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English 3rd Quarter Reviewer
Argumentative Essay
 Tries to change the reader’s mind by convincing the
reader to agree with the writer’s point of view.
 Attempts to be highly persuasive and logical.
Characteristics of Argumentative Essay
1. Presents and explains the issue or case
2. Gives reasons and supports these reasons to prove its
3. Refutes (proves wrong) opposing arguments
Argumentative Essay
Persuasive Essay
Counterarguments or Counterclaims
o The most effective argumentative essays
display the counterargument or the opposite
argument from the writer’s point of view.
Parts of Argumentative Essay
1. Title
o It should establish the stand on the subject or
topic, so the reader knows where your
argument is headed from the beginning.
o Avoid interrogative titles.
o Examples:
1. Internet Access Must Be Limited to
2. Existing Public School Policies Must Be
3. Government Should Condemn Same-Sex
2. Introduction
o Background of the problem, definition of
key terms, thesis statement (claim or stand)
3. Body
o Contains claims, reasons or evidences
presented in thesis statement, using
examples, statistics, personal experiences, or
4. Conclusion
o Restatement of the main claim/thesis
statement and gives one or two strong
general statements.
Thesis Statement
 It is found in the introduction.
 The controlling idea or claim.
 It is open for debate (one that others may dispute)
 Example:
o Janet Napoles must receive emancipation
after spending years in prison. The number
of years she rendered is enough to
recompense the corruption that she
Elements of Argumentative Essay
1. Position
o The side of the argument that the writer is
2. Reasons
o These facts or points make up the why of the
3. Evidence
o This is the opportunity for the writer to
prove their claim or position by providing
factual substantiation from outside
o In this element, it is critical for the writer to
provide citations and references on where
they gathered their evidence.
How to make a thesis statement?
1. Do not just state a fact that is not debatable.
There are lots of
Homeless people in
homeless people in
Manila City should be
Manila City.
given access to free
services such as regular
food donations, public
restroom, and medical
assistance, it would
improve life for all
inhabitants of the city.
Stick with your stand or claim
Second-hand smoke is
Second-hand smoke is
bad and can cause heart just as harmful as
disease and cancer;
smoking and leads to a
therefore, smoking
higher prevalence of
should be outlawed in
cancer and heart
public places, but
disease. What’s worse,
outlawing smoking is
people who inhale
unfair to smokers so
second-hand smoke are
maybe non-smokers
doing so without
can just hold their
consent. For this reason,
breath or wear masks
smoking in any public
around smokers
place should be banned.
Another example:
Title: Aggressive Driving Should Be Avoided
Thesis Statement: Aggressive driving should be avoided
because it results to crashes, injuries, and fatalities.
Note: Those underlined words will be the claims that will be
explained or proven in the body of the essay so you can
convince your readers why aggressive driving should be
Inform and educate your audience on a topic given
 The aim of your informative essay.
Informative Speech Essays
 Are also called the expository essays and it is not for
convincing someone to change his/her beliefs.
Being Informative
 Means to be interesting.
Nevertheless, you can share your thoughts concerning the issue
you care about, what has surprised you and made think about it,
but not in persuasive tone.
Generally, your informative essay might:
 Inform readers about some problem they are not
 Explain its importance
 Present the latest research on a topic
 Compare viewpoints on a controversial subjects
 Analyze a cause-effect relationship
Writing Techniques: Informative, Persuasive, and
 Is an essential skill that all of us need to learn and
Effective Writing Skills
 Contribute to effective communication.
Informative Text
 Aims to provide information to the readers.
 The content of informative writing should be
verifiable, factual, and explanatory in nature.
Distance learning. This is a learning delivery mode where interaction takes
place between the teacher and the students who are geographically remote
from each other during instruction. This means lessons will be delivered
outside the traditional face-to-face setup. During a virtual presentation on
Saturday, May 30, Malaluan said that distance learning will be delivered to
students “in the comfort and safety of their homes.” Malauan listed 3
methods that will be used for distance learning.
