals, and water
C. carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins
D. carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Wellness is maximum well-being; the top range of health states; the goal of the person who
strives toward realizing his or her full potential physically, mentally, emotionally, spiritually,
and socially.
True or False
An enzyme that is in saliva which begins the process of digestion is:
A. amylase
B. protein
C. minerals
D. vitamins
The type of lipoproteins that transport cholesterol back to the liver from peripheral cells and
are composed primarily of protein are known as:
A. High-density lipoproteins
B. chylomicrons
C. Low-density lipoproteins
D. Very-low density lipoproteins
Which nutrient passes through the large intestine mostly unabsorbed?
A. Minerals
B. Starch
C. Fiber
D. Vitamins
Grains, legumes, and root vegetables contain predominantly:
A. starches and fiber
B. simple sugars and fiber
C. fat and fiber
D. simple sugars and fat
The part of a triglyceride that can be made into glucose is
A. the glycerol backbone
B. the saturated fatty acids
C. the unsaturated fatty acids
D. the long-chain fatty acids
The body will produce ketone bodies from the following when CHO are not available to
provide energy for the brain:
A. Amino acids
B. Glycerol
C. Glucose
D. Fatty acid fragments
Fats are important in foods as well as the body. Fats in foods contribute to function for all of
the following except:
A. Carry fat-soluble vitamins
B. Make foods tender
C. Contribute flavor
D. Reduce high cholesterol
Fructose is:
A. abundant in whole grains
B. also known as dextrose
C. known as milk sugar
D. the sweetest of the sugars
Polyunsaturated fats:
A. are more abundant in plant foods than in animal products
B. do not have any health benefits
C. don't spoil as easily as saturated fats
D. are more solid than saturated fats
Which oil contains the largest amount of saturated fatty acids?
A. Corn oil
B. Palm oil
C. Coconut oil
D. Peanut oil
Essential fatty acids:
A. Are used to make substances that regulate blood pressure among other functions
B. Cannot be found in commonly eaten foods
C. Include lecithin and cholesterol
D. Can be made from carbohydrates
As carbohydrate and fat stores are depleted during fasting or starvation, the body then uses
____________ as its fuel source.
A. Alcohol
B. Protein
C. Glucose
D. Triglycerides
All of the following are responsibilities of enzymes except:
A. are proteins
B. put compounds together and take them apart
C. are altered by the reactions that they facilitate
D. catalysts to life processes
Which of the following vitamins are fat soluble?
A. vitamins A, D, E, and K
B. vitamins A, B, C
C. vitamins B, C, D, E
D. Vitamins K, C, E, D
Proteins differ from the other energy nutrients because they contain:
a. glycerol.
b. fatty acids.
c. carbon.
d. nitrogen
The basic building blocks of proteins are:
a. fatty acids.
b. ketones.
c. amino acids.
d. monosaccharides.
a. are altered by the chemical reactions they facilitate.
b. are essential to all life processes
c. are made up of carbohydrates
d. are essential nutrients.
Food proteins:
a. are incorporated into body proteins.
b. are denatured by body heat.
d. remain intact until they reach the small intestine, where they are digested.
e. are absorbed as amino acids.
The recommended intake of protein is _____ of daily energy intake.
a. 35-45%
c. 10-35%
d. 15-20%
Amino acids are a secondary source of energy. Their primary function is to:
a. build proteins needed by the body.
b. supply most of the kcalories in the average diet.
c. provide essential water-soluble vitamins.
d. produce thyroxin and insulin.
Individuals likely to be in negative nitrogen balance include all of the following except:
a. individuals who are starving.
b. people with serious injuries.
c. people who have burns.
d. individuals who are pregnant.
Amino acids (AA) structure is composed of...
a. amino group
b. acid group
c. carbon backbone
d. side group different for each (AA)
e. all of the above
How many amino acids appear in proteins?
