Hanoi University Km 9 Nguyen Trai Road, Thanh Xuan North, Thanh Xuan District, Hanoi - Vietnam Telephone:(84 4) 8544338, Facsimile:(84 4) 8544550, E-mail: hufs@netnam.vn , Website: www.hanu.edu.vn FACULTY OF STATISTICS PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND TOURISM ONLINE-STUDYING HABIT OF FMT ACCOUNTING AND FINANCE BANKING’S STUDENTS AT HANOI UNIVERSITY Tutor: Mrs. Tran Thi Thu Hien Tutorial class: TUT 8-group5 Tutorial time: 9:30 am Wednesday Student’s names: Tran Lan Chi ID: 1804040025 Pham Ngoc Thanh Mai ID: 1704010071 Dang Thi Khanh Linh ID: 1804010056 Dinh Thuy Ngan ID: 1804040077 Vu Minh Hòa ID: 1804000043 Content pages: 14 pages Date: May 28, 2020 1 TABLES OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................................................4 I. Introduction .....................................................................................................................................4 I. Research methodology ...................................................................................................................5 1. Population sample ...................................................................................................................5 2. Questionnaire design ...............................................................................................................5 3. Sample size ...............................................................................................................................5 4. Sampling method and data collection ...................................................................................5 5. Data processing........................................................................................................................6 6. Level of significance ................................................................................................................6 II. Descriptive results and findings ....................................................................................................6 IV. Hypothesis Testing .......................................................................................................................9 1. Research question ....................................................................................................................9 2. Assumption .............................................................................................................................10 3. Data analysis ...........................................................................................................................10 4.Hypothesis testing procedure: T-test ....................................................................................11 V. Evaluation ...................................................................................................................................12 1. Limitation ...............................................................................................................................12 2. Implication ..............................................................................................................................12 VI. Recommendations .....................................................................................................................13 VII. Conclusion.................................................................................................................................14 APPENDIXIES ................................................................................................................................15 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNARE ..........................................................................................15 APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNARE RESULT .........................................................................17 2 APPENDIX C: LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................21 APPENDIX D: LIST OF PARTICIPATION ..............................................................................22 APPENDIX E: R CODE AND OUTPUT .....................................................................................29 3 ABSTRACT Covid-19 pandemic seriously impacted on our world, not only its damaged global economy but also it changed most of our daily timetables as well. Over the last months, Vietnamese government made decision on performing nationwide social distancing campaign. To deal with this epidemic, schools and universities in Vietnam had to find the suitable solution to guarantee the study program for students and the best way that main schools proceeded is online learning through available tools such as Zoom, Google Classroom, Hangouts and Meet,… Although online learning is optimal solution for pandemic problem when students are staying at home, some of them face obstacles with this kind of studying in this semester. Those inconvenient experiences affect badly to their subject’s results as well as their total GPA. To find out more about the effectiveness of online learning, we conducted a survey to get the data from students in BA and AC by a list of relating questionnaires. The result of this survey helps us to conclude that whether