 Recipe
 Instruction Booklets
 Academic Books
For students who don't have access to gadgets and the internet,
printed modules will be delivered to them or picked up by their
parents at designated areas within agreed schedules.
For students who have access to the internet, the department’s
Expository Text
DepEd Commons will be used. DepEd Commons is an online
 Aims to explain a subject matter.
education platform developed by the government agency to support
alternative modes of learning.
In writing informative texts, a writer must consider the
Lessons will also be delivered via radio and television. Last
the DepEd said that Presidential Communications Operations
1. Get to know your topic or the concept very well.
Office (PCOO) Secretary Martin Andanar had offered government2. Consider your readers.
run television and radio stations as platforms for delivering lessons
3. Write the main idea.
4. Search for and verify the supporting information.
during the pandemic.
5. Organize the supporting information in logical order. Bonz Magsambol
6. Be concise.
You may access this link for more details about Distance Learning:
Persuasive Essay
 This type of writing is intended to persuade or
convince the readers to believe in or do something.
 encourages the writer to be creative and challenges
him or her to integrate the different kinds of appeal in
his or her paper.
 One can do this by employing several kinds of
persuasive techniques (e.g. appeals) and devices in his
or her paper.
Examples: Campaign Speeches, Advertisements
Explanation: The texts mentioned above all aim to influence
the readers’ point of view.
Writing Persuasive Texts:
 Be clear about your view.
 Consider your readers.
 Use different kinds of appeals and devices.
 Provide convincing evidence.
 Write a strong concluding paragraph that will
convince your readers or make them change their
view about the topic.
Persuasive Devices
1. Facts/Data
o Can be results of studies or general facts that
can persuade the readers.
2. Anecdote
o A narrative or account or story of a person
or any character which is usually written in a
humorous way.
3. Rebuttal
o A contradiction, a way to oppose or
disproves a certain statement.
4. Rhetorical Questions
o Are asked to make a point and not to be
answered by the readers.
o They usually challenge the readers to act or
reflect on personal views.
Persuasive Text
 You will be urged to believe that exercising is a
requirement to have good mental and/ or
psychological activities.
Take note of the tips how the author provides points in the
For starters, when you are a lazy person, it is difficult to take
the first step, but it is all a matter of committing yourself to
something that will provide you a lot of positive feedback.
Once you start doing exercise and observing positive results,
you actually enjoy it. It takes a lot of effort and strong will, but
it's worth it. The principal thing to do is to participate in an
activity you like. If you do you’ll start organizing your day in
a way that enables you to do everything you have to, including
exercising. You will no longer be a person stressed-out
without time to carry on with all your activities.
Second, it is obvious that once you exercise you will have a
better condition. You will be healthier in a physical way. It is
probable that you will lose weight and your muscles will get
stronger and stronger. Your body will feel good, full of energy
and it will respond immediately to any action you want to do,
any activity that has to be done with high spirits.
The third reason why exercising is good is that it affects you
positively in a mental and psychological way. Doing exercise
helps you set specific goals which along with strong will can
be achieved. When you do that, you are aware of your
abilities, accept your weaknesses, and your self-esteem goes
up. Any sport distracts you because it helps you not to think
about school, friends, problems, among other things. It brings
you time to think about yourself and no one else. It helps you
keep your mind busy and to avoid dangerous habits like drugs.
Doing exercise is very important to any person of any age. The
positive effects of exercising, which I’ve already mentioned,
are like a chain. Once you do a sports activity that you like,
you get organized; therefore, you start doing things the right
way and get enormous benefits which make you feel good as a
whole human being. You start living your life happily.
(Source: Lengua Iglesia III, Writing Persuasion)
Argumentative Essay
 Is a type of writing in which points of view about a
particular topic are presented, and the writer aims to
establish his position and persuade the reader to side
with him.
Writing an Argumentative Essay
Logical and verifiable support
 Writing an argumentative essay requires _________.
 Where does the content of an argumentative essay
always focuses?
Why People Should Exercise?
In the past, I have never been inclined to participate in sports.