The condition where a nonessential amino acid can become essential is called conditionally
essential (AA)
true or false
When does conditionally essential (AA) happen?
a. when we eat
b. when we digest food
c. when we go through a trauma
d. when we go running
Peptide, Dipeptide Tripeptide, Polypeptide are how many (AA) linked together?
a. 1,2,3,10 or more
b. 2,4,5,12 or more
c. 1,2,3,12 or more
d. 3,2,1,10 or more
Which (AA) are most proteins?
a. peptide
b. dipeptide
c. tripeptide
d. polypeptide
What enables protein to perform different functions in body?
a. size
b. shape
c. weight
d. all of the above
Protein digestion and absorption happens first in the body?
a. mouth
b. esophagus
c. stomach
The gastrointestinal microbiome is comprised primarily of ____.
a. goblet cells
b. probiotics
c. villi
d. bacteria
e. mucosa
What is the function of bile?
a. It protects the stomach and small intestine from the action of hydrochloric acid.
b. It enhances absorption of complex carbohydrates.
c. It stimulates the absorption of vitamins and minerals.
d. It emulsifies fats.
e. It initiates digestion of protein
One function of the pyloric sphincter is to ____.
a. secretes hormones into the stomach
b. prevents the contents of the small intestine from emptying too quickly into the colon
c. prevents the contents of the small intestine from backing up into the stomach
d. initiates peristalsis
e. secretes acid into the stomach
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
a. It neutralizes stomach acid
b. It absorbs essential nutrients
c. It emulsifies fats
d. It protects stomach cells from gastric juices
e. It activates pepsinogen to pepsin
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the
following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
a. Moderately alkaline
b. Very alkaline
c. Very acidic
d. Moderately acidic
e. Approximately neutral
What substance protects the stomach lining from damage due to digestive juices?
a. Dietary fats
b. Mucus
c. Water
d. Gastrin
e. Pepsinogen
The presence of fat in the intestines stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release ____.
a. secretin
b. gastrin
c. cholecystokinin
d. glucagon
e. lipase
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
a. Ileocecal valve
b. Lower sphincter
c. Rectal sphincter
d. Gastric retainer
e. Pylorus
Disaccharidase enzymes that hydrolyze the disaccharides into monosaccharides are found in
the ____.
a. small intestine
b. pancreas
c. salivary glands
d. stomach
e. colon
What is the primary storage form of carbohydrate in the body?
a. fiber
b. starch
c. glucose
d. glycogen
e. glucagon
What is the sweetest-tasting simple carbohydrate in the diet?
a. glucose
b. lactose
c. fructose
d. sucrose
e. galactose
What is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
a. heart
b. liver
c. pancreas
d. skeletal muscle
e. brain
When blood glucose concentration falls, glucagon is the pancreatic hormone secreted to
stimulate release of stored glucose in the liver.
What is the primary means for degradation of soluble fibers in the large intestines?
a. bacterial enzymes
b. pancreatic amylase
c. peristaltic segmentation
d. villus brush border hydrolases
e. polysaccharide amylase
Linoleic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid.
Very-low density lipoproteins contain the highest percentage of cholesterol.
Which product is considered a major source of monounsaturated fat?
a. Soybean oil
b. Palm oil
c. Peanut oil
d. Chicken fat
e. Olive oil
In which form are most dietary lipids found?
a. Sterols
b. Glycerols
c. Triglycerides
d. Monoglycerides
e. Polyglycerides
Bile is known to aide in the absorption of fat.
Lipids that are liquid at room temperature are known as ____.
a. oils
b. fats
c. omegas
d. glycerols
e. phospholipids
Which statement describes a recognized relationship between dietary fat and cancer?
a. Fat from milk does not increase risk for cancer.
b. Dietary fat initiates rather than promotes cancer formation.
c. High intakes of omega-3 fatty acids promote cancer development in animals.
d. The evidence linking fat intake with cancer is stronger than that linking it with heart
e. There is a strong link between breast cancer incidence and dietary fat.
Lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of ____.
a. amino acids
b. double bonds
c. saccharide units
d. peptide linkages
e. oxygen atoms
Which source of lipids should be substituted for saturated fats to help lower blood cholesterol
a. Butter
b. Canola oil
c. Coconut oil
d. Stick margarine
e. Shortening
A person is in negative nitrogen balance during:
a. adolescence.
b. starvation.
c. infancy.
d. illness recovery.
e. pregnancy.
The body uses amino acids extensively for energy when:
a. there is inadequate glucose or fatty acids.
b. an athlete performs strength training exercises.
c. the body becomes dehydrated.
d. protein stores run low.
e. the body has excess water
Because amino acids can be recycled, it's okay to avoid protein-containing foods some days.
Consumption of protein, itself, is known to contribute to heart disease and mortality.
In setting the RDA for protein, the DRI committee assumed that:
a. protein will be of low quality.
b. protein will be consumed together with adequate energy and other nutrients.
c. protein will form the majority of a person's diet.
d. other nutrients in the diet will be inadequate.
e. the RDA will be applied to individuals with unusual metabolic needs.
Under special circumstances, a nonessential amino acid can become essential.
The term "saturated fatty acid" means that:
a. the fat is solid at room temperature.
b. the fat lacks glycerol.
c. each carbon is filled to capacity with hydrogen atoms.
d. its carbon chains contain fewer than ten carbons.
e. the fat comes from animal sources.
The shorter chain fatty acids are:
a. softer at room temperature.
b. melt at a higher temperature.
c. typically saturated.
d. harder at room temperature.
e. trans fats.
Olive oil is known to help protect against heart disease.
Which food contains cholesterol?
a. fruit
b. peanut butter
c. corn
d. bran
e. milk
It is possible to consume too little fat.
When carbohydrates are plentiful, the human brain depends almost exclusively on them as an
energy source.
Excessive sugar consumption contributes to the development of:
a. type 1 diabetes.
b. hyperactive behavior in adults.
c. dental caries.
d. cancer.
e. hyperactive behavior in children.
The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:
a. insulate the body to prevent heat loss.
b. synthesize fat.
c. build mitochondria.
d. provide material for synthesizing cell walls.
e. furnish the body with energy.
The richest sources of starch are:
a. grains.
b. soybeans.
c. vegetables.
d. fruits.
e. meat.
Sugars in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk:
a. are not related to one another chemically.
b. occur naturally.
c. are considered discretionary kcalories.
d. must be added to make the foods palatable.
e. are usually resistant to digestion.
In the GI tract, bacteria produce:
a. vitamin K.
b. amylase.
c. pepsin.
d. mucus.
e. bile.
The microscopic hairs that cover the surface of each cell lining the small intestine are called:
a. intestinal folds.
b. microvilli.
c. lymphatics.
d. microcilia.
e. villi.
The main function of bile is to:
a. decrease the acidity of the contents of the stomach.
b. emulsify fats.
c. increase the acidity of the contents of the stomach.
d. neutralize the intestinal contents.
e. stimulate the activity of protein digestive enzymes
The major digestive work in the stomach is the initial breakdown of:
a. fat.
b. starch.
c. minerals.
d. proteins.
e. vitamins.
Chyme is a(n):
a. portion of food swallowed at one time.
b. semiliquid mass of partially digested food.
c. enzyme in the stomach needed for the digestion of protein.
d. esophageal secretion.
e. digesting liquid, similar to pepsin.
Scientific evidence shows protein consumption prior to resistance exercise improves
performance and recovery.
In what organ is pepsin active?
a. Liver
b. Pancreas
c. Large intestine
d. Stomach
e. Small intestine
Which statement characterizes the protein nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Most vegetarians should consume gelatin to ensure adequate tryptophan intake.
b. Healthy vegetarians typically consume protein sources of very high digestibility.
c. A significant majority of vegetarians experience clinically significant protein malnutrition.
d. Most vegetarians eating a variety of foods need not balance essential amino acid intake at
each meal.
e. Vegetarians in general must consume complementary proteins at each meal.
