Uploaded by Melchor Butigan

Illumination 1

# 37 Harrison Road/51 Plaza Natalia Naguilian Road
Baguio City
Tel. Nos: 442-3743 / 424-0859
: 54 HOURS
COURSE DESCRIPTION : This course deals with the principles involved
when designing the required level of illumination for specific areas. The proper
level of illumination is very important not only in the workplace but also in
residential buildings. Aside from these techniques, this course also covers the
different types of lighting materials, and their principles of operation.
Baguio City, Philippines
: An Introduction
: 3 Hours
1. Understand the importance of the quantity and quality of light
2. Understand the elements that make a lighting system acceptable
3. Know the basic factors to consider when designing a lighting system
ILLUMINATION – defined as the intensity of light per unit area. Electric illumination is the production of
light by means of electricity and its applications to provide efficient, comfortable and safe vision.
Specifically, when one speaks of lighting design, two things are considered:
1. The quantity of light – refers to the amount of illumination or luminous flux per unit area.
Quantity of light can be measured and easily handled because it deals with the number of light
fixtures required for a certain area.
2. The quality of light – refers to the distribution of brightness in the lighting installation. It deals
with the essential nature or characteristics of light. In short, quality of light is the mixture of all
the items related to illumination other than the quantity of light which includes several elements
such as:
a. Brightness – the light that seems to radiate from an object being viewed. Brightness or
luminance is the luminous flux (light) emitted, transmitted or reflected from a surface.
b. Contrast – the difference in brightness or the brightness ratio between an object and its
background. The recommended brightness ratio between an object being viewed and its
background is normally 3:1.
c. Glare – a strong, steady, dazzling light or reflection.
c.1. Direct glare – an annoying brightness of light in a person’s field of vision.
c.2. Indirect or Reflected glare – usually seen on glossy objects.
d. Diffuseness – refers to the control of shadows cast by light. It is the degree to which light
is shadowless and is therefore a function of the number of directions to which light
collides with a particular point and the comparative intensities.
e. Color – there are three characteristics that define a particular coloration. They are:
e.1. Hue – the quality attribute by which we recognize and describe colors as red, blue,
yellow, etc.
e.2. Brilliance of Value – the difference between the resultant colors of the same hue.
e.3. Saturation or Chroma – the difference from the purity of the colors.
f. Psychological reaction to color and fixtures
g. Aesthetics
h. Economics
The level, quality and design of the lighting in an interior in which work of a visually exacting nature has
to be carried out should be based on the requirements of:
1. Visual performance
Visual performance is the term used to describe both the speed at which the eyes function and the
accuracy with which a visual task can be carried out. The standard of visual performance for the
perception of an object rises with increasing illuminance or luminance, up to a certain level. Other factors
that influence visual performance are:
a. Size of the visual task and its distance from the eye
Baguio City, Philippines
b. Contrasts in color and luminance
2. Visual comfort and pleasantness
The lighting should support the interior architecture and not interfere with it. It must be remembered
that a lighting installation is invariably composed of a multiplicity of visible objects (luminaires) spread
over the space. The appearance of these, both individually and as a whole, should also be made to
harmonize with the architecture.
3. Energy and cost effectiveness
The objective is clearly to provide lighting to the standards, both quantity and quality, required with
the minimum usage of electrical energy; to meet this basis requirement it is necessary to evaluate the
equipment, techniques and services available for both existing and proposed installations. The six basis
rules for achieving energy effective lighting are:
Use the most efficient light source suitable.
Use the lamp light output efficiently.
Maintain lighting equipment in good order.
Use well designed energy effective lighting schemes.
Control the switching operation and usage of the lighting installation.
Consider the effect of surrounding décor; use light décor where suitable.
Grouped hardware
Seen individually, a luminaire is judged in terms of shape, color and degree of sophistication. The
judgment of the single unit is carried over to the remainder of the luminaires comprising the installation,
and a defect in one will be assumed to be present in all the rest. But luminaires are invariably perceived
as constituting a group, the shape of which may or may not accentuate the shape of the space. In short
viewing distance, various details of the luminaire are important: form, color, texture, quality of finish, etc.;
while in long view distance, the general form and color of the luminaires alone will be apparent, the main
impression received being that relating to the general lighting effect created. Both the luminaire and the
lighting given by it should fit in with the environment, but while in the case of the luminaire this may be
only subtly apparent, the appropriateness of the lighting effect should be unequivocal.
The Gestalt laws
The gestalt, an organized whole in which each individual part affects every other, the whole being more
than a sum of its parts, has three laws that can be applied to lighting installations:
1. The law of vicinity – states that objects situated close enough together are perceived as one. This
effect is often seen in practice where a number of luminaires are grouped to give the impression
of forming a single unit, the object being to visually simplify the arrangement. Where this is done,
the shape of the group should complement the other elements in the space (ceiling, beam and
column module, or even the furniture arrangement).
2. The law of equality – states that shapes or patterns are recognized immediately and are
interpreted as groups, the more dissimilar the shapes the less ambiguous the grouping. Group
recognition may also be based upon similarity of luminaire color or, even more striking, on the
color appearance of the light-emitting surface. As a consequence of this law, in order to avoid
ambiguity or confusion in the appearance of luminaire arrangements, the number of identifiable
groups should be kept to a minimum.
3. The law of continuity – states that an incomplete shape is continued or completed in the mind’s
eye. This effect is strengthened when the shape is seen in perspective.
Baguio City, Philippines
Perspective also creates unexpected diagonals in a regular grid layout of the luminaires, the diagonals
competing with the familiar phenomenon of the parallel rows of luminaires appearing to converge in the
distance. This means that in practice, it is best to employ a square-grid arrangement of the luminaires for
long narrow interiors, since the diagonals then created will be less disturbing.
Electrical Layout and Estimate 2nd edition by Max Fajardo
Prepared by:
Michael O. Montes