Honestly, I didn’t like it, but many persons whom I lived with
kept telling me every day how good it was. Since the peer
pressure was growing, I decided to go to the gym. It wasn’t
until then that I could really understand people when they said
exercise really helped a person get organized and keep
yourself in a healthy physically and mentally. THESIS
Thesis Statement
 Where does the claim is stated?
Thesis Statement
 Is a statement of a writer's point on a particular issue
and is usually debatable.
Primary feature of an argumentative essay:
 To convince and prove that the writer's statement
warrants a logical and verifiable claim.
1. Poverty, or lack of financial stability, is one factor
that hinders a child from finishing school.
2. Only those who finished a college degree will have a
better life in the future.
Which among the two thesis statements above is considered
debatable? Which is considered non-debatable?
1. Statement number 1 is a non-debatable claim.
o Because it tells a general idea and all studies
agree that poverty is one factor that hinders
a child from finishing school.
2. Statement number 2 is a debatable and can
generate varied opinions and needs to be further
supported by valid and logical data.
o The writer has to create an impression of
being credible to the readers by providing
logical and verifiable claims such as results
of studies, statistics, and statements of
experts in the field.
Parts of Argumentative Essay
1. Introduction and Thesis Statement
o The introduction part always states the
context of your paper.
o In this part, you must completely establish
a. Primary objective of your paper
b. Provide the background information
c. Clearly state your claim
2. Body and Supporting Statements
o Body
 Always contains the most
important details.
o In this part, it is necessary that you provide
strong supporting details of your claim.
o Remember, your primary objective is to
‘convince’ your readers to change their
perception about a particular issue.
o So, it is a must that you carefully choose the
information that you will include.
3. Conclusion
o Serves as a generalization statement that
contains the main claim or arguments and
their supporting details.
o This may also contain a message that
addresses the thesis in a different light and
leaves an impression in the readers’ mind.
Write a Critique about an Independent Selection:
 Is a genre of academic writing that briefly
summarizes and critically evaluates a work or
 Like an essay, a critique uses a formal, academic
writing style and has a clear structure, that is, an
introduction, body, and conclusion.
 However, the body of a critique includes a summary
of the work and a detailed evaluation.
The purpose of an evaluation is to gauge the
usefulness or impact of a work in a particular field.
A critique can be about anything. Consider the following
1. Critiquing a speech of a famous person
2. Critiquing a website for design and credibility
3. Critiquing an essay written by one of your peers
4. Critiquing a book or a novel (also known as a book
5. Critiquing the media such as news reports, feature
articles, etc.
6. Critiquing a research article published in a peerreviewed journal
7. Critiquing a research thesis, a journal article, a
systematic review
8. Critiquing a creative work such as an exhibit, a film
(film review), and a poem
9. Critiquing a work of art such as Van Gogh’s Starry
Night or a song like Queen’s “Bohemian Rhapsody”
10. Critiquing a theory or idea like Sigmund Freud’s
theory of psychosexual development or Charles
Darwin’s Evolution Theory.
Why do we write critiques?
1. A knowledge of the work’s subject area or related
2. An understanding of the work’s purpose intended
audience, development of argument, structure of
evidence or creative style.
3. A recognition of the strengths and weaknesses of the
 Involves thoroughly analysing with the goal of
pointing out its strengths and weaknesses or
identifying its overall effectiveness.
 Are one of the few essays you may be required to
write in science classes in which you otherwise focus
mainly on quantitative data analysis.
 Is therefore an essential step on your road to
professional and personal development.
 Mastering the critique will help you become a better
Structure of Critique Paper
1. Introduction
A. Title of the Literary Work
B. Author’s Name
C. Thesis Statement
2. Body
A. Summary of Story
B. Critical Evaluation
3. Conclusion
A. Restatement of Thesis Statement
B. Summary of Key Points
C. Suggestions and Recommendations
The reason why critiques are important in all academic
subjects and in all professional areas is that:
How do we write a critique?