this method is working on or not. By applying statistic’s theories and applications, we hope to get the probable accuracy so that we can give some recommendations for better ways to study through digital world in the next time. I. Introduction It is obviously that since the day Apple released “iPhone” for the first time, they changed total of phone market and also, they founded a speedy internet boom, instead of staying all day in computer, nowadays, we can get the connections anytime with our little smartphone or laptop that we can bring them together anywhere. It leads to some new definitions appeared on the Internet, including “online learning”. Studying online is not a new term in the Western countries because it already developed over the last decade. If a kid does not want to have normal study program in school, they can choose online program, sometimes, with special tutors and in the end of the course, they still get the certificate. But in Vietnam, online learning just only became popular after the Covid-19 epidemic’s quarantine, the day coming back to school was delayed after many times for the complicated virus transmitting, there is no way more effective than studying from home in this situation. A lot of students are excited for they think that they can be more flexible to study, economize their expenses, their time and, help them have more time for their own individual activities after schools. However, it also brings disturbs for them during their online time such as 4 bad connection, low interactive between student and teacher and unsaved results after submitting exams and especially, it requires them must spend more time to self-study. Is online learning being helpful and can replace to traditional method? Let’s find out with us through project called “The effect of online learning on FMT’s students”. I. Research methodology 1. Population sample In our project, we want to conduct the survey particularly to FMT students, we collect data mainly from AC and FB students in K18 and some of students in the same department in K17. A sample of 100 students is chosen randomly to conduct the questionnaire. 2. Questionnaire design We divided the questionnaire into 2 main parts. The first one is questions about personal information (including name, student ID, major and email). The second one, also the main part, is a list of questions relating to our topic. Because of the nature of our traditional study method, we ask them the time they spend of studying online to compare with the time they study when go to school, their opinions and feelings after studying online over this semester. Additionally, we expect they can show their own opinions about the difficulties that happen to them (if any) by rating the score from strongly disagreed (0) to highly agreed (5) by some claims that we already created. 3. Sample size As the numerous numbers of students in FMT as well as the time limit, we believe that the number of participants in this survey is 100 random students (n=100) is suitable to analysis effectively and clarify the significant information served for the project target. 4. Sampling method and data collection a. Sampling method First of all, we take the student list from Web faculty and then we use R-studio to do project. The project is conducted with random sampling distribution. A sample size of 100 Finance Banking and Accounting students from FMT was randomly selected. Next, in order to gather data for our project, we find the classes and student names to deliver online questionnaires. According to the statistical data of this survey, we took 100 and figured out 50 students of Finance Banking and 50 students of Accouting major. 5 b. Data collection After completing proposing the questionnaire and choosing sample, we began our project by distributing questionnaire on Wednesday, 17th April , 2019. The data was collected by sending online questionnaire to students through Hanu email accounts( ID@s.hanu.edu.vn). However, some students did not fill information fully for some reasons. Therefore, we have to take advantage our relationships thanks to social network. We try to find Facebook accounts who did not fill in our online questionnaire on Hanu email. After that, we send link of online survey to these students and ask them for fulfilling our questionnaire. Finally, the data was collected completely by using Hanu email and Facebook accounts. The randomly collection of 100 participants is indicated in Appendix D and the table of organized data is provived at the end of the report in Appendix A and B. 5. Data processing Assignment for our team was to record and classify pivotal statistics as soon as distributing the questionnaire was completely done. We chose to deal with complicated statistic by using R-studio and Microsoft Excel that are useful tools to process data and create graphs, charts. 6. Level of significance In this project, we choose the significance level of 0.05. II. Descriptive results and findings We chose randomly 100 students from FMT students from 2 majors: AC, FB to conduct a research about online study in this semester due to the COVID-19. By using questionnaires, we get the information about their plan for studying online. 