Types of Guidance: Guidance is classified in several ways; different criteria are used for this purpose. I-Type- (a) Formal Guidance and (b) Informal Guidance. II-Type- (a) Individual Guidance and (b) Group Guidance. III-Type- This classification is most popular and wide used: 1. Educational Guidance, 2. Vocational Guidance, and 3. Personal Guidance. 1. Educational Guidance: The guidance is provided by the teacher to students for their educational problems, is known as educational guidance. It is based on student’s cumulative records. It is used in the following purposes: (a) In the choice of study subjects in school, and (b) In removing the specific deficiencies of students related to study. (c) In identifying the causes of their failure by using diagnostic tests in the study subjects. (d) In providing the remedial teaching for the learning weakness of the students. 2. Vocational Guidance: This type of guidance is given for choosing the job and problems of certain jobs. The following types of tests are used for their potentialities: (a) Differential aptitudes tests. (b) Intelligence tests and aptitude tests. (c) Personality and interest inventories, and (d) Achievement and scholastic aptitude tests. 3. Personal Guidance: This type of guidance is provided for the personal problems of an individual or other than educational and vocational problems. These are: (a) Family and home problems. (b) Financial or economic problems. (c) Physical-disabilities of the individual. (d) Emotional adjustment and anxiety or curiosities. (e) Social relationship of the individual and husband wife relations problems. (f) School and peers relation or classmates relation, may be isolated in the class. The personal problems have wide range; therefore this type problem requires co-operative guidance of parents, teacher’s peers and other experts in the field. This also requires his cumulative record and case study of the individual. The individual is to be studied in depth to diagnose the causes of this weakness. The Types of Guidance According to Proctor (1930): (1) Educational (2) Vocational (3) Social and Civic activities (4) Health and physical activities (5) Character building activities, and (6) The use of leisure time. The Classification of Guidance According to Breaver (1932): (1) Educational guidance (2) Vocational guidance (3) Health guidance (4) Economic guidance, and (5) Personal guidance. In these classification of guidance-educational and vocational guidance are common other types of guidance are related to the individual problems, may be included broadly in Personal guidance. Therefore, it is adequate to have three types of guidance—educational, vocational and personal guidance. Term Paper # 3. Types of Tools Used in Guidance: Various types of tools are employed in guidance services which have been mentioned as follows: (1) Anecdotal records (2) Achievement and diagnostic test (3) Psychological tests personality, adjustment, interest inventories (4) Case-study (5) Autobiography (6) Rating (7) Sociometry or social gram (8) Questionnaire (9) Observation (10) Interview techniques (11) School cumulative records (12) Check list (13) Clinical test, eye sight, hearing or audio-test (14) Adjustment inventories, and (15) Conferences with the pupils. Various techniques of approach are used for the better understanding of the individual child to the teacher. The adjustment inventories or schedules are most important tools for locating the area of his problem. Term Paper # 4. Characteristics of Guidance: In these guidance—negative and positive approaches have been used to interpret the term ‘guidance’, under these definitions, the following characteristic have been enumerated: 1. It is a help given by one person to another in solving problem. 2. It is not giving directions and imposition of one person’s point of view upon another person. 3. It is not making decisions for an individual which he should make for himself. 4. It is formal as well as informal process of guidance. 5. Guidance is usually given by qualified and trained person to develop own point view of one self. 6. It is a continuous and life long process for all sphere or walk of life. 7. It is a purposive process in making choices for his adjustment and solving problems. 8. It enables the individual to take decision to grow independently and he is responsible for himself. 9. It stimulates and helps the students to set-up worthwhile. It is a process of development. 10. There are people who need help and there are people who can help them. 11. Guidance and teaching are inseparable to one another. 12. It converts the reality into satisfaction to himself and benefit to society. 13. It provides richer experiences for making his-own contribution to our democratic society. 14. It is mentally effort to conserve the priceless native capacities of youth and costly training provided for youth in school. 15. It is related to the life goals and makes desirable member of the social order. 16. The intelligent guidance makes the teaching-learning process most effective. Teaching is incomplete without proper guidance. Term Paper # 5. Principles of Guidance: Guidance is based on some psychological and sociological principles. Some of the principles have been listed as follows: 1. It involves of principles of individual differences, every individual has own abilities, potentialities and needs. 2. It studies the individual as whole, means physical, emotional, social and mental structure. 3. It is based on democratic principles. Guidance is for all, for all stages not for few individuals. 4. Guidance employs to co-operative efforts in solving the problems of an individual (parents, teachers and experts). 5. It is not prescriptive but progressive procedure for self-guidance. In guidance awareness is given and decision is taken by the individual. 