Which statement describes an association between protein intake and kidney function?
a. Liberal protein intakes result in high urea production, which increases the long-term
efficiency of the kidneys.
b. Low-protein diets increase the risk for kidney stone formation.
c. High protein intakes over the long term represent a risk factor for kidney disease.
d. Restricting protein intake may slow the progression of kidney disease.
e. High protein diets in childhood protect the kidneys from age- and illness-associated
What is meant by protein turnover?
a. The synthesis and degradation of body proteins
b. Nitrogen equilibrium
c. The failure of the body to form needed proteins
d. The secondary structure of proteins that initiates folding
e. The antibody-antigen complex
When two amino acids are chemically joined together, the resulting structure is called a ____.
a. disaccharide
b. dipeptide
c. polypeptide
d. polysaccharide
e. diglyceride
In the metabolism of amino acids for energy, what is the fate of the amino group?
a. Converted to glucose
b. Recycled in the liver
c. Burned for energy
d. Stored in the liver
e. Excreted as urea
Which item is a nonessential amino acid?
a. Cysteine
b. Serine
c. Leucine
d. Alanine
e. Glutamine
In what organ does the digestion process begin?
a. Mouth
b. Stomach
c. Duodenum
d. Jejunum-ileum
Which of the following describes the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract?
a. A vat-like vessel
b. A rigid, solid tunnel
c. A flexible muscular tube
d. A firm, duct-like channel
Which of the following is NOT a sphincter muscle?
a. Anus
b. Cardiac
c. Duodenum
d. Ileocecal valve
Where is the epiglottis located?
a. Throat
b. Bile duct
c. Pancreatic duct
d. Lower esophagus
What part of the GI tract prevents a person from choking while swallowing?
a. Mouth
b. Epiglottis
c. Pyloric sphincter
d. Upper esophageal sphincter
What structure functions to prevent entrance of food into the trachea?
a. Tongue
b. Epiglottis
c. Cardiac sphincter
d. Trachea sphincter
Into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty?
a. Ileum
b. Cecum
c. Jejunum
d. Duodenum
After swallowing, in what order does food pass through the regions of the GI tract?
a. Jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum, rectum
b. Jejunum, ileum, duodenum, rectum, colon
c. Stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
d. Stomach, jejunum, duodenum, colon, ileum
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
a. The semisolid mass of undigested food that passes through the ileocecal valve
b. A semiliquid mass of partially digested food released by the stomach into the small
c. The mixture of pancreatic juices containing enzymes for digestion of the macronutrients
d. A thick, viscous material synthesized by mucosal cells for protection against digestive juices
What is the primary function of the rectum?
a. Controls functioning of the colon
b. Absorbs minerals from waste materials
c. Stores waste materials prior to evacuation
d. Absorbs excess water from waste materials
What is the name given to partially digested food in the stomach?
a. Chyme
b. Liquid food
c. Gastric mucus
d. Semiliquid mass
What structure separates the colon from the small intestine?
a. Pylorus
b. Ileocecal valve
c. Gastric retainer
d. Rectal sphincter
Which of the following is a feature of peristalsis?
a. It remains quiet between meals when the GI tract is empty
b. It occurs along the GI tract at a constant rate when food is present
c. It involves parallel and circular muscles found in the walls of the intestines but not the
d. It consists of wavelike muscular contractions resulting from alternate tightening and
relaxing of circular muscles and longitudinal muscles
What structure controls the release of material from the stomach to the small intestine?
a. Ileocecal valve
b. Pyloric sphincter
c. Diaphragmatic valve
d. Esophageal sphincter
Among the GI tract organs, which has the strongest muscles?
a. Stomach
b. Small intestine
c. Large intestine
d. Cardiac sphincter
Which of the following is a feature of the muscular actions of digestion?