6 Hours spending online study per day 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% <3 3 -- 5 5 -- 8 AC >8 FB Figure 1: The amount of time students spends on study per day There is none of the students in both majors that spend lesser than 3 hours a day for studying online. Accounting’s students mostly study 3 to 8 hours a day. The percentage for this period count for 85%, while FB students has more students studying more than 8 hours per day (21%). Total FB AC 50% 37% 42% 50% 13% 8% 0% 50% 100% Yes AC 42% FB 37% Total 50% No 8% 13% 50% Yes No Figure 2: The proportion of students online learning effective Even though FB students spend more time studying than AC students, they are less satisfied with the performance than those studying AC. 7 Lý do học viên thích học trực tuyến 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 258 54 24 30 131127 55 51 30 21 28 16 12 28 11 17 52 27 25 I repeat lecture video many times until mastering knowledge I enjoy learning online 23 22 I take time I need more I think it I enroll a lot to find time to saves time of online materials study online and money subjects with my friends and my teachers AC FB TOTAL TOTAL Figure 3: The reason for spending so much time online learning Both AC and FB students agreed that through online methods they can easily finding materials on the internet. About half of students said that they enjoy learning online as their result. They also claimed that it’s cost and time efficiency because they study at home. ONLINE METHOD OR GENERAL METHOD Online method General method 57% TOTAL 43% FB 29% 21% AC 28% 22% Online method AC 28% FB 29% Total 57% General method 22% 21% 43% Figure 4: The percentage of students like to study online 8 It’s can be seen clearly that 57% of the students love studying online. The reason is that this is the first time ever they have such an interesting studying method. But there are also 43% of them like to study at class than distance studying. Figure 5: The difficulties in self-studying during Covid-19 Wi-Fi quality is the most voted by 63 students since the speed of the internet is so slow. Distraction came at second with 50 students. The factors are social network, noise, … They also claimed that is harder for them to study online due to lack of self-awareness. They tend to be lazier because they don’t need to go to classes. The internet has so much sources for information that students feel confused about choosing learning materials. IV. Hypothesis Testing 1. Research question The purpose of this research is to see the difference in the number of hours that students in two major AC and FB students spend on online study. Because of this aim, the following question is designed to identify the evidence serving for testing: 9 Question 2: Base on the data collected randomly from our sample, we decide to use the hypothesis testing for two population mean to test between AC students and FB students, which group spending more time on online study. Specially, the parameter of interest is the population mean and, the estimator of this sample is the sample mean and. 2. Assumption · Independent, simple random samples · Two populations follow binomial distribution: - The experiment consists of 50 identical trials; each trial involves the answer of one person. Therefore, the trials are independent. - Two outcomes are possible to each trial: more than 5 hours or less than 5 hours. - The probability of “more than 5 hours” and “less than 5 hours” are constant in every trial, with p = 0.5 and 1-p = 0.5. 3. Data analysis Base on the following formulas: • The sample mean: 𝑥̅ = 𝑥̅1+𝑥̅2+𝑥̅3+⋯+𝑥̅50 𝑛 • The sample 𝑆 𝑛 standard deviation: In addition, some calculations with the data collected, we have: Accounting Finance Banking Sample mean Sample standard deviation 𝑥̅1=20.2 𝑥̅2 = 20.0 𝑠1 = 11.08 𝑠2 = 9.84 In order to make sure that the above results are correct, we use R program to check it again. 10 4.Hypothesis testing procedure: T-test Base on the term of question two: How many hours per day do you study by yourself? Our hypothesis is about whether AC students spend more time on self-study than BA students do or 𝑡𝛼,𝑑𝑓 = 𝑡0.05,96 = 0.016 not. • Step 1: The null and alternative hypothesis: 𝐻𝑜 : µ 1 − µ 1 ≤ 0 • 𝐻𝑎:µ1 − µ2 > 0 • Step 2: Identify the level significant: Reject 𝐻𝑜 if 𝑡 > 1.661 Our requirement is a 5% of level significant • • Step 3: Critical value: With 5% level of significance chosen, we have: Step 5: Value of the test: 0.782 𝛼 = 0.05 0. = 96.6 49 (𝑠21 +𝑠22 )2 Degree of freedom: 𝑑𝑓 = Step 4: Decision rule: 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑠2 𝑠2 1 1 2 2 1 2 𝑛1−1(𝑛 1 ) + 𝑛2−1(𝑛 2 ) = 50 49 50 92 2 ( 50 + 50 )² 1 11 .08 2 2 1 9 .84 2 2 ( ) + ( ) ( 𝑡 • Step 6: Conclusion: We have: 𝑡 = 0.095 > 𝑡0.05,96 = 0.016. Therefore, we reject 𝐻𝑜. From our test for the question, we can reach the conclusion that with the level of significant of 0.05, there is enough statistical evidence to infer that FB students spend more time on online study than AC students do. 11 V. Evaluation 1. Limitation The project is aimed at finding the connection between the amount of time spent on online stydying and the performance of FB and AC students of Hanoi University in particular as well as their