1. Before you start writing, it is important to have a
thorough understanding of the work that will be
o Develop an understanding of the main
argument or purpose being expressed in the
2. Study the work under discussion.
o Make notes on key parts of the work.
o Consider how the work relates to a broader
issue or context.
You need to be able to master the skill of analysing
work from your peers.
Always find both positive and negative things to
o Sometimes called “hedging,” using both
positive and negative descriptors will make
your critique stronger.
o There is no such thing as perfect.
o Everything you are asked to critique—even
famous works of art and literature—have
some flaws that are helpful to point out in a
Consider the author’s/creator’s purpose and the
historical context.
o Sometimes the author makes your job easier
by stating outright the purpose of the study,
which is common in peer-reviewed journal
o Some journalistic pieces also have a clear
purpose stated outright, but in many cases,
you will need to research more about the
author or the context to understand it better.
Analyze your emotional reactions.
o Often, your first response to something will
be emotional.
o You may react strongly but not have the
ability to logically explain why you feel the
way you do.
o This is especially true when you have been
asked to critique a form of media like art or
Do outside research.
o Sometimes when writing a critique, it helps
to read what others have also said about that
o Even if you already have strong opinions
about the object, read how others have
analyzed it first to see if there is something
you overlooked.
o Doing research ahead of time can be
especially helpful when you are writing a
critique but are confused and do not know
where to begin, or if you do not fully
understand the article or piece you are
What are the main features of a critique?
A. Introduction
Typically, the introduction is short (less
than 10% of the word length) and you
Name the work being reviewed as well as the
date it was created and the name of the
Describe the main argument or purpose of the
Explain the context in which the work was
created. This could include the social or
political context, the place of the work in a
creative or academic tradition, or the
relationship between the work and the creator’s
life experience.
Have a concluding sentence that signposts what
your evaluation of the work will be. For
instance, it may indicate whether it is a positive,
negative, or mixed evaluation.
B. Summary
o Briefly summarize the main points and
objectively describe how the creator portrays
these by using techniques, styles, media,
characters, or symbols.
o This summary should not be the focus of
the critique and is usually shorter than the
critical evaluation.
C. Critical Evaluation
1. This section should give a systematic and
detailed assessment of the different elements
of the work, evaluating how well the creator
was able to achieve the purpose through these.
o For example, you would assess the plot
structure, characterization, and setting of a
novel; a critique of a research project would
look at subject selection, design of the
experiment, analysis of data, and
2. A critical evaluation does not simply highlight
negative impressions.
o It should deconstruct the work and identify
both strengths and weaknesses.
o It should examine the work and evaluate its
success, in light of its purpose.
o Examples of key critical questions that
could help your evaluation include:
a. Who is the creator? Is the work presented objectively
or subjectively?
b. What are the aims of the work? Were the aims
c. What techniques, styles, media were used in the
work? Are they effective in portraying the purpose?
d. What assumptions underlie the work? Do they affect
its validity?
e. What types of evidence or persuasion are used? Has
evidence been interpreted fairly?
f. How is the work structured? Does it favor a
particular interpretation or point of view? Is it
Does the work enhance understanding of key ideas or
theories? Does the work engage (or fail to engage)
with key concepts or other works in its discipline?
 Written in formal academic style and logically
Group and order your ideas into paragraphs.
Start with the broad impressions first and then move
into the details of the technical elements.
For shorter critiques, you may discuss the strengths
of the works, and then the weaknesses.
In longer critiques, you may wish to discuss the
positive and negative of each key critical question
in individual paragraphs.
To support the evaluation:
1. Provide evidence from the work itself, such as a
quote or example.
2. You should also cite evidence from related sources.
Explain how this evidence supports your evaluation of the
D. Conclusion
o This is usually a very brief paragraph,
which includes:
1. A statement indicating the overall evaluation of the
2. A summary of the key reasons identified during the
critical evaluation, why this evaluation was formed.
3. In some circumstances, recommendations for
improvement on the work may be appropriate.