a. Peristalsis begins first in the stomach upon the initiation of the swallowing reflex
b. The colon has the thickest and strongest muscles of the GI organs to withstand the
pressure of stool evacuation
c. The jejunum has a third layer of diagonal muscles to enhance contraction and relaxation
phases for enhanced digestion
d. Segmentation in the intestines allows periodic squeezing along its length, resulting in
momentary reversal of the movement of intestinal contents
Which of the following is a function of sphincter muscles?
a. Control peristalsis
b. Grind large food particles
c. Secrete digestive juices into the GI tract
d. Control the passage of food through the GI tract
The lower esophageal sphincter is also known as the
a. reflux restrainer.
b. cardiac sphincter.
c. perihepatic control valve.
d. reverse peristalsis inhibitor.
What types of enzymes are responsible for hydrolyzing the proteins in foods?
a. Lipases
b. Salivases
c. Proteases
d. Carbohydrases
Which of the following is NOT true about digestion?
a. Salivary glands contribute little to digestion
b. The pyloric sphincter opens about 3 times a minute
c. Saliva contains enzymes that digest sugars, fats, and proteins
d. The liver and pancreas contribute essential fluids to the digestive process
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
a. Emulsifies fats
b. Neutralizes stomach acid
c. Activates pepsinogen to pepsin
d. Protects stomach cells from gastric juices
Why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach?
a. Mucus inhibits starch breakdown
b. Stomach enzymes are dysfunctional
c. Starch should not be eaten with protein
d. Salivary enzymes do not work in an acid environment
What is an important function of mucus?
a. Helps solubilize bile
b. Stabilizes pancreatic enzymes
c. Enhances absorption of vitamin B12
d. Protects the stomach walls from digestion
After someone chews and swallows a portion of food, what becomes of the salivary amylase
in the stomach?
a. It is inactivated by gastric juice
b. It continues to hydrolyze starches
c. It binds to pepsin and catalyzes proteolytic activity
d. It passes into the duodenum where the alkaline pH stimulates carbohydrase activity
Your cousin Miguel is extolling the virtues of his new dietary supplement. He says that it
contains enzymes that will make him healthier, and he asks for your opinion. You assure him
that the enzymes
a. will increase the digestibility of the foods he eats.
b. could likely interfere with the enzymes secreted by his pancreas.
c. could likely overload his gastrointestinal tract and lead to diarrhea.
d. are proteins and proteins are destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract.
Which of the following body organs does not secrete digestive enzymes?
a. Liver
b. Stomach
c. Pancreas
d. Salivary glands
The process by which bile acts on fat so enzymes can attack the fat is known as
a. condensation.
b. emulsification.
c. enzymification.
d. phosphorylation.
The purpose of bicarbonate in the digestive process is to
a. raise the pH of chyme.
b. lower the pH of chyme.
c. hydrolyze large peptides.
d. provide a little fizz in your life
After the pancreatic juices have mixed with chyme in the small intestine, which of the
following describes the pH of the resulting mixture?
a. Very acidic
b. Moderately acidic
c. Strongly alkaline
d. Approximately neutral
Which of the following would NOT be acted upon by pancreatic juice secreted into the
intestinal tract?
a. Fats
b. Fiber
c. Proteins
d. Carbohydrates
Which of the following is NOT a component of pancreatic juice?
a. Bile
b. Water
c. Lipase
d. Sodium bicarbonate
What is one function of the gallbladder?
a. Stores bile
b. Produces bile
c. Reabsorbs water and salts
d. Performs enzymatic digestion
An example of an important function of the colon would be its absorption of
a. bile.
b. fats.
c. salts.
d. hormones.
Which of the following classes of nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
a. Lipids
b. Proteins
c. Vitamins
d. Carbohydrates
Which of the following nutrients requires the least amount of digestion?
a. Starch
b. Calcium
c. Animal fats
d. Animal proteins
Which of the following is a significant property of dietary fiber?
a. Inhibits protease activity
b. Promotes water retention of stools
c. Inhibits large intestinal contractions
d. Promotes vitamin excretion in stools