selfstudy at home during the quarantine However, some mistakes cannot be eliminated during the conduction of this project due to the shortage of time and specialization, which will be specified for the improvement of future projects. Firstly, we - the project makers who are also the FB and AC students, want to take advantages of the result from the project, so we wished to relate to the population of all students from this two majors in our paper to get the most power study with the highest accuracy. However, due the time constrain for collecting and analyzing data, we just took the sample size of 100 ones, which may lower the level of exactness of our conclusion to the whole population. Secondly, because we collect our data via Google form so some of the respondents may not take it seriously, as we check some of which didn’t fill in their real responds. This may influence the level of accuracy as we can’t check other elements in the questionnaire. Finally, this is the first time we have to perform a Statistic project with R Studio, an advanced analytics tool, therefore, we were not professional enough to apply all introduced R commands to make a more scientific R performance. 2. Implication This project, with the participation of 100 FMT students from 2 majors of Finance & Banking and Accounting, showed partially the relationship between their time in studying online and their hardship in this learning method. The limitations are inevitable, but the results still reflect some connections. It is not hard to recognize that FB students spend more time online-studying than Accounting students (FB: mostly 5-8 hours, AC: mostly 3-5 hours), however, about 84% of Accounting students find out that studying online is effective for them while FB students claimed to face with more trouble than the AC ones . We can also see that there a lot of students who spend time study on the internet because they can access to various learning materials (54%) easily and it also cost and time efficiency sine they study at home. Students face certain problem while studying online namely the confusion in choosing material, ineffective studying method, distraction, etc. However, they agree that benefits of online studying are remarkable. It not only help boosting comprehension and memory but also improving critical thinking, enforcing selfdiscipline and developing a suitable studying method. 12 VI. Recommendations From the above analysis, several practical suggestions will be mentioned in this part to help some Finance & Banking and Accounting students as well as all FMT student with the online-study problem. As it can be seen from the figure 1.1, there is 57% of students who have confusion in choosing learning materials. The internet has billions of results if you try to find any materials for your classes. One solution is you can find trustable materials on Google Scholar. In FMT you can always find the course syllabus and materials such as textbook, lecture notes, homework in Google Classroom for you though out the course. Due to the COVID-19, all the students have to off school and study from home, which lead to the number of people using the internet increasing rapidly cause the speed is slow. In this case, we recommend you use desk computer rather than laptop, tablet or smartphone which using Wi-Fi to relate to the internet. If you must turn on the camera during class, buy a webcam. One more common factor that affects the quality of self-studying is distraction. In order to avoid the distractions, you need self-discipline. Turn off your phone and social media connections on your computer before beginning to study. If you absolutely have to keep in touch, allow yourself breaks in studying to check text messages, email and social media -- then get right back to work. You can avoid distractions by choosing your location carefully and it is a good idea to develop a routine study schedule, so you don’t end up squeezing in a few minutes here and there for studying. People always say work smart, don’t work hard so an effective studying method can be a gamechanging factor for your academic performance. There are a lot of option to consider but you can start with identify your learning style. As we have learnt in ESPD, there are seven learning styles: visual, aural, physical, verbal, logical, social and solitary. Each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Everyone has a mix of learning styles. Some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use different styles in different circumstances. There is no right mix. Nor are your styles fixed. You can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that you already use well. Other tools can be put under consideration are mind map, sketch note, mnemonics, etc. 13 VII. Conclusion In conclusion, basing on the results of our survey and the above analysis, this part will give some conclusion about the connection between online-studying and problems of its of FMT’s FB and AC students. Most participants in our survey said that they like to study online than the original method. However, they admit that there is more trouble and harder to perform smoothly through these online courses. It is obvious that FB students spend more time