E. Reference List
o Include all resources cited in your critique.
o Check with your lecturer/tutor for which
referencing style to use.
Approach of Literary Criticisms
Critical Approaches
 Are different perspectives we consider when looking
at a piece of literature.
 They seek to give us answers to these questions, in
addition to aiding us in interpreting literature.
1. What do we read?
2. Why do we read?
3. How do we read?
Formalist Approach
 Emphasizes the form of a literary work to determine
its meaning, focusing on literary elements, and how
they work to create meaning.
 Considers the work in isolation disregarding author’s
intent, author’s background, context, and anything
else outside of the work itself.
 Literary Elements
1. Characters
2. Settings
3. Plot
4. Theme
Meaning resides in the text – not in reader, author, or
Moralist Approach
 Judges the value of the literature based on its moral
lessons or ethical teachings.
 Moral and Philosophical critics believes that the
larger purpose of literature is to teach morality and to
probe philosophical issues.
Major Moralist Influence
1. Plato
o Banished poets from Republic for fear that he might
spread immortality and destabilize the country.
2. Horace
o Studies how Poetry could be used to promote morality in
his Ars Poetica.
3. Dr. Johnson
o Was a stern upholder of morality and attacked
Shakespeare for his slip shod treatment of moral values.
4. Philip Sidney
o Praised the role of the poet in purifying the imagination,
which the historian and the philosopher were capable of.
5. Matthew Arnold
o Great poetry is marked by high seriousness and true
criticism pays attention to what a poem says than to how
it says.
Moralist Approach
 How to write:
1. Evaluate the maturity, sincerity, honesty,
sensitivity, and courage.
2. Guide Questions:
a. If the literature seeks corruption and
negative influence.
b. The Moral and Ethical Teachings the author
c. How does the text play out ethical
d. Is practical, moral, or philosophical idea
being presented?
 Common Values:
o Adventure
o Security
o Equality of Condition o Cooperation
o Novelty
o Harmony
o Ambition
o Spontaneity
o Equality of
o Courage
o Honesty
o Order
o Tolerance
o Autonomy
o Creativity
o Excellence
o Justice
o Patriotism
o Tradition
o Collective
o Flexibility
o Peace
o Comfort
o Freedom of Speech
o Rationality
o Competition
o Generosity
Marxist Approach
 This is based on socialist and dialectic theories.
 Marxist criticism views literary works as reflections
of the social institutions from which they originate.
 It also includes analysing the class constructs
demonstrated in the literature.
 Marxist critics are also interested in how the lower
or working classes are oppressed – in everyday life
and in literature.
“Marxism attempts to reveal the ways in which our
socioeconomic system is the ultimate source of our
experience” (Tyson 277)
Team Presentation
1. Les Miserables by Victor Hugo – French
2. Kaffir Boy by Mark Mathabane – South Africa
3. The United Fruit Co. by Pablo Neruda –
Imperialism in America-Banana Republics
Guide Questions
1. Whom does it benefit if the work or effort is
accepted/successful/believe, etc.?
2. What is the social class of the author?
3. Which class does the work claim to represent?
4. What conflict can be seen between the value the work
champions and those it portrays?
5. What social classes do the characters represent?
6. How do characters from different classes interact or
7. How do characters overcome oppression?
8. What does the work say about oppression; or are
social conflicts ignored or blamed elsewhere?
9. Does the work propose some form of utopian vision
as a solution to the problems encountered in the
Feminist Approach
 Examines the social, economic, and cultural aspects
of literary works, but takes a more in-depth look at
what literature reveals about the roles, positions, and
influence of women both as writers and subjects
within the text.
 Focuses on female representation in literature,
paying attention to female points of view, concern,
and values.
Three Underlying Assumptions:
1. Western Society is pervasively patriarchal, male
centered and controlled, and is organized in such a
way as to subordinate women;
2. The concept of gender is socially constructed, not
biologically determined;
3. Patriarchal ideology pervades those writings which
have been considered “great works of literatures.”
Guide Questions
1. How is the relationship between men and women
2. What are the power relationships between men and
women (or characters, assuming male/female roles)?