6. It is a continuous or life long process for all. 7. Guidance is an integral part of an educational programme. Teaching involves guidance. 8. It is a personalistic approach for human development. Term Paper # 6. Objectives of Guidance: Guidance is purposeful process. It is assistance to the person which contributes for his development and brings excellence at the jobs performances. It is essential in every walk of life. It has the following objectives: 1. To develop competency to solve the problems related to individual adjustment and social process. 2. To assist individual to adjust adequately with the environment. 3. To provide information about educational and vocational opportunities or occupational information. 4. To provide the awareness of his potentialities and abilities. 5. To help him for developing potentialities and abilities. 6. To organise the follow-up programmes for the job placement and evaluation of its effectiveness. Term Paper # 7. Functions of Guidance: Guidance is not a panacea or remedy for all types of problems but has some specific functions. It is a process of helping younger persons learns to adjust to self, to others and to circumstances. Some of the important functions are enumerated here: 1. Guidance helps in good adjustment in all situations. 2. The task of guidance is to assist the individual learner to discover his unique personal resources, to develop them properly and to use them wisely in the pursuits of his goals that are satisfying to him and constructive for society. 3. It is a scientific procedure applied to develop the concept of guidance has been so richly productive that it is not inappropriate to refer to guidance in broad sense as a new dimension of creative teaching. 4. In the rapid change and progress, growing persons need to help in learning to adjust to themselves, to other people to changing situations. Guidance may be regarded as the process of providing his type of help. 5. The task of guidance is to have accurate measurement and diagnostic procedure for scientific remedial assistance. 6. Guidance has a positive interest in both preparative and remedial assistance. 7. It has the uniqueness for the individual need for personalized assistance. 8. The main function of guidance is to provide assistance when, where and when and to whom is needed. Thus it is very specific and individual procedure for helping the individual. 9. Guidance is not a trial and error method but it is well planned and well organized action that aims to provide many of the individual and group experiences that pupil for growing up in family and school. 10. The function of guidance is to help the child for maintaining relationship between his abilities and the demands of his environment with proper emphasis upon maturation of capacities for socialized self-direction. 11. It has the contribution into the fact- “Individual emerges in theory and disappears in practice.” Guidance contributes in the emergence of an individual for adjusting in the class and society at large. Guidance is for all and for all stages, but not for a few. 12. Guidance is the key stone for the school progress. It makes teaching more effective and purposive. Term Paper # 8. Need for Guidance: Guidance is used for dealing with problems of adjustment and other problem of life-educational and vocational problems. In the democratic set up there should be the equal opportunities of education for all. Education is child-centred and has the focus of all round development (physical, social, emotional and mental). The vocational education has been emphasized; therefore vocational guidance is essential for students for the excellence in the job performance. P.E. Vernon has classified educational and vocational abilities i.e., v : ed and k : m respectively. It is very essential for teacher to have the full information about their students’ abilities and potentialities. 1. Psychological Factors: Psychological Factors refer to the individual differences and intra- individual differences among his students. Rate of growth and development—physical, social, emotional and mental information’s are essential for a teacher. He should know their aptitudes and interests in the school subjects and jobs. 2. Social Factors: Education is a social process of development. There is increase of enrolment in school and colleges. The large number of students are admitted in a class, so the personal contact of teacher and taught is not possible. There are diversifications of courses. It is the main problems in the school, going students for selecting the subjects and courses for the study. It may suit to them. It requires proper educational guidance to the students. 3. Philosophical Factors: There is a rapid change in social philosophy and values of the society. An elective approach is used to formulate the objectives of education. There is a cultural and social difference in the classroom it amounts to adjustment problems in the class. It requires guidance for their adjustment. 4. Scientific and Technological Factor: The present era is of scientific and technological advancement in the developing countries. It also causes the adjustment problems in the society. The computer science has greatly influenced our daily life activities. It requires the proper guidance for new type problems. Some specific areas require guidance services: (a) Mass education needs group and individual guidance. (b) Improving the quality of man and man power. (c) Democratic set up requires talents and excellence in various fields to provide leadership. (d) Guidance is a new process of creative thinking and creative teaching and (e) Guidance is an art of high level of helping boys and girls to plan their own action wisely.