online-studying and but the effectiveness is not as high as AC students. Moreover, we also find out some of the difficulty they must face with while online studying. Therefore, some recommendations have been provided in the previous part and we hope the information in this project will become useful and helpful 14 APPENDIXIES APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNARE TOPIC: THE EFFECT OF ONLINE LEARNING ON FMT’S STUDENTS We are the second-year students of the Faculty of Management and Tourism, Hanoi University. We are currently engaged in a research project on The effect of online learning on FMT's student. We highly appreciate your cooperation which is apparently crucial to completion as well as the quality of our paper. All the information will be kept confidential. Thanks for your help! Part 1: Personal information Name: Student ID: Email: Major: ⎕ Accounting ⎕ Finance and Banking Part 2: Questions Question 1: How many hours per day do you spend on online learning during Covid-19? ⎕ <3 ⎕ 3–5 ⎕ 5–8 ⎕ >8 Question 2: According to your opinion, is online learning effective for your study? ⎕ Yes ⎕ No Question 3: Which amount of time per day is effective enough for your online learning? ⎕ <3 ⎕ 3–5 ⎕ 5–8 ⎕ >8 Question 4: Why do you spend more time learning online? ⎕ I take time to find materials ⎕ I need more time to study online with my friends and my teachers ⎕ I think it saves time and money ⎕ I enroll a lot of online subjects ⎕ I repeat lecture video many times until mastering knowledge ⎕ I enjoy learning online Question 5: Do you like studying online method or a general one? ⎕ Online method ⎕ General method Question 6: Strongly Agree Agree Neutralize Disagree Strongly Disagree 1.I am able to easily access the Internet as needed for my studies. 2.I am comfortable communicating electronically. 3.I am able to manage my study time effectively and easily complete assignments on time. 4.I possess sufficient computer keyboarding skills for doing online study. 5.I can ask my teacher questions and receive a quick response during Internet activities outside of class. 6. I believe that learning on the Internet outside of class is more motivating than a regular course. 7. I believe a complete course can be given by the Internet without difficulty. 15 Question 7: Are there any difficulties in self-study among quarantine compare with usual conditions? ⎕ Confusion in choosing studying materials ⎕ Ineffective studying method ⎕ Distraction (social network, noise, extra-curricular activities, ect...) ⎕ Health ⎕ Poor wifi quality ⎕ Poor self-awareness Question 8 :What measures help online learning more effective? ⎕ Study in quiet space ⎕ Improve my health ⎕ Be self-discipline in studying ⎕ Read more reference materials ⎕ Set daily goals for studying ⎕ Effectively manage my time and minimize distractions 16 APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNARE RESULT Participation AC: 50 students FB: 50 students Question 1: How many hours per day do you spend on online learning during Covid-19? AC FB <3 0% 0% 3-5 42 % 33 % 5- 8 45 % 46 % >8 14 % 21 % Total 100 % 100 % Question 2: According to your opinion, is online learning effective for your study? AC FB Total Yes 42 37 79 No 8 13 21 Total 50 50 100 Question 3: Which amount of time per day is effective enough for your online learning? FB <3 1% 0% 3-5 29 % 25 % 5-8 39 % 46 % >8 31 % 29 % 17 Total 100 % 100 % Question 4: Why do you spend more time learning online? AC FB Total I take time to find materials 24 30 54 I need more time to study online with my friends and my teachers 16 12 28 I think it saves time and money 30 21 51 I enroll a lot of online subjects 23 22 55 I repeat lecture video many times until mastering knowledge 11 17 28 131 27 25 52 Total 131 127 258 Question 5: AC FB Total Online method 28 29 57 General method 22 21 43 Total 50 50 100 Do you like studying online method or a general one? Question 6: Strongly Agree 1.I am able to easily access the 11 Internet as needed for my studies. Agree Neutralize Disagree Strongly Disagree Total 52 12 100 18 20 5 2.I am comfortable communicating electronically 0 48 8 44 0 100 3.I am able to manage my study time effectively and easily complete assignments on time. 4 40 35 18 3 100 4.I possess sufficient computer 0 keyboarding skills for doing online study 32 39 29 0 100 4 43 36 17 0 100 2 6. I believe that learning on the Internet outside of class is more motivating than a regular course. 29 11 33 25 100 35 37 16 2 100 5.I can ask my teacher questions and receive a quick response during Internet activities outside of class. 7. I believe a complete course can be given by the Internet without difficulty. 