3. How are male and female roles defined?
4. What constitutes masculinity and femininity?
5. How do characters embody these traits?
6. Do characters take on traits from opposite genders?
How so? How does this change others’ reactions to
7. What does the work reveal about the operations
(economically, politically, socially, or
psychologically) of patriarchy?
8. What does the work imply about the possibilities of
sisterhood as a mode of resisting patriarchy?
9. What does the work say about women’s creativity?
10. What does the history of the work’s reception by the
public and by the critics tell us about the operation of
11. What role does the work play in terms of women’s
literary history and literary tradition? (Tyson)
Historical Approach
 Relies heavily on the author and his world.
 This approach involves understanding the events and
experiences surrounding the composition of the work,
especially the life of the author, and using the
findings to interpret that work of literature.
 Sees literature as both a reflection and product of the
times and circumstances in which it is written.
The critic will begin to research what was going on in the
world at the time the literary work was being written in order
to see if the author either consciously or unconsciously
incorporated outside forces into the literary work.
 Written in 1943 by an aviator and author Antoine
de Saint-Exupery in French medium as Le Petit
 In The Little Prince, its narrator, the pilot talks of
being stranded in the desert, beside his crashed
 The account clearly drew on Saint-Exupery’s own
experience in the Sahara Desert.
 The Little Prince is written and published during the
 Though regarded as a famous children’s book, it also
reflects wisdom of life and human nature.
 An Old English epic poem in the tradition of
Germanic Heroic Legend.
 When we read the Anglo-Saxon poem Beowulf,
which was written sometime around 700 to 800 AD.
 We notice that the poet often refers to both to pagan
gods and rituals and to Christianity.
Critics try to understand exactly how and when the
Anglo-Saxon people were converted from paganism
to Christianity, so they look outside the text of
Beowulf to see what events led to the transition from
paganism to Christianity
Guide Topics
1. You want to begin your research by looking at the
time period, in which the work was written.
o Elements of the time period include:
a) Social Structure (race, class, gender roles)
b) Culture (how people lived, values, family structure)
c) Politics (wars, leaders, conflict)
d) Economy (depressions, recessions, class divisions)
e) Religion (religious leaders, conflicts, prominence)
f) Intellectual History (sciences, education,
g) Language
h) Other Literary works published in this period.
Understanding of the world the author lived in
(events, ideologies, culture, lifestyle, etc.) allows for
a more comprehensive understanding of the work.
Louise Rosenblatt Theory (1940)
 The process of reading is a dynamic transaction
between the reader and the text, in which meaningful
ideas arise for reader from their own thought and
creative interpretations.
Reader-Response Approach
 The writer creates the text and readers co-creates the
meaning of the text.
 Reader’s Shchemata
 Reader-Response is concerned with how the work is
viewed by the audience.
 This considers readers’ reactions to literature as
vital to interpreting the meaning of the text.
 The purpose of a reading response is examining,
explaining, and defending your personal reaction to
a text.
 your personal reaction to a text.
 Your critical reading of a text asks you to explore:
a. Why you like or dislike the text;
b. Explain whether you agree or disagree with the
c. Identify the text’s purpose; and
d. Critique the text
If you did not like a text, that is fine, but criticize it
either from:
A. Principle, for example:
1. Is the text racist?
2. Does the text unreasonably put down things,
such as religion or groups of people, such as
women or adolescents, conservatives or
democrats, etc.?
3. Does the text include factual errors or
outright lies? Is it too dark and despairing?
Is it falsely positive?
B. Form, for example:
1. Is the text poorly written?
2. Does it contain too much verbal?
3. Is it too emotional or too childish?
4. Does it have too many facts and figures?
5. Are there typos or other errors in the text?
6. Doe the ideas wander around without
making a point?
1. The Story of Daedalus and Icarus
o Readers can personally relate to the
2. Inferno – by Dante Alighieri
o Readers can reflect on our acts
o Gives readers the concept of punishment of
our sins