10 Question 7: Are there any difficulties in self-study among quarantine compare with usual conditions? AC FB Total Confusion in choosing studying materials 23 25 48 Ineffective studying method 15 14 29 Distraction (social network, noise, extra-curricular activities, ect...) 32 18 50 19 Health 10 12 22 Poor wifi quality 30 33 63 Poor self-awareness 19 27 46 Question 8: What measures help online learning more effective? AC 18 FB 18 Total Study in quiet space 29 30 59 Improve my health 16 15 31 Be self-discipline in studying 31 26 57 Read more reference materials 24 29 53 Set daily goals for studying 17 11 28 Effectively manage my time and minimize distractions 12 18 30 20 APPENDIX C: LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1: The amount of time students spends on study per day Figure 2: The proportion of students online learning effective Figure 3: The reason for spending so much time online learning Figure 4: The percentage of students like to study online Figure 5: The difficulties in self-studying during Covid-19 21 APPENDIX D: LIST OF PARTICIPATION Name Student ID 1 Nguyễn Phương Anh 1804040012 2 Nguyễn Hữu Chiến 1804040026 1804040026@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 3 Trần Lan Hương 1804040053 1804040053@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 4 Nguyễn Phương Thảo 1804040101 1804040101@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 5 Đào Thị Khánh Ly 1804040073 1804040073@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040044 1804040044@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 6 Nguyễn Lê Hằng Email Major 1804040012@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 7 Nguyễn Minh Anh 1804040010 1804040010@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 8 Nguyễn Anh Minh 1804040075 1804040075@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 9 Tào Thị Thu Trang 1804040114 1804040114@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 10 Đặng Hoàng Lan 1804040058 1804040058@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 11 Nguyễn Tuấn Dũng 1804040027 1804040027@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 22 12 13 14 Doãn Thị Lan Anh Phí Lan Hương Nguyễn Huyền Linh 1804040002 1804040002@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040052 1804040052@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040064 FB 1804040064@s.hanu.edu.vn 15 Nguyễn Như Ngọc 1804040080 1804040080@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 16 Nguyễn Thị Uyên 1804040117 1804040117@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 17 Tống Phương Linh 1804040070 1804040070@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040087 1804040087@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 18 Vũ Khánh Nhi 19 Phạm Thu Thảo 1804040102 1804040102@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 20 Phan Thị Hoàng Yến 1804040122 1804040122@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 21 Vũ Minh Giang 1804040041 1804040041@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 22 Đỗ Minh Trang 1804040110 1804040110@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 23 Đỗ Hồng Ánh 1804040019 1804040019@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040017 1804040017@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 24 Tạ Diệp Nguyên Anh 25 Nguyễn Thùy Linh 1804040067 1804040067@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 26 Lê Huyền Anh 1804040005 1804040067@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 23 27 Nguyễn Thị Hồng Nhung 1804040090 1804040090@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 28 Hoàng Phương Linh 1804040061 1804040061@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040100 1804040100@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040088 1804040088@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1804040121 1804040121@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 29 30 31 Nguyễn Anh Tuấn Vũ Phương Nhi Lưu Thị Yến 32 Tạ Khánh Linh 1804040069 1804040069@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 33 Nguyễn Mai Anh 1804040008 1804040008@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 34 Phạm Ngọc Bích 1704010012 1704010012@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 35 Phạm Hoàng Lan 1804040059 1804040059@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 36 Vũ Mai Hương 1804040054 1804040054@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 37 Nguyễn Tú Anh 1804040013 1804040013@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 38 Phạm Vũ Minh Phương 1704040095 1704040095@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 39 Bùi Thị Thu Thảo 1704040110 1704040110@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 40 Phạm Thị Hồng Hải 1804040043 1804040043@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 41 Trần Thái Bảo 1804040022 1804040022@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 42 Nguyễn Kim Lan Chi 1804040024 1804040024@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 24 43 Hoàng Thị Hồng Duyên 1804040028 1804040028@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 44 Nguyễn Thị Đức 1804040037 1804040037@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 45 Nguyễn Huyền Trang 1804040112 1804040112@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 46 Nguyễn Thị Linh 1804040066 1804040066@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 47 Nguyễn Quang Minh 1804040075 1804040075@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 48 Trần Bích Ngọc 1804040082 1804040082@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 49 Tạ Thu Thủy 1804040107 1804040107@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 50 Hồ Anh Tuấn 1804040099 1804040099@s.hanu.edu.vn FB 1704010062 1704010062@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 51 Nguyễn Thị Kim Thoa 52 Trần Thị Ngọc Ánh 1804010012 1804010012@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 53 Hoàng Thị Thanh Hoa 1804010039 1804010039@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 54 Cao Thu Huyền 1804010043 1804010043@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 55 Nguyễn Minh Ngọc 1804010076 1804010076@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 56 Hoàng Thị Hải Anh 1804010004 1804010004@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 57 Nguyễn Linh Chi 1804010014 1804010014@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 58 Lê Thị Kim Dung 1704010019 1704010019@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 25 59 Lương Hiền Giang 1804010025 1804010025@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 60 Vũ Yến Chi 1804010016 1804010016@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1704010031 1704010031@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1804010041 1804010041@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1804010042 1804010042@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 61 62 63 Nguyễn Thu Hà Nguyễn Thị Ánh Hồng Vũ Quốc Huy 64 Trần Nhật Linh 1704010069 1704010069@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 65 Doãn Thị Kim Mai 1804010066 1804010066@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 66 Lê Thu Phương 1704010084 1704010084@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 67 Nguyễn Mai Phương 1804010087 1804010087@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 68 Nguyễn Thị Minh Trang 1704010113 1704010113@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 69 Đặng Thị Xuân Quỳnh 1704010089 1704010089@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 70 Dương Ngọc Ánh 1804010011 1804010011@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1804010004 1804010004@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 71 Hoàng Thị Hải Anh 72 Nguyễn Thị Thu Trang 1804010106 1804010106@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 73 Nguyễn Thị Kim Thoa 1704010098 1704010098@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 74 Phạm Ngọc Thanh Mai 1704010071 1704010071@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 26 75 Phạm Thị Lan Anh 1704010006 1704010006@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 76 Nguyễn Phương Dung 1704010020 1704010020@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1704010079 1704010079@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 77 Tạ Thị Nhàn 78 Phạm Ngọc Bích 1704010012 1704010012@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 79 Nguyễn Thị Nhã 1704010078 1704010078@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 80 Phạm Trần Đăng Khoa 1704010059 1704010059@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 81 Mai Thu Hà 1704010028 1704010028@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 82 Phùng Thị Thu Huyền 1704010052 1704010052@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 83 Nguyễn Thị Hà My 1704010072 1704010072@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 84 Phan Thị Huyền Trang 1704010115 1704010115@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 85 Trần Thị Thúy 1704010107 1704010107@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 86 Nguyễn Thúy Quỳnh 1704010091 1704010091@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 87 Lê Minh Huyền 1704010049 1704010049@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 88 Thân Thị Huyền Trang 1704010117 1704010117@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 89 Nguyễn Thị Yến 1704010126 1704010126@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 90 Nguyễn Hữu Hoàng 1704010046 1704010046@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 27 91 Trần Thị Thu Trang 1704010118 1704010118@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 92 Nguyễn Thị Hồng Nhung 1704010050 1704010050@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 93 Lê Thị Cẩm Phương 1704010088 1704010088@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 94 Bùi Thu Thủy 1704010103 1704010103@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 95 Ngô Minh Nga 1704010074 1704010074@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 96 Nguyễn Thị Thu Ngân 1704010075 1704010075@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 97 Đặng Thu Hoài 1704010044 1704010044@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 1704010042 1704010042@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 98 Nguyễn Thu Hiền 99 Nguyễn Thị Hải Linh 1704010065 1704010065@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 100 Quách Anh Thư 1704010108 1704010108@s.hanu.edu.vn AC 28 APPENDIX E: R CODE AND OUTPUT 1. R steps for numerical descriptive methods R CODE: > getwd() > setwd("C:/Users/Asus/Desktop/PAS data") > hours <- read.csv("hours.csv",header = TRUE,sep = ",",stringsAsFactors = FALSE) > fix(hours) answer <- t.test(hours$AC, hours$FB, alternative = "greater") > answer Welch Two Sample t-test data: hours$AC and hours$FB t = 0.016624, df = 7.9962, pvalue = 0.4936 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is greater than 0 95 percent confidence interval: -22.1732 Inf sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 20.2 20.0 29